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j-e 



PEN AND PENCIL SKETCHES 



OF THB 



GREAT RIOTS. 



AN lUiUSTRATXD HISTOBT OF THB RAILROAD AND OTHER 



GREAT AMERICAN RIOTS. 



Incluliiis all tlie Riots m tlie Earlj History of tlie Coantry. 



By Hon. J. T. HEADLEY. 

Author r-i ' NAfOLXON AND Hlfl M\BSHAI*S," ** WahHINOTON AND Hl8 GEN- 

SBAifi/' *' Sacked Mountains," "Sacred Ukboem and 

Martyrs," Etc. 



II-.3L.TJSTIi-A.TJB ID. 



x\EW YORK: 
E. B. TKEAT, 757 BROADWAY, 

1882. 

H 




H M-o > t> . 



COPVlUaHT, 

B. B. TItE&T. 

wn. 



PREFACE. 



Thk materials for the descriptions of tlie Negro 
f knd Doctors' Riots were gathered from the Areliives 
I of tlie Hifiturical Society ; those of the immediately 
I sncceediug ones, from the pi-ess of the times. 

For the scenes and incidents that occurred on the 
I Mage and behind the curtain in the ABtnr-plaoe 
EOpera Riot, I am indebted to a [tamphlet entitled 
"Behind the SoeiievP 

The materials for tlie history of the Draft lUota 

I'Were obtained in part from the Daily Press, and in 

I fr«ra the City and Military Authorities, especially 

Jommissioner Acton, Seth Hawley, General Brown, 

land Colonel Frothingham, who succeeded in putting 

I them' down. 

Mr. David Barnes, who published, some ten years 
p), a pamphlet entitled "Tlie Metropolitan Police," 



kintily furnished rae facts relating to the Police 
Pepamnent of great value, and which saved me 
iiiiR-li lubor and time. 

Much difficalty has been encountered iu galhering 
tdgt'ther, from various quarters, the facts spread over 
tt century and a half, but it ia believed that everv- 
thing necessary to a complete understanding of the 
Bubjeots treated of has been given, cousiBtent witli 
the (continuity and interest of the narrative. 

Tlie material for tlie aceuiuit of the unparalleled 
R)iilR>ad Strike, witli the Riote connected with it in 




CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Obarocter of a Oily Uluatmt^d by Biot«. — New Material for Hiatocy 
of Draft RiotB, — Histnr; of Oie BeboUton iucompleM witlioni 
Hietor; of them. — Tho Fute of tbe Nation reflting on Ibe Iseuob 
of the Struggle in New York City.— The best Plus to udopt for 
Protection against Hobs. 17 

CHAPTER II. 

THK NEQHO BIOTS OF mS-lTU. 

Almost impoKrible tor tbe present Oenerataoii to oomprebend Ita true 
Cluiacter and Effect on tlie People. — Description of New York 
otthat Time.— The Negro SkTss.— The Negro Eiot of 1712.— 
Dceoiiption of it— The Winter of 1T41.— Goveroot'a Hoose 
bnnted down. — Other Fires. —Suspicion of the People, — Axrest 
and Impiisonment of the Blacks. — Reword oflcred for the sup- 
pc«cd Conspirators.— Alarm and Flight of the Inhabitanta. — Ex- 
ominntion and Confession of Morj Burton. — Peggy, the New- 
loundland Bcanty, and tho HnghBon Fumily. — The Conspiracy. 
— Eiecationfl. — Fast. — Hughson's Hearing, — Hung in ChauiH. — 
The Bodj, and that of a Negro, loft to swing and rot in the Air . 
— Strange Change in the Appearances of the Bodies The Peo- 
ple throng Co look at them. — N^roes bomed at the Stake. — 
TeriiGc Spectacle. — Bloody Sammcr.— EiecutiiH) of a Catholio 
Priert.— Strange SceneB.— Upper Classea BOcused. — EiecutionB 
•topped. — EeaBonot the Panic 34 

Cn.U'TEK III. 



'l-HE 8TAMP-iOT RIOT OF ITOB. 

Thoromgh TTndetFtandinjf of the Prinoipleii of Libertyhy the Peo- 
ple. — The Stamp Act. — How viewed bytiie Colonists. ^Co I den 



I 

I 



COSTESTS, 



■UengtheosFottOeorgeu Alatio.— Arrivot uf theS(«lopa.— 
thc JJuwawasrafcivcd bj the Sons of Lilieity.— A Bold Placard. 
—SUiup Distributer frighltn'Mj. — Patriotic Aotiou of the Mer- 
chnnta. — Public DemonBlcation against the Sijunp Act.— Coldeo 
takM ReEoge in the Fort.— Dara not fire on the People.— The 
People at the Gate demand the Stamps.— Golden and Lord Bnte 
bung in Effigy. — Coldon's Coach-honae broken open. — The Imagiea 
placed in the Coach, and dragged with Sboata through the 
Streets.— nuns again in Sight of the Fort— A Bonfire made of 
the Fenoe around Bowling Qrt-en, and the Governor's Caniugea, 
while the Garrison look silently on. — Prejudice ogainst CoHchcs. 
— Major James' House socked. ^ — Great Joy and DPrnonitrstion at 
the Bepeal of the Stamp Aot — Celebratiau of the King's Birth- 
day. —Loyalty of the People.— Mutiny Act — A Riot becomes k 
Oiut BebeUioo 48 



CHAPTER IV. 

doctors" KIOT, ITl* 

Body-enstchiDg,— BodiRBdngupby Medical Students. — 

of the People. — ESeot of the DiscoTccy of a buauui Limb fi 
the Hospital. — Mob ransack the Building. — OestJvcCitHi of 
Anatomiool Specimens. ^-AiriTol of Mayor, and Imprtaonnioiit of 
Students.- SuooDd Day.— Examination of Columbia College oi 
PbyaiciaiiB' Houses. — Appeal of the Mayor and distingiiilh 
Citizens to the Mob.— Mob attempt bo break into Jsil nuA sei 
the Students.— The Fight.— The Military onlled out^-Bestra by 
the Hob. — La^er Military Force called out. — Attacked by the 
Hob. — Deadly Filing. — Great Excitement. — Flight of Dootora 
and Students M 



CHAPTER T. 

BPBIRG KLRCnoN RlOTg OF ISM. 

Fkt«l Biror in our Naturniiiation Laws. — Our Eiperlmeut of .Helf- 
government not a fairone,— Fruit of giving Foreigner* the Right 
to Tote. — Bitter Feeling b«tw«ea DemoCTata imd Whig*.— First 
Day of Elednon,— Shlpi " OoBstitotion " and "Ttito."— Whlge 
driven from thePolU.—Kxoitam«nt,~Whiff«dfltBrmin'idtnilB(«id 



themselves. — Meeting called. — Rceolutiooa. — Sncoiid Dn;'s dec- 
tjon. —Attack on the Fripibe " Coustitntion." — A Bloody Figbt. 

— Mayor and Officers nounilf^d. — Mol) triuuiphant Gicitemsnt 

of the Wliigs.— Thi! Streota blwktd by fifteen tboosand en- 
raged Whigs. — Military colled out. — Ocoapy ArHcnal and City 
Hail all Night. — Qesult of the Eleotion. — Excitement of the 
Wtugs. — Masa-meetiiig in CastlG Qordon 60 



CHAPTER VI. 



ABOLmuN mu-rs of ibm and isw. 

' The Bisreij Question agitated— The End, Civil War.— The Ke- 
aulte. — William Lloyd Gamson. — Feeling of the People on the 
Bnbject. — First Attempt to call a Meeting of the Abolitionista 
in Nevr York. — Ueeting in Chutbum Street Chapel. — A Fight. — 
Uob take PosaeBsiou of Boweiy Theatra. — Sackiiigof hewie T^t- 
pan's Hoiue. — Fight between Mob and Police. ^Mobbing of Dr. 
Oox's Chumh, in Laight Stceet, — His Hoi|ae broken into. — 

Btreet Barricaded. —Attack on Atthuc Tappan's Store Second 

Attack on Church in Laight Street. — Church sacked in Spring 
Street,- Arriviil of tba Militaoy. — BatricadeB carried. — Mr. Lud- 
low's House entered. — Mob at Five Points,— Destmction of 
Bouse*. — The City Military called out. — Mob overawed, and 
Peace restored. — -Five Points Kiot, — Stone-outt 



CHAPTER VIL 



FLOUR ElOT C 



BburatioD wiU always create a Riot. — Foreign Population easQjr 
aroused against the Rich. — Severe Winter of 183(1. — Scarcity of 
Flour. — Meeting of Citisens called without Eeault — Meeting 
oolled in the Park.— SpeBchns.— Sacking o( Hart. & Co. 'a Flour 
. Washingtoa Street. — Strange Spectacle.— National 
Churds called oat, — Disperse the Mob. — Attack on Herrick's 
Flour Store.— Folly of the Riot. 




COSTESn. 



cnAPTEB vm. 

ABTOR- PLACE RIOT6, IStt, 

TLtairj betwoon Poirent aud Mftcreadj.— Slacreadj'a Arrival in tiii* 
Ci)iuitr7 — Tbo Aimoimiv.'inent of hiH Appearance at the Astor- 
plntio Opera flouBo, and Forrest at the BroodnTiy TheatrB the 
Mm" Nlgbl posted Bide bj Side— Bowery Bo^a crowd the Opera 
Hniiao. — Anxiety of tbn Hauog^Q. — ConBnllationB and Dramatiu 
HoDiiei bohind the CmttiiiL — SlAmpiugoI the People. — Scene on 
ralaiiig thb CiirtaiiE. — Stonny Iteceptiuu of Maoready. — Howled 
down.— Uni, Pope driTon (rora the Stage by the Onttagoous 
Liui;fnage of the Mob. —tlaureudy not allowed to go on. — Hia 
riKilixh Auger.— Flees (or liia Lite.- His Appearance the Secood 
Night. — ProparatlonB to put down the Uob. —Existing Scene in. 
the Theatre. — Terriflo Scenes without. — Military arrive. — At' 
tat^kixl hy the Mob.— Patience of the Troops.— Effort to avoid 
Firing. — The Order to Fire, — Teirifio Soeoe.^ — Strange Conduct 
of ForTPit. — Unpublished Aneodote of (Jenend Soott HI 



CIlAPTEIl IX. 



I 



CtjHTKNT!'. 



CHAPTER XL 

Bigbta ol Uimidpnlities. — luteiferanoe of cha Legislature wilb the 
Citj OoreiQinenti, — Confliat between the GoTeroor and Police 
CommuttuonerB. — ProvoHl MarshBlB, — Preparationa ot Superinten- 
dent Kenoed; — The Police Sfatem,— Attack od ProTost Marahitl 
Captain Eibardt.— Telegrams of the Police 143 

CIIAPTKU Xtl. 

Oommenoeuient of tha Hob. — lU Line of March. — Its immense Site. 
— Attaoks B Provoat Marshnl's OlBoe — Terrible Stragigle of Ken- 
ned; for hia Life with the Mob — Mob cutting doum Telognph 
Poles, — Sap<!iinteDdHiit of TeleyTaph Bureau seized and held 
PriBoner by the Mob 1Q2 

OnAPTER XIII. 

Soldiera beaten b; the Mob. — Gallant Fight of Sergeant UcCredis. — 
Hob TriumpJiiuil,— Fifty thousand People block Third Aveune. — 
A whole Block ot Uousea burning:, — Defeat of the Broiidway 
SrjQad. — HoUBtB Slicked in Laiingtoa Avenue — BoU'BHeail Tav- 
em burned. — Block ou Broud way burned. — Bum lug of the Xe- 
groea" Orphan Asylum,— Attaok on Mayor Opdyke's Hou»e,.H)tl 

(JUAPTKU XIV. 

No Military in the Cl^.^The Hayor calln on Oimerul Wool for 
Help,— Alao on General Sandford,— Ooneral Wool neada to Gen- 
eral Brown, oommaudiDg Garrison iu the Uarbor, fur U. H. 
Troops. — Marines ot the Nary Yard ordered nii.—BTentually, 
West Pobt and several States appealed to for Troops. — Attaok ot 
Mob on tho Tri>>itiie Building. —Uoveroroent Buildings Uarri- 
■oued n,5 

CHAPTER XV. 
Telegraph Bureaa. — Its Work. — Interesting Incidents.— Hair- 
breadth EscnjiBs. — Deteolive Force. — Its nrduonB Labora.- Ita 
Diaguiaci. — Shrewdneaa, Tact, and Courage. — Narrow 




CHAPTER XYJ. 

DBAFr KlUT 8KC0ND RAY, 

Fi^fat between Giot«rp uud the Police tmd Solclicn. — Biotera hurUd 
from tbe Roofa.— Soldicra Bra on the People. —A w(nl Death o( 
Colouei O'Erieu.— Fight m Pitt Street.— Deadly Coufllut (or a 
Wiia Foctory. — Hurrilile Inipuling of » M»Q on an Iron PiokeU — 
Colonel Nugent'B Hunae Sacked. —Figbt viitb the Mub in Third 
Aveoue. — ^Nigbt Attuck ou Brooka uiul Brotiiars' Olothiug Store. 
Vulae of the TeJ^mph System. — Seymoiu's l^|>eeoli to the 
Mob. 192 

CHAPTER XVIL 

DKArr KIOT — THIRD DAT, 
SoenSB iu the Citf and nt Heiid quartern. — Fight Id Eighth Ave- 
nne. — CaiiDonHwecii the Streets. — Battle t<ir JsiJison's Foandiy. 
— Howitiera clear the Street, — The Mob at Corner of Twentj- 
ninlb Street and Seventh Avenoe.— Dead wid Wounded Sol- 
diers left ID the Street Cajitain Putnam aeot to ht'sog them 

away.— Tcrritic Night. S38 

CHAPTER XVTir. 

UKAKT lilOl— FOURITl DAY. 
ProclamationH by the OoTemoT and Uuyor. — Soldiers ohMcd into 
a Foundry by the Mob.— Fierce Fight Imtweer the Mob and 
Military !□ Twenty -ninth Street. — Soldiers drivm from th« 
Ground. — Captain Put oam Mown domi the Biotera with CamBter. 
— Colored Orphans and Negroes taken by Police to Blookwell's 
Island.— ToHobiag Soeoe. — Inureaaod Foruo iu tbe City lo put 
down Violence.— A rahbiafaop llug'bes otfera to address the Ii 
— Strange Conduct of the Prelate 244 

CHAPTKR XIX. 

Trtnqoil Morning.— Proolnraation at the Mjyor.— Mob cowed, — 
Plundereis nftuid of Detection. —Arehbishop Hughes' Ad drew. 
— Soble Character and Behavior of the Tn>o|vi and Police. — 
Geotml Brown's invaluable Servioat 2fi& 



CONTENTS. 1 1 



CHAPTER XX. 

Continn^d Tranquillity. — Strange Assortment of Plunder gathered 
in the Cellars and Shanties of the Rioters. — Noble Conduct of 
the Sanitary Police. — Prisoners tried. — Damages claimed from 
the City. — Number of Police killed. — Twelve hundred Rioters 
killed.— The Riot Relief Fund.— List of Colored People killed. 
—Generals Wool and Sandford's Reports 267 

CHAPTER XXL 

ORANGE RIOTS OF 1870 AND 1871. 

Religious Toleration. — Irish Feuds.— Battle of Boyne Water. — 
Orangemen. — Origin and Object of the Society. — Picnic at ?nm 
Park. — Attacked by the Ribbonmen. — Riot of 1871. — Conspiracy 
of the Irish Catholics to prevent a Parade of Orangemen. — In- 
digfnation of the People. — Governor Hoffman'H Proclamation. — 
Morning of the 12th. — The Orangemen ut Lamartiuo Hall. — At- 
tack on the Armories. — The Harpers threatened. — Firing of 
the Military. — Terrific Scene. — The Hospitals and Morgue. — 
Number of Killed and Wounded. — The Lesson 289 

ciiAPTETi xxrr. 

THE RAH^ROAD KI0T8 OF 1877. 

Labor Organizations. — Their Object. — Their Course of Action. — 
Rise of Labor Organizations. — List of those in En^^land.- Their 
Object. — Laws against them. — List of American Orj^anizations, 
- Their Failure as mere Strikes. — Become Riots. -Communism. 
— A Difficult Problem to Solve.— All Violence Must be Put Down. 
— Manner in which it should be done. — Napoleon's mode... JW7 

CHAPTER XXITl. 

TTTK RAILROAD RIOTS — WEST VIRGINIA. 

Commencement of the Riots.—Extent of the Strikes.— Their Cause. 

^ — Riot in Martinfebnrg.— Trains Stopped.— A Man Shot.— Dis- 

graceftd Conduct of the Militia.— Never Reliable.— The Aid of 

the General Government Asked. — Caution of the President .— 

He Sends Aid.— His Proolam»don 849 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THK RA11,B(1AII UIOTH. — MiliTLANO. 
GoTsrnoi Carroll'H ProcUmntion. — Cause of the Outbreak in Galti- 
mopa.— Attack on the Fifth JU^imenl.— Muaterii^ o[ the fiiitli 
BcgimoDt. — Tbu Armory attnukeil by the Mub.— A Fearfal Nifbt 
Scene.— Scene at the Depot— The Fifth ttcgimeot.— The I'riwi- 
dent Baked for Ttoopa. — Number of Xilleil and Wounded. . . .SQB 

CUAPTER XXV. 

THE KAILHOAD K10T8.— PENNSYLVANIA. 
Tha Riot in intlebnrg.—ItH Origin.— The Track token PoeMSBLOQ ol 
—The Phlladelpliia Troops Sent for.— Their Beoeiition — At- 
tempt to Clear the Triiet— The Fight.— The Troops in the 
RouDil-bouBF. — A Fearfnl fiiege. — Attempt to liuru them out. — 
Flight of the Soldiers, —The Work of DestmctioiL — A Goiomittee 
of Citizens Attempt to Qnell the Rioters. -Union Depot set on 
Fire , 369 

CnAPTEH XXVI. 

THK BAILROAl) KIOT — PENNsn.VANtA. 
Begiuning of tbo Ilaniabnn! Disturbanoe. — Quickly Quelled 383 

CHAPTER XXVir. 

THE FEAtLROAS RIOT — PKKNPVLVASIl. 

The Riot in Rending.— Bloody Work.— First Ontbroak.— Burning of 
Lebnnon Valley Bridge.- The Coal and Iron Police.— Arrival of 
tJie Militia.— Blank Cartridges.— Point- LLink Firing 3$U 

CHAPTER XSTIU. 

THE RAILROAD BKIT. PENKSVLVANIA. 

Philadelphia in the Riota.— The Pears respeoUng Her.— The Mayor'* 
Prijdiunation. — The Mob. — Trains Stopped. — The Police. — 
Sumnton Miners and Strikftrt Join.- Wilfcasbarre. — Qovemor 
ilartrnnft.- Bis Energy, Skill, and Proiaptneiw SOU 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

The Kiiilrond Eiot. —New Jersey 401 



CHAPTER XXX. 

TITK KAILBOAD BlOra NEW TOKK. 

The Two Grent Trunk Roads, —Table of Wages Given.— How to 
Decide what are Foir Wagxa.- Strike at Hornellsville.— Strike 
OTer the Central Ito«ul. — Strike at Albany. — Arrival of tbe Ninth 
Hegiineot— Strike at Byracuae.— Riot at Buffalo.- Mr. Viuid«r. 
bilt'B Views.— The Great Meeting in New York 406 



CBAPTER XXXI. 

THE RAILBO&D BIOTS — OHIO. 

dndnnati, Zanesville. Sawark, Toledo, and Fort Wayne.— Milittiry 
at Newark Sympiithixe with the Mob.^Ths Latter Entertain 
them.— The Governor orders Troops from Cinoinnati.— Com- 
mands in Pemon.- iBsaus a Proclamation.— Eniding in Cinciii- 
natl-Publio Meeting at Toledo 129 



CHAPTER XXXIL 

THE SAO-BOAD KI0T8 ILUNOIB. 

Bloodt Riot ik Cnio a qo.— Character ol iM Population. -Com- 
mencement of the Mob. — Shops and Fsotoriea forced to shut njj, — 
Moba in varions Seotiona of the City, — A ConimniiiBt Editor 
taoghCaLeiiHon.^Mobonthe Lake Front. — United States Troope 
sent for.- A Mass-Meeting in the Tabernacle. —A Night AtUuk. — 
The Second Day's lifmez\e.^A Fight between the Military and 
Mob.— The Latter shot down.— Severe Fight near Canalputt 
Avenne. — A Brave Boy. — The Regulars. — Battle of the Liwt 
Night.— Rcnernl View of the Do.'^ign of the Strikers 434 



1 4 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXni. 

TlIE BTRIKEK8 AT 8T. LOnS AND LOCISVILLK. 

The Mob overeome the Police at Cnrdndelet.^Citi»enB entoULnf 
tbein)«lve£. — A Steaiuer Bturdtd, and tlie Cuptaiu (tompellcii to 
Raisi' the Wages of hia Houds. — The Citizens of Louinville Join 
tbe Militaij. — Tlie Moh pat down iTA 

(JHAFTER XXXIV. 

lesflOUK of Ihi; Strike 457 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



.. PnrsBrRon—BonNiNCi OP TUB Union Depot. FroatUpitf". 
I. Port Lapaiette, New York Maaoor . . .17 
L Fort llAMti-roN ; rRou whhhck U. S. Titoow were 

BEST TO AID Cf SCPPHKiBTSO THE DRAJT UTOTS . IT 

1, Pkss. K R^Horsb-8hob Curvk, five miles weht 

OF A1.T00NA .33 

I. Pkns. R. R— Sample Track and Track Ta.\k fo« 

ScppLvisG TuKOUQn Tfums with Watmi wirtLE 

IN Motion 411 

I. New Voicu Uospitai,— Scene of tub Doctoks' Hiot , ttCv | 
'. New York— The Colored Opphan Asvlum, 14o1i8t. Ofi^ 
I. Pens. H. R-CoATEsviLiJcBHruoE , ... 81 
I. New York— BiJR-siNCi OF THB Pbovost Marhhal's 

Office ,117 

I. Pens. It. K.— Block Sional Stations . .US 

. New York— The Fioht Between Riotiirs asd 

Militia laa 

I. New York— The Attack on the Tribune Jji.'ii.iiinh . 143 
i. New York— The Uioterb Dhaooinu Col. O'Bhies'b 

Body TsRoroii Tire Htbeet 161 

i New York — BoRNI^■G of tbb Second Ave. Armokt . litti 
''. New Yobs — Tae De.vd Seroeant in Uan Street . 177 
1. Pesn. R. U.— Cokestooa Buidoe ... . . 185 
. Kbw York— IIasoino akd Bcbnino a Nehko in 

Clarrson Street 1B« 

L PeNN. It. It.— ALLKOflENTMoONTAlN TuNNKL . , BOl 

. New York — The Riot in L&xikqton Avenue . 209 

. New York— a Night Scene in Company A's Room . 3l7v 1 

. New Y'obk— Sebtiho Chowdrb to the Soldiers . 2l7' ' 
. Kbw York— Receitiko and Removino Dead BooiEa 

attheMohoue 33S 

. New York Citt— Battert B. N. G. S N. Y.. Etjcrp- 

PINO FOR \ Move 238 

. New York— The Railway Scbpknsion BRtmiB. 

Niagara Falls 241 

. New York Citv— Battery B, N. G. 8. N. Y.. Wait- 

iRO FOR Orders .249 

. Halttmore — Attackino thb Soldierb at TnE Arm- 



IB 



LIST OF II,r.r?TRATIONS. 



■i1. Baltuobe— tj. 8. Ani'TLLbiKT QcABDiNO THE Cah- 

BES 8t. Drpot a 

28. Baltikokb— 8cKNK Aptkr the First Voli^t by thk 

StXTU ItEOlUKNT 2 

.29. Baltiicobb — The Mob Ashadlteno a Mekbek of the 

SiiTii 2oi. 

30. BAi/ctuoiEE— The Mob Flbisq tqg Cahden Stueet ) 

8T4TI0S .,...-... 38I-' 

31. Baltimoke— Carbtdjo off the Dead Rioters . 289 

32. Bm.timoke — A NioiiT Skujmihh at Ectaw Street . 287 
;iii. Baltiuohe — Arbivai. of Oatliko Ou\8 at Camden 

St. Depot 305 

;M. PrrTSBmwH — Riotebs DrsmiBnTi-vo Stolen- WmasT. 31B 

30. PlTT&UUEOH — Al<Il£9T OF A ItlOTER DeCENDED BY THE 

Mob 321 

30. PeKSsrLVANiA Railhoad Bridoe, Fairmocst Park . 329 
B7. PisKN. R. R. — View of Harribburuij .... 337 
38. GoKNiifo— The Conbthuction Gang Riobtino Oveb- 
TURNED Cars, uaoEH the Puotbctios of the 

Militia .345 

30. New York — Rioters MAncHiNa Dovtn tiig New 
VoiiK Cbntkal ItArLROAD Track at West Al- 
bany, Jolt 24, 1877 353 

40, Nkw Yoke— The Constructios Gang HiiPATtiiijO the 

TlUCBa AT OORSmtJ, UNDBB PnoTBCnOS OF THE 

33d Rbo't. N. Y. S. N. G 3B1 

41. Pemk. R. a— View of Pittbburoh . . . . 8e» 
42- OoKN[»a, N. Y.— Second Detatchmkst, aSo Hk«i- 

MKXT, N, G. 8. N. Y.. Stoppkb by Rioters . . 877 

43. Bkadini; — Burnvno of the Lebanon Vallrt Bruior. 395 

44. New Y'obk— RioTiniB Soapiko the Teacr at Hon- 

KELLSVILLR 398 

4fi. Pbnn. R. R,— View of Trektok. N, J., Asn R. 0. 

Bridgr 401 

46. Nkw York — Rioters Trabikg up Rah.b at the 

Bridgk at rouNOfu 409 

47. Newark, O.^An Esoineer Lifted frou Hia Trais . 417.. 

48. Nbw Yobe— The Stairway Deit;ndkd bv Artii.- 1 

I.EI(Y 417 J 

40. Cbicaoo— THE FionT at TcRjtER ILU.L. Ahbival of 

U. S. ARTILLERY . 4! 

ISO. CniCAOo— Depot op the Chicago asd North Webt- 
K«N Railroau 4 

SL Chicago — Charue of the Cavalry and 2d Resi- 
ment upon the SIoii AT Ualbte-i-ii St. , . 4 

52. Iowa— Railway BiiuxiK over the Mjssi'sipfi at 
Clinton 4 

63. Iowa— Railroad Depot at Cocncil Bluffs , . 4 



I 



^■■. 



THE GREAT RIOTS OF NEW YORK t'lTT. 



CHAPTER L 

Cbaiacler of a City ilhutrated hy BiotK— Xow Hntennl for HiatOTj 
of Draft Biota.— History of the Rebellion inconiptoto without 
Ilul«i7 of tbem.— Tbc Fate of the Nation ruatiiiff on tbf Imaea 
of tlie Stmgsle in New York Cilf .— The bent Plan U> adopt for 
notMtiim agaiiifit Uobs. 

The hietory of the riols tliat have taken i>Iiu:e in a 
great ci^ from ite foiuidatiou, is n ciiriiiiB mid iiniquv 
one, and illustrates tlio ]icciiliar iihanges in tune and 
temper that have come over it in the umiree of itB do- 
veiopment and growth. Thoy exliibU hIbo one phasti 
of its moral uiiaracter — furnish a sort of moral history 
of that vast, ignorant, tiirbulunt elass whiith ia one of 
tbe diitingtiishing features of a great oity, and at tlie 
ttuab time tlie chief cause of its solicititdo and anxi- 
ety, and ofteu of dread. .•",. 

The immediate caiiso, however, of my taking np the 
Biibjcct, was a retjiieet fitun some of the ehief actors iu 
putting down the Draft liiota of 1S(13, to write a hia- 
tory of them. It was argued tiiat it had never been 
written, exuept in a detached and fraginenlary way in 
the daily press, whieh, fnun tlie hurried manner in 
which it was done, was noccssarily ineomplete, and 
more or Ices cri-oneons. 

It was also Euid, and truly, thai those who, by their 




TnH r.REAT KIOTS OF NHW YORK dTY. 



courage and energy, saved the city, and wlio i 
would aid me not only officially, but by tlieir personal 
recollections and private memoranda, would eooii pass 
sway, aud tliua valuable material be lost. 

Besides these valid reasons, it was aiiserted that the 
history of the rebellion was not complete without it, 
and yet tio hiBtoriau of that most important event in 
onr national hfe had given the riots the prominence 
they deserved, bnt simply referred to them as a side 
issue, instead of having a vital hearing on the fate of 
the war and the nation. On no single battle or cam- 
paign did the destiny of the country hinge as upon that 
short, sharp campaijin carried on by General Brown 
and tlie Police Commissioners against the rioters in 
the streets of New Tork, in the second week of July, 
1863. losses and defeats in the field could be and were 
repaired, but defeat in New York would in all proba- 
bility Iiave ended the war. It is not necessary to refer 
to the immediate direct effects of such a disaster on 
the army in the field, although it is scarcely possible 
to over-estimate the calamitous results that would have 
followed the instantaneous Btoppage, oven for a sborl 
time, of the vast accnmnlations of provisions, amnm 
nition, and supplies of all kinds, that were on their way 
to the army through Now York. Ni'r is it necessary 
to speculate ou the effect of the divei-eion of ti'oopa 
from the front that such an event wimld have com- 
pelled, in order to recover so vital a point. Washing- 
ton had better be uncovered tlian JTew York be lost. 
One thing only is needed to sliow how complete and 
irreparable the disaeter would Iiave been ; namely, the 
effect it would have had on the finances of the country. 
With the great banking-houses and moneyed institatuioa 



THE GREAT RIOTS OF SKW YORK CTTT. 



19 



of New Tork sacked and destroyed, the financial 
credit of the country would have broken down utterly. 
Hie crash of falling honees ail over the country that 
woidd have followed fiuaocial disaster here, would 
have been like that of falling trees in a forest aweiJt 
by a hurricane. Ilad the rioters got complete posses- 
sion of the city but for a single day, their first dash 
would have been for the treasures piled np in ita 
moneyed institutions. Once in i^ioesession of these, they, 
like the moba of Paris, would have fired the city before 
yielding them up. In the crisis that was then upon 
UB, it would not Iiave required a loug stoppage in tliia 
financial centre of the ci)untry to have effected a 
second revolution. With no credit abroad and no 
money at home, the Government would have been 
completely paralyzed. Not long possession of the 
city was needed, but only ewift destruction. 

Doubtless the disastrous effects would Iiave been in- 
creased tenfold, if possible, by uprisings in other cities, 
which events sliowed were to follow. Even partial 
success developed hostile elements slumbering in 
various parts of the country, and running from Busloa 
almost to the extreme West. 

In tliis view of the case, these riots assume a lutigni- 
tude and importance that one cannot contemplate 
without a feeling of terror, and tlie trnth of history 
requires that their proi>er place ehould bo assigned 
tliem, and those who put them down have an honorablB 
position beside our successful commanded and brave 
Goldiers. It is also important, as a lesson for tht 
fnture, and naturally brings up the question, what 
are the best measures, aud wliat is the best policy for 
the city of New York to adtipt, iu order to protect it- 



20 



TlIK OEEAT mora OF NEW YOBB CITY. 



PL'lf from that which tcMlay constittitPH ite gmntret 
dungcr — mob violence f If it ever falls in mine, the 
work of deatrnctioii will commence and end witliin it« 
owni limits. We liuve a police and city inilifary which 
have been thought to be enfficieiit, but esiieriencc baa 
shown that though this provision may lie ample to re- 
Btore law and order in the end, it works slowly, often 
miwisely, and olways with an nnnceesaary expenditure 
of life. In conversinj^ with those of largest experience 
and intelligence in the iwilice dc]>artment on this snb- 
joct of Buch great and growing imjiortance, we are con- 
vinced, from theiretatemcntsand viewe, avast improve- 
ment in this matter can bo made, white the coat to llio 
city, instead of being increased, will be lessened ; that 
i§, a cheaper, wiser, and more effectual plan than the 
present one can be adopted. Of course this docs not 
refer to mere local disturbances, which the police force 
in the oi'diuary discharge of its duties can quell, but 
to tliose great outbreaks which make it necessary to | 
call out the military. Not tliat there might not be ex- 
igencies in wliich it Would be necessary to resort, not 
only to the military of tlie city, but to invoke the aid 
of neighlH)ring States ; for a riot may B£sunic tlie pro- 
portions of a revolution, but for bucIi uo local perma- 
nent remedy can be furnished. 

The objections to relying on the military, as wc in- 
variably do in case of a large mob, are many. In the 
fimt placa, it takes the beet part of a day to get the 
ti-ooj.® logetlier, so that a mob, so far as lliey nic con- 
cerned, lias tiuio liiH only to wuste and destroy for 
many hours, but incrcaee in strength and audacity. 
The memberaof the varioiia regiments ore Bcnttered ail 
over the city, engaged in differetit occupations and 



THK GEEAT EIOTS OF NKW YOIUt t 



21 



employments, aud without previous notice beinji given, 
it is a lonjj and tedious process to pet them to their ro- 
epective headqiiartera and in uniform. This ■wastes 
much and most valuable time. Besides, they are com- 
pelled to reaeh the mnsteiinfj placti singly or in email 
groups, and hence liable to be cut off or diiven back 
by tbo Dtob, which in most cases would know the place 
of rendezvous. 

In the second place, the members are taken out 
from tlie mass of the i>eople, between whom there 
might be a strong sympathy in si^rae particular out- 
break, whieli would impair their efficiency, and make 
them hesitate to shoot down their friends and acquaint- 
ances. 

In the tliird place, in ordinary peace times, tlicss 
nniformcd regiments are not the steadiest or moat 
reliable troops, as was witnessed in the riots of 1863, 
aa well as in those of the Astor Place in 1S49. 

Thej' hesitate, or are apt to become hasty or disor- 
ganized in a close, confused fight, and driven back. 
In the commencement of a riot, a defeat of tlie military 
gives increased confidence, and indeed, power to a 
mob, and makes the sacrifice of life, in the end, fai- 



In the fourth place, clearing the streets does not 
always dissipate a mob. A whole block of bouses 
may become a fortress, wliich it is necessary to storm 
before a permanent victory is gained, llalf-disci- 
plined men, unaccustomed, and nnskilled to such work, 
make poor headway with their muskets through nar- 
row halls, up stairways, and throngh scuttle-boles. 

in the fifth place, tlie military of the city cannot be 
called away from tlioir wurk for two or thi'ee days, to 



32 



THE OEEAT K10T8 OF NEW 1 



parade the city, without a heavy expense, and ht^r 
tlio process is a costly ouo. 

In the last phice, the firing of these troopa at the beat 1 
is not very judicious, and cannot be disLTiminsting, bo 
that thi«e are shot down often least culpaMe, and of j 
least influence in the mob — in fact, more lives usiiallv \ 
are taken than is necessary. 

The eimplest, most efficient, and most economical 
plan would be to select five hundred or more of the 
most courageous, experienced, and cftictent men from the 
police department, and form them into a separate bat- i 
talion, and liave thera drilled in sncli evolutions, ma- | 
noeuvres, and modes of attack or defence, as woidd be- 
long to the work they were set apart to do. A battery 
might be given them in case of certain emergencies, 
and a portion carefnlly trained in its nee. At a cer- 
tain Bignal of the bell, they should be required to lias- 
ten, without a moment's delay, to their head-quarters. A 
mob could hardly be gathered and commence work 
before this solid body of disciplined, reliable men 
would be upon them. These five hundred men would 
scatter five thousand rioters like chaff before them. It 
would be more efficient than two entire regiments, 
even if assembled, and would bo worth more than the 
whole militaiy of the city for the first half day. 

Brides, clubs are hotter than guns. They take no 
time to load — they are never discliarged like muskets, 
leaving their owners for the time at the mercy of the 
mob. Their volleys are incessant and perpetual, given 
as long and fust as strong arms can sti-ike. They are 
also more discriminating than bullets, hitting the guilty 
ones first. Moreover, they disable rather than kill — ■ 
whieh ia jnst as effectual, and far more desirable. In 



THE OBEAT KIOT8 OF NEW YOBK CITY. 



23 



addition to all this, being trained to one purpose, in- 
structed to one duty, a mob would be their natural ene- 
mies, and hence sympathy with them in any cause al- 
most impossible. 



en AFTER II. 



THE NKfiEO KiOTS OV l?M-17«, 



Almost impoesible for the preaent Generation bo ooiDiireliend lU tm* 
CbsTBcter and EfFoot on thu People. ^DeHuripI.ioii nl Nov Tork 
otthBt Time.— The Negro Slnyes.— The Kegra Iliot ot 1713.— 
Deecription o( it. — The Winter of 1741.- Oovortior's tlonso 
buTDcd down. — Other Firen.— Smipiciun ot tlie People. — ArreM 
and Itnpiisonioent of the Blanks. —Iteward offered for the Kap- 
d CotiBpiratoni,^ — Alntm tmd Flight of the loliabitante. — Ex- 
1 and Confesdion ot Miuy Burbin. — Peggy, the New- 
foundland Beanty, and the Hughson Family.- The Con8|ut»cy. 
— Bxecatione. — Fust. —IlnghBon's Hearing,— Him^ in Chains, — 
The Body, and that of n Negro, left to awing and rot in the Ail. 
— Strange Cbango in the Appeoranoea ot the Bodien,— The Peo- 
ple throng to look nt them.^ — K^roes burned at the Stkke.— 
TemSc Si>ectade — Bloody Bnm.mer.— Execution of a CathoUa 
Priest.— Btnmge Scenea. — TTpper Closees sconBed.— EKGcutiona 
atopped. — BeaBOu of the Panic. 

Pbobabi.y no event of comparatively modem timea — 
' certainly none in our liiRtory — has occnrred bo extraor- 
dinary ill Bomo of its pliaeos, as tho negro riot of 1741. 
, We cannot fully aiiprecrate it, not merely because of 
I the incompleteness of same of its detntia, nor fi'om llie 
I lapftB of tiniL". but botraiiHe of our inability to place otir- 
eelves in the {^Hwitlon or ginio of mind uf tlie inlifiM- 
I tants of New Vi>i-k City at lliat (H'riixl. We ean no 
inoru throw onnti'lves into the einiiat condition, and 
I foel tile infiiiencee of that time, than wo can conceive 
I the ontward jihjRifal appearance of the tnihryo me- 




THE NKOHO KIOTB OF ITla-lT41. 



tropolis. It IB impoBsible to stand amid the wliiri and 
nproar of New York to-day, and iinnpiiie uien pkiugh- 
iiig, and sowing grain, and carting hay inUi barns, wliero 
tlic City Hall now stands. Tlie conception of nearly 
iiU tlie city lying below the Park, above it farms 
to Canal Street, beyond that clearings where men are 
bnmiiig brnsb and Itigs to clear away the fallow, and 
still faitlier on, towards Central Park, an unbroken 
wilderness, is so dim and shadowy, that we can liardly 
fix its outlines. Yet it was so in 17*1. Where now 
stands the Tumbs, and cluster the crowded tenements 
of Five Points, was a pond or lakelet, nearly two miles 
in cirwnra fere nee and fifty feet deep, and encircled by 
B dense forest. Its deep, sluggish outlet into the Hud- 
son is now Canal Sti-eet. In wet weather there was 
another water comnnmication with the East RivQr,near 
Peck Slip, cutting off the lower j-art of the island, leav- 
ing another island, eontaining some eight hundred acres. 
Through IJroad Street, along whicli now rolls each day 
tlie stream of business, and swells the tnmnlt of the 
Brokers' Board, then swept a deep stream, up which 
boatmen mwod their boats to sell oysters. The water 
that supplied these streauis and ponds is now carried 
off throngh inimenae sewers, tieep under ground, over 
which the imconscious population tread. Where Front 
and Water Streets on the east side, and West Gi'eeu- 
wicii and Washington on the west side, now stretch, 
were then the East and Iludaon Rivers, laving smooth 
and pebbly beaches. There was not a single sidewalk 
ill all the city, and only some half dozen paved streets. 
On tiio U«f tcry stootl the fort, in which were the Gover- 
nor's and secretary's houses, and over which floated the 
British tlog. 




THE GREAT IllOTS OF NEW YORK CITY 



Bnl: all this outward appearance is no more unlike I 
the New Tork of to-day than it« internal condition. 

The population nimihered only about ten thouBand, 
one-fifth of which was neprties, who were elaves. , 
Their education being wholly neglected, they were 
ignorant and debased, and addicted to ahuost every 
vice, Tliey were, besides, restive nnder tlieir bondage 
and tlie severe punishments often inflicted on thetn, 
which caused their masters a great deal of anxiety. 
Not isolated as an inland plantation, but packed in a 
narrow epace, tliey had easy communication with each 
other, and worse than all, with the reckless and de- 
praved crews of the vessels that came into jwrt. It is 
true, the most stringent measures were adopted to pre- j 
vent them from aEsembling together; yet, in spite of 
every precaution, there would now and then come to 
light Bome plan or project that wonid fill' the white* | 
with alarm. They felt half the time as tliough walk- 
ing on tlie crust of a volcano, and Iience were in a , 
Btate of mind to exaggerate every danger, and give 
credit to every sinister rumor. 

The experience of the past, as well as the present 
state of feeling among the slaves, justified this anxiety 
and dread ; for only thirty years before occurred just 
such an outbreak as they now feared. On the 7th of | 
April, in 1712, between one and two o'clock in the j 
inoniing.llio hniiee of Peter Van Tilburgh was set on 
Ih'o by negroes, which was evidently meant as a signal 
for ji general revolt. 

The cry of tiit^ roused the neighboring inhabitants, 
and lliey rushed out thi-oiigh tlie nnpaved muddy 
streets, toward the blazing biiildmg. As they ap- 
proached it, they saw, tu their amazement, in the red 



1 HIOTS OF lTlt-1141. 



27 



light of the flatnes, a band of negroes standing in front, 
armed with guns and long knives. Before the whites 
could liartllj comprehend wliat the strange apparition 
meant, the negroes fired, and then ruslied on tliem 
with their knives, killing several on the spot. The rest, 
leaving the building to the mercy of the flames, ran to 
the fort on the Batterj-, and roused the Governor. 
Springing from his bed, lie rushed out and ordered a 
cannon to be fired from the ramparts to alarm the 
town. As tlie heavy report boomed over the bay and 
shook the buildings of tlio town, the inhabitants leaped 
from their beds, and looking out of the windows, saw 
the sky lurid with flames. Their dread and uncer- 
tainty were inereased, when they lieard the heavy 
splash of soldiers through the mnd, and the next mo- 
ment saw their bayonets gleam out of tlie gloom, as 
they hnrried forward towards the fire. In the mean- 
time, other negroes had rushed to the E{Jot, so tliat soon 
there were assembled, in proportion to the white popn- 
lation, what in tlie present population of the city would 
be fully 10,000 negroes. 

The rioters stood firm till they saw the bayonets 
flaehing in the fii-c-hght, and then, giving one volley, 
fled into the darkness northward, towards what ia now 
Wall Street. The ec:attercd inhabitants they met, who, 
ronsed by the cannon, were Iiastening to the fire, they 
attacked with their knives, killing and wounding sev- 
eral. Tile soldiers, firing at random into the darkness, 
followed after them, accom[)anied by a crowd of peo- 
ple. The negriies made for the woods and swamps 
near where the Park now stands, and disappearing in 
the heavy shadows of the forest, were lost to view. 
Knowing it would be vain tu follow them into the 



TilK (JEEAT RIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT- 



tliicketE, the soldiers and inliabitants surrounded them 
and kept watch till morning. Many, of coin-se, got off 
and buried themselves in the deejier, mm-e extensive 
wiwds near Canal Street, but many others were takeii 
I prisonei-s. Some, finding themselves closely )trcfised 
I and all avenues of escape ont off, deliberately shot 
themselves, preferring such a death to the one they 
kiiew awaited them, llow many were killed and 
captured during tlio morning, the liistorian does 
not tell ns. We can only infer that the number must 
have been great, from the statement he incidentally 
makes, tliat '■ during the day mneUirtt more wen) taken, 
tried, and executed — some Uiat tnmed State's evidence 
were transported." " Eight or ten whites had beoii 
munlered," and many more wounded. 

It was a terrible event, and remeiiil>ered by the pres- 
ent inhabitants with horror and dismay. To the little 
handful ocoupying the point of tho island, it was a 
tragedy aa great aa a riot in New York lo-day would 
be, in which was a.kiss of 5,000 or more on each side. 
Miirjy middle-aged men, in 1741, were young men at 
that time, and remembered the fearful excitement that 
prevailed, and it was a common topic of conversation. 

Tlie state of things, therefore, which we have de- 

Bcrilxid, was natural. This was rendered worse by the 

arrival, intlie winter of 1741, of a Spanish vessel, which 

liad been captuicd as a prize, the crow of which was 

conipoflcKl in ]iart of negroes, who were sold at auction 

an slaves. These became very intractable, and in spite 

of the floggings they received, vittercd threats that they 

I know would rwicli their masti-rs' eoi-s. Still, no evi- 

L duDco of any general plot a^ust the Inhabitanta was | 

K«nBpeoted, and things were moving on in their nsnal 



Tllli: N-EUElJ EIOTS ».IF ITlS-iTt 



way, when, on the ISth of March, a wild and blustering 
day, the Govenioi-'s honsc in the fort was diicovered 
to be on fire. Fanned by a fierce eouth-east wind, the 
flames spread to the King's chapel, tlie Becretary's 
house, barracks, and stables; and hi spite of all efFortB 
til save them, were totally consumed. The origin of 
the fire was supposed to he accidental, but a few days , 
after, Captain Warren's house, near the fort, was found 
to be on lire. Two tir three days later, the Btorehouse 
of Mr. Van Zaiidt was discovered on lire. Still, no 
general Biispicions were aroused. Three more days 
passed, when a cow-stall was reported on fire, and a 
few hours later, the honae of Mr, Thompson ; the fire 
in the latter case orij^inatin}:; in the room where a negro 
slave slept. The very next day, live coals were dis- 
covered under the stable of John Murray, on Uroadway. 
This, evidently, was no accident, but the result of de- 
BJgn, and tlie people began to be alarmed. The day 
following, tlie house of a sergeant near the fort was 
eeen to be on Hre, and srtun after, fiames an^ee from the 
roof of a dwelling near the Fly Marliet. The rumor 
now spread like wildfire tlirongh tlie town that it waa 
the Work of incendiaries. It seems to us a small foun- 
dation to base snch a belief on, hut it must be remem- 
bered tliat the public mind waa in a stat« to believe al- 
most anything. 

The alarm was increased by the statement of Mrs. 
Earle, who said that on Buuday, as she was looking out 
of Iier window, slie saw three negroes swaggering up 
Broadway, engaged in earnest conversation. Suddenly 
she heard one oi them exclaim, " Fire I lire 1 Scorch 1 
scorch I ftlittled — nbyandbyl" and tlieu throwing u ■ 
his hands, laughed heartily. Coupled with the numerous 



30 



Tint GREAT HIOTS OF NBW TUBS UITY. 



firea tliat had occurred, and the riimora afloat, it at 
once excited hor suspicions that this conversation h&d 
something to do with a plot to bum the city. She 
therefore immediately reported it to an alderman, and 
he, next day, to the justices. 

Although tiio nmnber of buildings thus myBteriously 
set on fire was, in reality, small, yet it was as great in 
propOrtioB to the town then, as three hundred would 
be in New York to-day. Less than that number, we 
imagine, would create a panic in the city, especially if 
the public mind was in a feverish state, as, for instance, 
during the recent civil war. 

Some tliought ihc Spanish negroes had set the build- 
ings on tire from revenge, especially as those of tlia 
Government were the first to suffer. Others declared 
that it was a plot of the entire negro population to 
burn down the city. This belief was strengthened by 
the fact that, in one of the last fires, a slave of one of 
the most prominent citizens was seen to leap from the 
window, and make off over garden fences. A shout 
was immediately mised by the spectators, and a pursuit 
commenced. Tlie terrified fugitive made desperate 
efforts to escape, but being overtaken, he was seized, 
and, pale as death, lifted on men's slioulders and car- 
ried to jail. 

Added to all tliis, men now remembered it lacked 
bnt a few days of l)eing tJie anuivei-sai^ of the bloody 
i-ic-*. of thirty years ago. They began to watcli and 
(jueB'iou the iicgroca, and one of the Spanish sailors, on 
being interrogated, gave such unsatisfactory, suqiiuioua 
answers, that tiie wimle crew were arrostoil, and thi-uwu 
into prison. But that samo afternoon, wliile the ma^ 
> iatntes, wliom the alarming state of things iiad called 



THE NKOKO RIOTS OF I 



b^tlier, were in consul tatiim aijrrnt it, tbe cry of 
"Fire!" a^iii startled tlie entire community. The 
ringing of tJie alarm-ljeill !iad now become alrnost as 
terrifying as tlie sound of the last trumpet, and the 
paniu became general. The first stop was to ascertain 
if there were any strangers in town who might be con- 
cealed enemies, and a ihorongh Beareh was made — the 
militia l«ing ordered out, and sentries posted at the 
ends of all the streets, with orders to stop all persone 
carrying bags and bundles. Thiswasdoneon the 13th 
of April. None being found, the eonchision became 
inevitable that some dark, mysteriouB plot lay at the 
bottom of it all, and the inhabitants thonght the city 
was doomed, like Sodoiu. First, tlie more timorous 
packed np their valuable articles and fled into the 
conntry, up toward Canal Street This increased the 
panic, which swelled until ahiioat the entire population 
were seen luirrying through the streets, fleeing for their 
lives. The announcement of an apjiroaching anny 
would not have created a greater stampede. Every 
cart and veliicle that could be foimd was engaged at 
any price, into which whole families were piled, and 
Imrried away to the farms beyond Chambers Street, in 
the neighborhixid of Canal Street. It was a strange 
spectacle, and the farmers could hardiy believe their 
senses, at this sudden inundation into their <{uiet houses 
of the people of the city. The town autljoritiea were 
also swept away in the general excitement, and negroes 
of all ages and sexes were arrested by the wholesale, 
and hnri-ied to prison. Tlie Supreme Court was to sit 
in the latter part of April, and the interval of a few 
daya was spent in efforts to get at the jiuilty parties. 
But nothing definite could be ascertained, as the ecm- 



E oc£AT tarn uF axv tdek crrr. 



wboRTer tfaev I'ere, kept tbeir ' 



At t^ tp h, despamog • 



t (iie tmib i 



1 ji<tUiur ! 
otber wsy,tbe »aUiorilie»oScreU a n-ininl of » bondred \ 
pnoiMl*, >ad a full jnnloo (>■ anv uiie whi> wunld I 
Scale'* evidence, wid reveal the names of tlie rit^- ' 
le»iera. Tbie iru preuy Bun> t«> ttriog not t!ie {acts, if J 
timn went any tu diBclase, and ulmoet eqaaily eore to ( 
obiatn a fabncated Mory, if tfaer? was iK'tLing tu tell. 
A (wxir, i^>~frant i>Uve, ehaking with terrttr in hU cell, 
wtftild hardly be prouf artist eudi aii iDdafvtiteat as 
a free pardon, and to Itiiu or ber aa aliuoet fabaluas 
nun fd iDooer, if be liad aoi-tliing !•> reveal, while the 
temptation to invent a tale that would secure both lib- 
erty and money waa cioally fitn>ii». 

On lite Slot of April the cunrt met, Jodges Philips 
and Iltmmander presiding. A jury was impanelled, 
bnt altb'nigii tbere was no lack of prisoiiera, there was 
ahiuMt a total want of evidence euffiuient to put a eiu- 
gle man on trial. The reward offered had uut bonie 
its Intimate fraits, and no one offered to make any 
revelations. 

Among the tiret brongbt up for examination was , 
Mary liurtou, a colored eervant girl, belonging to John , 
Biigheon, the keejier of a low, diity negro tavern over 
II tlic west ^ide of the eity, neur the Hudson Btver. 
Thifl was a place of rendezvous for the w^inst nejjroes of 
the town ; and from some hints tliat Mary had dropped, 
it was iu»pe«.icd it had been the head-quartcra of tJio 
(XXiHpirators. But when brought before the Grand 
Jury, alio refused ti) be sworn. They entreated her to j 
take tlio oalli and tell the whole triitli, but ahe onl; 
shook Iier heud. They Uien tlireatened her, but with n 
better suecuBS ; tliey prumised she should bo p 



I 



TU£ NEUKU aiUTS OF i 



33 



from danger and shiulded from proseoutioii, but slie 
fitill maiutaiiied iin obstinate silence. Tliey then sUotved 
ber tbe reward, aud attempted to bribe lier witli tbe 
wealth iu store for lier, but die ahuost spat ou it iu her 
scorn. This poor ucgro slave showed an indeiieudenue 
and stubbomuess in tJie presence of the jury that aaton- 
ifihed tbciiL, Finding all their efl'orts vain, they ordered 
her to be sent to jail. This tei-ritied Iicr, and aho con- 
sented to be sworn. But after taking the oath, she 
refnBed to say anything alx>iit the fire. A theft Imd 
been traced to Hughsun, and she told all she knew 
about that, but al>out the fires wonld neither deny nor 
afiirm anything. They then appealed to her consci- 
ence; painted before her the terrors oi the final judg- 
ment, and the tornientis of hell, till at last she broke 
down, and proposed to make a clean bi-east of it. She 
commenced by saying that llnglison had threatened to 
take her life if she told, aud then again hesitated. But 
st length, by persistent efforts, the following facts were 
wrenehed from her by piecemeal She said tliat three 
negroes — giving their names— had been in the habit of 
meeting at tbe tavern, and talking about burning of the 
fort aud city and murdei'ing the people, and that Ilugh- 
6on and his wife had promised to help them ; after which 
Hughsun was to be governor and Cuff Phillijffie king. 
That the first part of the sti>ry was true, there is little 
doubt. How much, with the imagination and love of 
die marvellous peculiar to her race, she added to it, it 
is uot easy to say. She said, moreover, that but erne 
white perwrn beside her master and mistress was in the 
.ooDspiracy, and that was an Irish gii-t known as Peggy, 
*' tbe Newfoundland Beauty." She had several alinaea, 
and was an abandoned character, being a prostitute to 



34 THE GBEAT KIOTS OF NEW lOSK CITT. 

the Degroes, nnd nt tbie lime kept as a luistrcea l>y a I 
hold, drsperate iiei;n> iiamod CEeBar. TIiib rpvulatton of 
JVtary'a fell on the Grand Jury like a boinlialiell. Tlie 
long-6oiigbt eecret they now felt waa imt They hn- 
mediately iiifonned the luagistrattB, Of cuiti-se the 
greatest excitement fdllijwcd- Veggy was next exain- 
uiwi, but she denied Mary Burton's story in t<ito—*\tore 
tliat she knew nothing of any conspiracy or of the burn- 
ing of the stores ; that if she slionld accuse any one it 
would be a lie, and blacken ber own eoid. 

It 18 rather a severe reflection ou the f?ourta of justioe 
of that period, or we might rather eay, pei-bapa, a strik- 
ing illustration of tlie madneiis that had seized on all, 
that althougli tbo law strictly forbade any slave to tes- 
tify in a court of justice ajfainst a white person, yet 
this girl Moi-y Burton was not only allowed to api>c-ar 

evideni* against I'eggy, but lior oatli was permitted 
to outweigh here, and uause her to Ije sentenced to 
death. The hitter, though an abandoned, desperate 
cliaracter, was seized with terror at the near ap)>roach 
of death, and begged to be allowed another examina- 
tion, which was granted, and she professed to mako a 
full a mfessiou. It isa little singular tJiat while slie cor- 
roborated Mary Burton's statement as to the existence of 
a conspiracy, she located the seat of it not in Ilnglison'a 
tavern, but in a miserable shanty near the Buttery, ki^pt 
by John Komme, who, abe said, had promised to carry 
them all to a new country, and give them their liberty, 
if tbey would murder tho whites and bring hira the 
plunder. Like Mary Burton's confesgioii, if truthful at 
all, it evidently had a largo mixture of falsehood in it. 

On Saturday, May 9tb, Peggy was again iirought in, 
and underwent a searching examination. Some of her 



TKK NKOEO EIOT8 OF I 



Btatemcnts eeemed improbable, and diej tlierefore tested 
Uiem in every possible wa_v. It lasted for ecvoral hours, 
and resulted in a long detailed confession, iu whieh eiie 
asserted, among other things, that it was the same plot 
tJiat failed in 1712, when the negroes designed to kill 
all tbe whites, in fact, exterminate them from the island. 
She iinpliuated a great many negroes in t!io conspiracy ; 
and every one Unit she acciised, as they were brought 
before her, she identiiicd as being present at the meet- 
ings of the conspirators in Rotnnie'a honse. The court 
med anxious to avoid any collusion between the pris- 
oners, and therefore kept them apart, so that eacli 
story should rest on its omi basis. By this course they 
thought they would bo able to distinguish what was ' 
true and what, was false. 

Either from conseious guilt, or from having got some 
inkling of the charge to be brought against him, 
Bomme fled before he could be arrested. His wife, 
however, and tlie negroes whose names Peggy gave, 
were sent ti> jail. 

On the 11th of May, or twenty days after the court 
convened, the executions commenced. On this day, 
Ciesar and Prince, two of the three negroes Mary 
£urton testified against, were huug, tliough not for 
tlio conspiracy, but for theft. They were abandoned 
men, and died recklessly. Peggy and Ilughson and his 
wife were next condemned. The former, finding that 
het eoufession did not, as had been promised, secure 
her pardon, retracted all she had said, and exculpated 
entirely the parties whose arrest s!io had caused. 

An atmosphere of gloom now rested over tlie city; 
every face sliowed signs of dread. In this state of 
feeling the Lieutenant-governor issued a proclamation, 



30 



THE GKEAT Kl'lTS OF NKW VORK CITY. 



appointing a day of fasting and hiimitiatiuu, not oiilj 
iu view of tliis calamity, but on account alao of tlie waoj 
and loss caused hy tlie past sevei'e winter, and the deoliX^ 
ration of war by England against Spain. When the dan 
arrived, every shop was closed and biisineeE of all kind) 
Buspended, and tlie eileuce and repose uf tlie Subbatfa 
rested on the entire conimiinity. Without regard I 
sect, all repaired to the places of woi-sliip, where tlii 
services were performed amid the deepest solemnity. 
The day of execiitit>u appointed for Iluglison, I 
^vife, and Pc^ggy was a soleuiii one,' and almost t 
entire i>opnlation tui-ned out to witness it. The foi 
mer had dcclarod that some extraordinary appeanuiot 
would take place at his execution, and every one g 
on hiin as lie passed in a cart fi-oni the prison to t 
gallows, lie was a tall, powerful man, being eii f 
high. lie stood erect in the cart ail the way, 
piercing eyo fixed steadily on the distance, and 1 
right liaud raised high as his fetters would permit, a 
beckoning as tliough he saw help coining from t 
Ilia face was usually pale and eolorlese, but to-day iP 
was noticed that two bright red spots banied on either 
cheek, which added to the mystery with which the su- 
perstitious spectatoi-3 invested him. When the sad 
piwcession arrived at tlie place of execution, the- 1 
prisoners were heliJod In the gninnd, and stood expo» 
to the gaze of t)io crowd. Iluglisoii was linn aud sell 
possessed ; but I'eggy, pale, and weeping, and tejTOn 
struck, begging for lifcj ; while the \tfife, with the rojH 
round her neck, leaned against a tree, silent and con 
posed, but colorless as marble. One after another j 
they were launched into olcrnity, and the crowt^ ' 
solemn and tlioughtfiil, turned their steps homeward. 



ITS OF inUML 



37 



1 

I 

I 



nnghson was hnng in chaius ; mul in ft fow d&y* n 
negro was placed beside liinj, and here lliey cwimfr, 
•' blind and blaokening," in tlie April air, in full view 
of Uie tranquil bay, a ghafilty B|>e(rtarle to iho tifbflr- 
inen aa they plied ibeir vocalioa near by. Kur llii-oo 
weeks they dangled liere in eiuishliiti and nturni, a 
terror to the paesers-by. At length n nini(ir puoHi'd 
through tlie town that Hughsoii liati tiirneil into a 
negro, and the negro intu a white man. Thin wtw 
a new mystery, and day after day iir<)wdii wotihl 
come and gaze on the strange tnuiRformution, wiiim 
thinking it Bupernatnral, and others trying to give an 
explanation. Ilughson had thi-eatencd to take ]Mriiion, 
and it was thought by many tliat he lia<l, and It wiu 
tJie effect of tLia that Lad wroiigbt tlie vliitngu in hiH 
appearance. For ten dayn the Buttery wfu tbroriged 
with spectators, gazing on tlieee Ittoatcd, dtKx^inpoiting 
bodice, niany in llieir KUperstitiouB feara ex]MKt'mif 
Bome new tranefonnntion. Under the invrcaiiing h(4t 
of the GDI), thuy «ooR liegsn Ut drip, till at la«t tlui 
body of Ilughflou bunt ■wiitder, tilling l)i« air witli 
SQcb aa ioiolerable Meocfa tbat tlte Muiritufti ohiiiiiwd 
Uie locality. 

As eiiDple haagiog waa ■oon tlKMiglit Mi mfflgJaiH 
pMnHbiDeat. aiul tiief wen left to mtiog, and tlowty 
VDt in idiaiiu, io dw laatwM aC len^thoBf^ tolw 
■at, and tb ew i *it» «w» wamd tmu aA tn Iw 
borsed at tfae alake. Two me^^vm, mmti Qmtk m4 
OoSee, voe llw i/« danwed to lU» huniUt dMth. 

Mt I'fiiliii It «« • WW tidmr to IM «a4«wiM^ 
thie aod» td •ortaw Ida^ affmf wiaU4 tff dw m»V' 
agea for fammtm Irfia is war, Om/itmk «m*4« 




i tlF NEW YORK OITT. 



gatliered to Bee the stake erected, or Btare at ttie loads 
(if wihmI as they p.issed aluiig the street, and were 
niilnaded at its base. It was a. straDgo Bpeutacle to 
boliold^the workmen carefully piling np the fagots 
under tlie spriug sim ; the speutatore looking on, some 
horrified, and others fierce as savages ; and over all the 
blue eky bending, while the gentle wind stole up from 
the bay and whispered in the tree-tops overhead. On 
the day of execution an immense crowd assembled. 
The two negroes were Itronght forward, pale atid terri- 
€od, and bound to the stake. As the men approached 
with tlie fli-e to kindle the ]«!e, tliey shrieked ont in 
terror, eonfessed the conspiracy, and promised, if re- 
leased, to tell all about it. They were at once taken 
down. This was the signal for an outbreak, and shonts 
of "bum 'em, burn 'em" burst fnjui the multitude. 
Ml*. Moore then asked the sheriff t<^) delay execution 
till he could see the Governor and get a repneve. lie 
hurried off, and soon returned with a conditional one. 
But, as lie met the sherifF on the connnon, the latter 
told liini that it would be impossible to take tlie crimi- 
nals through tile crowd without a strong guard, and 
before that could arrive, they would l)e murdered by 
the exasperated popnlace. They were then tied np 
a^ain, and the torch applied. The flames arose around 
die nuhappy victims. The curling smoke soon hid their 
dnsky forms fnim view, while their shrieks and cries for 
mercy grew fainter and fainter, as the fierce fire shriv- 
elled up tluur forms, till at last nothing but the crack- 
ling of the flames was hoard, aud the shouting, savage 
crowd grew still. As the fire sabsided, the two 
wretched creatures, crisped to a cinder, remaitied to 



THB NEGRO RrOTH OF ina-17«. 



tell, for the hondredtli time, to what barbarous deeds 
terror and pa^on may lead tneu. 

Some of the negroes went laiigliing to the place of 
execution, indulging in all sorts of I)iiff(xitiet7 to the 
last, and mocking the crowd which surrounded them. 

AH protested their Innooence to the last, and if they 
Lad confesacd previously, retracted before death their 
statements and a(x;u£atlotifi. But ihie contradiction of 
themselves, to-morrow denying what to-day they bad 
solemnly sworn on the Bible to be true, instead of 
causing tlie authorities to hesitate, and consider how 
much terror and the hqje of [>ardnn had to do with it, 
«>nviueed them still more ff the strength and danger- 
ous uatnre of the conspiracy, and they went to work 
with a determination and recklessnese which made tliat 
fitimracr the bloodied and most terrific in the annals 
of New York. No lawyer was fouinl bold enough to 
step forward and defend tbe«e poor wretches, but all 
volunteered their services to aid Ihe iiovenmiciit in 
bringing them to pnuUbmenL The weekfi now, as 
they lulled on, were freighted with terror and death, 
and stamped with scenes that made tlie bkiod run cold. 
This little t'>WTi on the southern part of iluiiliallan 
Ifilaod was wholly given to panic, and a nameleM 
dread of ».ime mvi'tcriuas, swfnl fate, extended even 
to the scattered fam-hoiiBcs uear Canal Street. Bo- 
tween this and the Ust of Angnct, a bnodred and Sftj- 
fonr negroes, eKcloatve of whjtea, were thrown into 
priaau, till entj eell waa erovded and packed to mf- 
focadoa with tbon. For three iiKjiitba, mtHtaee of 
eondeiBMtioD was on an mxenfx of cne • day. The 

: eaemAm wm that of a Catholie prieM, t 
oC m ■eboolmaMifr of the chj, who < 




being one, Mary Burton, nfter an interval of Ibrea 
moiithe, pretended to remember tliat hv was present 
witli the olber oonepirators fihe had first nameil as beiny 
in Ilughflon's tavern. 

Ilia trial was long, and apparently ivitliont excite- 
ment. Ue condncted his own caee witli great ability, 
and bronght many wltoeBges to prove hia good character 
and orderly conduct ; but he, of uoiirse, oouM not dis- 
prove the assertion of Mary, that die had eorae time op 
other seen htm with the conspirators at HughBon'e tav- 
ern — for the latter, with hia wife and Peggy, and the 
negroes she had before named, liad all been executed. 
Mary Burton alone was left, and her evidence being 
credited, no amount of testimony could avail him. 

Although the proceedings were all dignified and 
solemn, as became an English court, yet the conrse the 
trial took showed how uttei'ly unbalanced and ono-eided 
it had become. To add weight to Mary's evidence, 
many witnesses were examined to prove that Cry, 
though a achoolraaster, had performed the dntiea of a 
Catholic priest, as though this were an important point 
to establish. The attorney-general, in opening the esse, 
drew a horrible picture of former persecutions by the 
Papists, and theii- cruelties to the Protestants, until it 
was apparent that all that the jury needed to indorse 
a verdict of guilty was evidence that lie was a Catlio- 
lic priest. Still it would be unfair to attribute thia 
feeling wholly to religious intolerance or tlie spirit of 
persecution. England was at this time at war witli 
Spain, and a reptirt was circulated lliat Ihe Spanish 
priests in Florida had formed a conspiracy to murder 
the English colonists. A letter from Ogilthorpe, in 
Georgia, confirmGd tins. Ury, wlio was an educated 



THE NKttRO KIOTS OF ITlS-mi- 



41 



Englmiimaii, bat had led an adveTitnrrnis life in differ- 
ent countries, could not disprove this, and be waa eon- 
victed and sentenced to I«3 hung, lie met his fate witli 
gi-eat composure and disriiity, asserting hie innocence to 
the last. He made the cighteentli victim Imtig, wlille 
tliirteen liad been hiimed at ihc stake, and seventy-one 
tpsiisported to varioHs countries. 

At the average rate of two every week, one lianged 
andonebnrned alive, they were hurried into eternity 
amid prayers, and imprecations, and slirieks of agony. 
The hauling of wood to tlie stake, and the preparation 
of the gallows, kept the inhabitants in a state bordering 
on insanity. Business was suspended, and every face 
wore a terrified look. The voice of pity as well as jn*- 
tice was hualied, and one desire, that of cwift ven- 
geance, tilled every heart. Had Uie prees of to-day, 
with its system of interviewing, and minuteness of detail 
and desori prion, existed then, there woidd have Ijeen 
handed down to ns a chapter in human history that 
cwitld be paralleled only in tlie dark agea. 

A swift massacre, a terrible slanghter, conies and 
goes like an earthquake or a tornado, and stuns rather 
than debases ; bat this long, steady snccession of hor- 
rible executions and frightful scenes changed the very 
natare of the inhabitante, and they became s prey to 
a spirit demon tat^^l rather than human. The praycra 
utd tears of tlmse led forth to the stake, their heart- 
rending cries as they were liomid tu it, and their shrieks 
of agony that were wafted out over the still waters of 
the bay, fell on haril and pitiless hearts. The Mime of 
the wood tliat consumed one victim would hardly grow 
cold before a new fire waa kindled upon them, and the 
efaMTed and blackened poets stood month after month, 



42 



TOE GKEAT UOTB OT VTW TOKI CTIT. 



liidcoQfl moaaiDcntA of what inan m«T becoRM! viwti 
judgment and reason aro anrrendcred to fear and pas- 
sitm. Tho spectacle vaff made still cuorureToldngliTtbo 
gallows statidin;; nt^ar llie Ktake, on vrhidi many were 
hung in cUniiiii, aud llicir I>0di4» left to ewing, blacken, 
and rot in tlio snintner air, a ghaatlv, horrible feigfat. 

^Vhcrc this iriadnvee, Uiat had ewept away court, bar, 
and pe<>[>1o tofretlier, would have ended, it is impM^ible 
t(> say, had not a new terror seized the iuliabilant& 
Mary Burton, on wlifjee a(»:uRation the first victitnfi had 
been arrt-BlfcI and cxvfrated, finding herself a horoine, 
sought new tieldi* in which to win notoriety. She^ 
ceafictl to in]pli(!alo the hla<;kfi, and turned hcraltentioi 
%o tha whites, and twenty-four were aiTested and throw 
into prison. Elated with her succces, ehe began lo a 
cond in the social ftuale, and criminated some ponxHU^ 
of tlie highest MKnal standing in the city, whoee c 
tere wcro above Bnnpicion. This was turning tlie tablet 
on them in a inatiner the npper class did not expeu^a 
and they began to reflect what the end might be. Thefl 
testimony that was sufiicieut to condemn the slaves wufl 
equally ijonchisivo against tliem. The stake and t 
gallows wliicli the court had erected for the black man,l 
it conid not pull down bocanae a white gentleman stoc ' 
under their ghadow, 

Itobespicrre. and Iiis friends cut off the upper-crc 
of society without heeitatton or remorse ; but nnfortil4 
nately the crust next below this became in tnm t 
up))or-crust, which also had to bo removed, until at lae 
they themselves were reached, when they paused.1 
They had ailvaiiced up to their necks in the bloody! 
tide of revohitiou, and finding that to proceed farthsi 
would take them overhead, they attempted to wodal 



THE NEGRO RIOTS OF ITIS-ITJI. 



43 



bftek to shore. So here, ao long as tlie acuusntioiiB were 
confined to the lowest class, it was all well enough, bnt 
when they were being i-eaclied, it was Ligh time to 
stiip. The proceedings were suramariiy brought to a 
close, further examinatioiia were deemed uuneuesfiary, 
and eonfesaionfl became fiat and unprofitable ; and this 
strange episode in American history ended. 

That there had been cause for alarm, tliere can be 
no doubt. That threats should be uttered by the 
slaves, is natnra! ; for this would bo in kcejiing with 
their whole history in tliis country. Nor is it at all 
improbable that a conspiracy was formed ; for this, 
too, would only be in harmony with the conduct of 
slaves from time immemorial. The utter folly and 
hopelessness of such a one as the blacks testified to, 
has been urged against its existence altogether. If the 
argument is good for anything, it proves that the con- 
spiracy thirty ycai-s before never exifited, and that the 
Southampton massacre was a delusion, and John' 
Brown never hatched his utterly insane conspiracy in 
Harper's Ferry. There have Imjcu a good many ser- 
vile insurrections plotted in this country, not one of 
whiuli was a wliit more sensible or easier of execiitifiu 
than this, which was said to look to the complete over- 
throw of the little city. That the fires which first 
started the panic were the work of negra incendiaries, 
there is hut little donbt ; but how far they were a part 
of a wide-laid plan, it is impossible to determine. 

Unquestionably, success at the outset would have- 
made the movement general, so that nothing but mili- 
tary force could have arrested it. 

There is one thing, however, about which there is no 
doubt — that a panic seized the people and the courts, 



44 



THE liKKAT RIOTS I 



and modo tiiein as iioreliable ae in tlie days of the 
■ Salem wittslicraft But these Btriking exhibitions nf 
tlie weaknees of liiiman nature under certain ciruum- 
Btantses Lave been witnessed since the world was uiade, 
and probahly will continue to tlio end of time, or 
until tlie lace enters on a new phase of oxistonce. 
Panics, even among the most veteran soldiers, eome- 
times occnr, and hence we cannot wonder tliey take 
pluce amid a mixed jiopnlation. Popular excitemenia 
are never characterized by reason and common-seHBe, 
and never will be. In this case, there was more rea- 
son for a panic than at; first siglit seems to be. 

In tlie first place, the proportion of slaves to the 
whites was large. In the eectind place, they were a 
tnrbnlent set, and had shown such a daiigerons spirit, 
that the authorities became afraid to let them assemble 
tofjether in meetings. This restriction they felt sorely, 
and it made them more restive. All wore aware of 
tliis hostile state of feeliuH;, and were constantly antici- 
pating some outbreak or act of liolence. liesidcs, it 
was but a few years since the thing they now feared 
did actually take place. And then, too, the point 
firxt aimed at was significant, and showed a bold- 
ness founded on cimscious strength. Right inside the 
fort itself, and to the Governor's house, the torch was 
applied. It certainly looked ominous. Besides, the 
very whole+iale manner in which the authorities thought 
it best ti> ijo to work increased tlio panic In a very 
' eJiort time over a hundred persons were thrown into 
prison. The same proportion to the population to-day 
would be over ten thousand. Such a wholesale arreet 
[ would, of itself, throw Kow York into the wildest ex- 
L cilement, and conjure up all sorts of horrible shapes. 



45 



Add to this, Bti average of two liundred burned at the 
stake, and two hundred bung every week, or more 
than lifty a day, and nearly three times tliat number 
Bcut-cuced to transportation, aud oue wiu faintly im- 
agiiiQ what a frightful state of things would exist in 
the fity. Tlie very atmosphere grew Btilliiig from the 
Bmoke of Ininiing men and women, while the gallows 
groaued under its weight of humanity. Had this been 
the wild work of a mob it would Iiave been terrible 
enough, but when it was the result of a deliberate 
judicial tribunal, which was supposed to do nothing 
except on the most couelugive e^ddence, the sense of 
danger was increased tenfold. The conclusion was in- 
evitable, that the conspiracy embraced every black 
tuan in the city, and was thoroughly organized. In 
short, the whole place was. beyond doubt, resting over 
a concealed volcano, and the instinct of self-preaerva- 
tiou demiiudcd the most summary work. Let the in- 
habitants of any city become thoroughly possessed of 
such an idea, aud tliey will act with no more prudence 
or reason than tlie people of New York at that time 
did. An undoubted belief in such a state of things 
will confuse tlie perceptions and unbalauce the judg- 
ment of a community aiiywhei'e and everywhere on 
the glulie. 

Still, consistent as it is with human history, one can 
hardly believe it poBsible, as ho stands in New York 
to-day, that men have there been burned at tlic stake 
under the sanction of English law, or left to swing and 
rot in the winds of heaven, by order of the Supreme 
Court of the city. 



TUB STAMP-ACT lUOT OF 1 



Tboiongh UnderstiuidmK of tbe Prmcjplca of Liberty bj the Poo- 
pie. ^Tbe Stomp Act. — How vitwud by the CololuBts. — Golden 
Btrengtbens Fort Georgo in Alarm — Arrival of tbc Stamps. — How 
tihe News wasreeeived by tho Sons of Liberty. — A Bold Placard. 
— Stamp Digtributor frightened. — Patriotic Action of the Mer- 
chants, — Publio Demonstration agiiinst tho Stamp Act.— Golden 
takes Refnge in the Fort. — Dure Dot fire on tbu People. — The 
People at the Gat« demand the Stamps, — Coldcu tmd Lord Bute 
hung inEffigy,^Colden'BCoaoh-honHebroken open.— The Images 
pl&oed in the Coach, and dra^red with Shouts through the 
Streets. — Hung again in Sight of the Fort. — A Bonfire made of 
the Fence nronnd Bowling Green, and the Governor's Carriages, 
while t^e GarriBon look ailently on.— Prejndice sgainst Coaches. 
— Major James* Ilonse sacked. — Great Joy and Demonstration at 
the Repeal of the Stamp Act^Celebrntion of the King's Birth- 
day, — Loyalty of the People. — Mutiny Act. — A Riot becomes a 
Groat Eehellion, 

At the prceeiit day, when porsoiml ambition takos 
the place of patriotism, and love of principle glvos way 
to love of party ; when the BuecesB of the latter is 
placed above coiistitiitional obligations and popular 
rights, one seems, as he turns back to our early Iiistory, 
to be transported to another age of the world, and 
another race of beings. 

Kothing shows bow thoronghly nnderstood by tlie 
common people were the prind])IeB of liborty, and with 
keen jienetration tliey saw through all shams and 



I 




TDK ST AMP- ACT EIOT t 



I specioae reasoning, than tlio decided, nay, fierce, etand 
they timk against dio elamp act. This was ncithing 
more tbaii our present law requiring a governraeiital 
Etamp nil all pnblic and business jja^wr to make it valid 
The only difference is, the former was levying a tax 
I without repi-esentation — in other words, witlioiit tlie 
rotisout of the governed. The colonies assembled in 
I Congreee condemned it ; heuee the open, violent oppo- 
sitiou to it by the people rises abo\'e the level of a 
common riot, and partakes more of the nature of a 
rightcons i-evoUition. Still, it was a riot, and exhibited 
the lawless features of tme. 

The news of tiie determination of the English Gov- 
[ «mment to pa^e a stamp act, raised a storni of uidig- 
I nation tlironghout the colonicFs, from Massaehusetta to . 
' South Carolina, and it was denounced as an oppressive, 
QDrighteons, tyraunicul measure From the wayside 
' tavern and the pulpit alike, it was attacked with nn- 
I sparing severity. The Government, however, thought 
. it a mere ebullition of feeling, that would not dare ex- 
I iiibit itself in open opposition. Kor does tliis confidence 
I fleem strong, when we remembci" the weakness of U»o col- 
] oiiies on the one side, and the strengtli of an organized 
I government, witli the law and force both, on the other. 
Cadwallader Colden, a Scotchman by bii1.b, and a 
clergyman by pKifession, was at that time acting Gov- 
I crnor of New York; and to guard against any resort 
I to force on the part of the people when the stamps 
Bhoald arrive, had Fort George, on the Battery, rein- 
l forced by a regiment from Crwwn Point, its raaguzinea 
I replenished, the ramparts strengthened, and its guns 
f trained on the town. The people saw all this, and un- 
derstood its iiiiiwrt ; but it had the opposite effect fiom 



is 



THK GRKAT t 



i OF KKW TOKK CtTC. 



that wiiitth was iitt«adfl(I, for, inelead of overawing ti 
people, it exasperated lliem. 

At length, in October, 1765, a ship with the Britii 
colors flying came sailing up the bay, and anchored c 
Fort George. In a. ehort time the etartling tidings ? 
circnlated, that elie brought a quantity of atampa. 
was like sounding an alarm-bell, and tlie streets liei 
thronged with excited men. while all tho pitivincud 
vessels in the harbor lowered tJieir colors to half-mai 
in token of mourning. In anticipation of this evei 
an organization of Njen had been fonued, called "Soi 
of Liberty." They at once assembled, and rosoh-ed I 
all hazards to get hold of those 6tami>s. They ha) 
caused the act itself to be hawked about the streets i 
" the folly of England and the ruin of America," aod I 
now they determined to measure their strength v 
the Governor of the colony. That night, when 1 
town was wi-apped in slumber, they (iiiielly aflixed < 
the drwre of eveiy public office and on corneis of I 
stj'eets, the following placard : 

Peo Pateia. 

T/i^ Ji'rvt man ifuit eitfier diatridulfs or ma&€« V 
of eUimj/etl piij/er, let hirti take earo of his kovae^j^ 
Hon, and efi'etiH. 



• Wk Dai 



Vox PoptiU. ' 



To the stamp distributors tliey said, "Assure youi 
selves, the spirit of Uruttis and Cossius is yet altv^ 
We will not submit to the stamp act itpou any aucoui 
or iu any instance." 

McEvers, the head stamp dislributor, frightened b 



1 





THE STAMf- 



rthe bold, determined attitude of tlie people, refused to 
the stamps, and Golden had them sent for 
greater safety to Fort George. lie had written to the 
British Secretary, "/ am resolved to have the stamps 
distnbuted.''^ But the people wei-e equally resolved 

Pay should not be. Still, on the 30th day of October, 
and all the royal governors took the oath to carry 
a Btamp act into effect; but tliey soon discovered 
it they could find no one bold enough to act as die- 
butor. All along the eea-eoaet, in every part of the 
Ionics, the people were aroused, and either aesembhng 
quietly, or called together by the ringing of bells and 
firing of cannon, presented such a united, determined 
&ont, that not one jwrson remained duly counniesloued 
to distribute stamps. On the last day of Ottoter, the 
merchants of New York came together, and bonnd 
themselves to "send no new orders for goods or mer- 

Kandise, to countermand all former ordei-s, and not 
en receive goods on conimission, unless the stamp 
t be repealed" — that is, give up commerce at once, 
with all its wealtli and benefits, rather than submit to 
a tax of a few shilliuirs on paper. 

Priday.the Ist of November, was the day fixed upon 

KIT a public demonstration of the people throughout 
e colonies against it, and never dawned a morning 
ore pregnant with the fate not ouly of a nation, but 
of the world. 

From New Ilampshire to South Carolina it was 

_DShered in by the tolling of muf&ed bells, the firing of 

(ninute-guns, and flags hung at Imlf-maat. Eulogies 

rere pronounced on lilwrty, and everywiiere pei.>ple 

t their shops and fields, and gathered in excited 

-ongs to discuss the great question of taxation. 



50 



THE GREAT BIOTS OF NEW YO. 



"Even the diildren at their games, though hardljl 
able to epeak, caught up tlie getioiitl chorus, and wen] 
along the streets, merrily carolling: ' Liberty, Property 
and no JStampa.' " * 

In New York tlie uprising was terrific, for the pop* 
ulatioii rnshed together as one man — as Gage, thi 
coiniQandcr of Fort George eaid, " i»y thoueanda." 

The Bailors floekcd in from the vessels, the farmeni 
from the couutry, and the shouts, and ringiug of bella 
and firing of cannon made the city fairly tremblSifl 
Oolden was ten'ified at the storm that vras raised, andj 
took refuge in the fort. An old man, bent and bowet 
witii the weight of eighty years, he tottered iiervonal^ 
to the shelter of its guns, and ordered up a detaehmenn 
of marines from a ship of war in port, for his proteo-fl 
tinn. In his indignation, he wanted to fire on the pc<K« 
pie, and the black muzzles of tlie cannon pointing on^ 
the town had an ominous look. Wliether lie had 
threatened to do bo by a message, we do not know; at i 
any rate, tlie people either suspected his determination 
or got wind of it, for dui-ing the day an unknown per- l 
son handed in at the fort-gate a note, telling him if h« 
did, the people would hang him, like Porteus of Edin- 
burgh, on a eign-jKfflt. He wisely forebore to give the 
order, for if he had not, liie gray hairs wonld ha\'0 
streamed from a. gibbet. 

At lengtli the day of turmoil wore away, and night 
came on, but with it came no diminution of the ex- 
citement. Soon as it was dark, the " Sons of Liberty," 
numbering thouBanda, suited tumuUuoaaly up around 
the fort, and demanded that the stamps should be 



* Bftnottrft. 



THE STAMP-ACT H!OT C 



51 



I given np that they might be destroyed. Golden blnntly 

I refused, wlieo with loud, defiant shonta they left, and 

I went up Broadway to " the field " (the present Park), 

[ "where they erected a gibbet, and banged on it Golden 

r in efligy, and beside him a figure holding a boot ; some 

said to represent the devil, others Lord Bute, of whom 

the boot, by a pun on his name, showed for whom the 

effigy was designed. 

The demonstration had now become a riot, and the 

Sons of Lilierty degenerated into a mob. Tlie feeling 

that had been confined to words all day muat now have 

Bome outlet. A torcldight procession was formed, and 

the scaffold and images taken down, and borne on 

men's shoulders along Broadway towards the Battery. 

1 The glare of flaring light-son the bnildinga and faces 

[of Uie excited crowd, the shouts and hurraJis tiiat 

Kmadc night hideous, called out the entire population. 

[-which gazed in amazement on the strange, wild spec- 

Itaclo. 

They boldly carried tlie seafEold and efligies to with- 
Kin a few feet of the gate of tlie fort, and knocked au- 
Kdauiously for admission. Isaac Sears was the leader 
■«f these " Sons of Liberty." 

Finding theinsclves unable to gain admittance, they 
KwQiit to the Governor's carriage-house, and took out liis 
fdegant coach, and placing the two efBgiea in it, dragged 
it by hand around tlie streets by the light of torches, 
amid tlie jecra and shouts of the multitude. Be- 
coming at last tired of this aniueement, they returned 
towards the fort, and erected a second gallows, on 
which they hung the effigies the second time. 

All this time the cannon, shotted and primed, lay 
^ nlent on their carriages, while the soldiers fropi tlie 



52 



TUR OKEAT RIOTS OF Ni:W TUllK CITY. 



ramparta looked wonderingly, idly on. General Oagel 
did not dare to fire on the people, feaiiug they would! 
sweep IJke an inundation over the ramparta, when hel 
knew a general massacre would follow. 

The mob now tore down the wooden fence that onr-J 
ronnded Bowling Green, and piling pickets and hoards I 
together, set them on tire. As the flames crackled and f 
roared in the darkness, they pitched on the Governor's J 
coach, with the soaffoltl and effigies ; then hastening to 1 
his carriage-honse again, and drawing ont a one-horso J 
ehaise, two sleighs, and otiier vehiclea. hauled thenj to* 
the fire, and threw them on, making a conflagratioa 
that illumined the waters of the bay and tJio ships 
riding at anchor. This woe a galling spectacle to the j 
old Ckivemor and the British officere, but they dared I 
not intei-fere. 

What was the particular animosity against those car- 1 
riages docs not appear, though it was the only propyl 
erty of the Governor they destroyed, unless they were 4 
a sign of that aristocratic pride which sought to en- 
slave them. There were, at this time, not a half-dozen 
coaches in the city, and they natnrally hecame the 
symbols of bloated pride. It is said the foeUug was i 
BO strong against them, that a wealthy Quaker named I 
Murray, who lived out of town, near where the distrib- I 
uting reservoir now is, kept one to ride down town in, 
yet dared not call it a coach, but a " Uathem oonveni- 
encc." 

Although Soars and other leadere of the Sons of Lib- 
erty tried to restrain the mob, their blood was now up, 
and they were bent on destruction. Having witueesed 
the conflagration of the Governor's carriages, tliey 
again marched op Broadway, and some one shouting 



THK STAMP-ACT BIOT OF ITM. 53 

" Jaraes* honee," the (-rowd took up the ehoiit, and paar 
ing out of the ahy streamed through the open tMHintrj", 
to where West Eroadway now is, and near the comer 
of Anthony Street. This Jaines was Major in the 
Eoval Artillery, and had made himself obnoxious to 
the people by taking a conspicuous part in putting the 
fort into a state of defence. lie had a beautiful resi- 
dence hero.which the mub completelygutted, broke up 
hia elegant fumitui-e, destroyed his library and works 
of art, and laid waste his ornamented grounds. They 
then dispersed, and the city became quiet. 

The excitfiraent was, however, n<* quelled — the peo- 
ple had not yet got liold of the stamps, which they were 
determined to have. Golden, having seen enough of 
the spirit of the "Sons of Liberty," was afraid to risk 
another night, even in the fort, unless it was in some 
way appeased ; and so the day after the riot, he had a 
)ai^ placard jxisted up, stating that he should have 
nothing more to do with the stamp, but would leave 
them with Sir ITonry Min>re, the newly appointed Gov- 
I ernor, then ou his way from England. 

This, however, did not satisfy the Sons of Liberty : 
they wanted the stamps themselves, and through Sears, 
tlieir leader, insisted on their being given up — telling 
Iiim very plainly if he did not they would storm the , 
fort, and they were determined to do it. 

Tlie Common Council of the city now be(»me 
alanned at the ungovernable, desperate spirit of the 
mob, whith seemeil bent on blood, and begged the Gov- 
I emor to let them be deposited in the City Hall. To 
j thia he finally though reluctantly consented, but the 
I feeling in tlje city kept at fever heat, and would re^ 
L PO until the act itself was repealed. 



54 



THE «EEAT I 



i OF MEW roKK OITT. 



Moiire, the new Governor, soon arrived, and aBsuined 
tbe reigns of government. The corporation nffered i 
him tlie freedom of the city in a goM box, bnt he re* I 
fused to receive it, unlesB upon sUruped paper. It « 
evident he was determined to enforce the stamp act. I 
But on consulting with Golden and othera, and ascor- 1 
taining the true state of things, he wisely abandoned I 
his purpose, and soon mado it publicly known. To ap- 1 
[Koae the peogilc still more, he diemantled the fort, 1 
which was peenliarly obnoxious to tlieni from tlie I 
threatening attitude it had been made to assume. Still,/ 
the infamous act was unre{>ealcd, and the people re- 1 
fused to buy English manufactures, and commerce f 
languished. 

Atlength, Parliament, finding that further insistanoe J 
in cjarrj-ing out the obnoxious act only worked mischief, £ 
had repealed it. When the news reached New York,! 
the most unbounded joy was manifested. Bella were I 
nmg, cannon fired, and placai-ds posted, calling on a ' 
meeting of the citizens the next day to take measures 
for celebrating properly the great event. At the ap- 
pointed time, the people came togetlicr at IXoward'a 
Hotel, and forming a procession, marched gaylyto"tha J 
field," and right where tlic City llall now stands, then I 
an open lot, a salute of twenty -one guns was fired. 
grand dinner followed, at which the Sons of Libertyjl 
feasted and drank loyal toasts to his Majesty, and aILI 
went "merry as a marriage-bell." The city was iU 
luminatcd, and bonfire* turned the night into day. Inl 
a few weeks, the King's birthday was celebrated with I 
great display. A huge pile of wood was erected in the'fl 
Park, and an ox roasted whole for the people. Cart ¥ 
after cart dninped its load of beer on the groimd, tiU[ 



THE STAMP-ACT KIOT OF ITfiS, 



55 



r 



twenty-five barrels, fianlted by a, hiigo liogBbead of mm, 
3aj ill a row, presided over by men appointed to deal out 
tile contents to the iK>]Milace. A iRiistoroiie demonstra- 
tion followed tliat aliTiust di'o\viied tlie rour of the twen- 
ty-one cannon lliat tbnndered forth a royal eahite. As 
a fitting wind -up to the Iiacclianallaii eitene, at night 
twenty-five tar-barrels, fastened on pities, blazed over 
the " common," wliile brilliant fireworks wero exhibited 
at Bowling Green. The feasting eonfinned late in the 
night, and so delighted were tJie "Sons of Liberty," 
that they ereeted a mast, inscribed "to bis most gra- 
ciona Majeaty, George the Tiiird, Mr, Pitt, and liberty ." 
A petition waa also signed to erect a sljitiie to Pitt, 
and the people seemed determined by this excess of 
loyalty to atone for their previous rebellious epirit. 
Tlio joy, however, was of short duration — the news ol:' 
the riots caused Parliament to pass a " mutiny act," by 
which troo|)s were to be quarteied in America in suffi- 
cient nnrabers to put down any similar demonstration 
in future, a part of the espenae of their 6upix>rt to be 
paid by the colonists themselves. This exasperated 
"the Sons of Liberty," and tbcy met atid resolved to 
resist this new act of oppression to tiie last. The 
troops arrived in due time, and of course collisions 
took place between them and the people. Matters now 
continued to gr-jw worec and worse, until the " riot o£ 
tlio Sons of Lil)erty " bccuine a revolution, which dis- 
tnttmbered the ISritish Einpira, and cstablisbed this 
great republic, tl»o influence of wliicli on the destiny 
of the world no one can predict. 



CHAPTKR IV. 



DOCTORS EIOT, 1TH8. 



— Bodies dug np by Medicnl Stndante.— 
of the People. — Effocl of the Discoverf of s, hamui Limb from 
tbe HoBpitoL^ — Mob lanHack the Building, — Dealmotioii of 
Anatomical Specimena, ^Arrival of Mayor, and Iinpriaonmeot of 
Students.— Second Da;. — Examinatioa of Columbia College and 
FhjBiRiaiiB' UonscB. — Appeal of Uia Major and dudjnpiiahad 
Citixeos to Hie Mob. — Mob attempt to break into Jail and seize 
the Studenta.— The Fight.— The Military called ont.— Beaten by 
the Mob. — Larger Military Foroe called out. — Attacked bythe 
Mob.— Deadly Firing-. — Oi«at Excitement. — FligrM of Doctors 
and Studenta. 

In former times " body-anatcbing," or digging up 
bodies for disBections, was much moro lieard of than 
at present, Tbe fear of it was so great, that often, in 
tlie iieighborbood wbere inediual students were pursu- 
ing their studies, persona wbo lost friends would bavn 
a watch kept over theii" graves for several niglits, to 
prevent them from being dug up. Neitlier tbo high 
social position of parties nor sex was any barrier to this 
dnsocration of graves, and tbe public itiiud was often 
shocked by accounts of tbe young and beautiful being 
disinterred, to be cut up by medical studcnls. In tbe 
city there was, a few years ago — and perliaps there ia 
now — a regular eorainereial ])rice for bodies. 

Although it was ctinceded that for thorough instruc- 
tion in medical seience, subjects f'lr dissection were \ 
, neceeeary, yet no one onteide of the medioal profesftion 



DOCTOKB RUIT, 1788. 



57 



conld be found to aanction " bodj-Bnatching." There 
is a sacredness attached to the grave that the most 
hardened feel. Whenever the earth is thrown over 
the Ijody of a man, no matter liow abject or sinful be 
may have been, the involnntaiy exclamation of every 
cue is " requieacat in pace." When it comas to be one 
of our own personal friends, a parent, sister, or child, 
to this feeling of suercdness is added that of affection, 
and no wrong is like that of invading the tomb ol 
those we love. Shukespearo left his curao for Idm 
who shonld disturb ]iis bones ; and all feel like cursing 
thoee who disturb the bones of friends who are linked to 
them by blood and affection. 

In the winter of 1787 and 1788, medical students of 
New York City dug np bodies more frequently than 
oetial, or were more reckless in their mode of action, 
for the inhabitants became greatly excited over the 
Btories tliat were told of their conduct. Some of these, 
if true, revealed a brutality and indecency, shocking 
86 it waa nnneccBsai'j, Usually, the students had con- 
tented tijernselvea with ripping open the graves of 
etrangera and negroes, about whom there was little 
feeling; hut this winter they dug up respectable 
people, even young women, of whom they made an 
indecent expi^ure. 

The stories did not lose anything by repetition, and 
soon the conduct of pliysicians and medical students 
became a town talk. There seemed to be no remedy 
for tliis state of things ; the graveyards, which were 
then in the heart of the city, were easily acceeeible ; 
while plenty of men could bo fonnd, who, for a small 
urn, would dig Hj) any Inuly that vrm d4Mired. 

A mere accident cansed thia^tat «ii< to cnl 



THB OB8&T Biore 07 tOSW YOBS OtTY. 



iniTiiite and suddenly break ont into action. In thvl 
epriiifT, some boys were playing in tlie rear of the hot 
jiital, whcu a young BUi^oon, from ainere whim, showea 
an amputated arm to them. One of them, impelled bjB 
(Mirioeity, immediately mounted a ladder lliat e 
against tlie wall, used in making Bonie repaire, vrbenj 
the BurgGou told iiim to look at liia mothers arm. Thd 
little fellow's mother had recently died, and tilled with! 
terror, he immediately hastened to his father, who waal 
a mason, and working at the time ia Broadway. The ] 
father at once went to hia wife's grave, and had it 
opened. He found the Iwdy gone, and letumed to 
his fellow-workmen with the news. They were filled 
witli I'age, and, anned with tools, and gathering a . 
pi-owd as they marched, they surged np around thou 
hospital. 

At first many seemed to be impelled only by curi-l 
osity, but as the tlirong increased, the mawms heuamal 
eager for decisive action. Threats and denunciation 
began to arise on every side, and then ap|>oals for von. 
geaiicc, till at length liiey rushed for the dof 
pouring into the building, began the work of destniw 
tion. For a while there was a terrible rattling on 
bones, as they tore down and smashed every anatomu 
cal specimen they could lay their hands on. Valuably 
imported ones shared the common fate. They awarftiet 
through the building, and finally came upon fresh bhW 
jpcls, apparently but just dug up. This kindled thel!* 
rage tenfold, and the Btiuleuts, who thus far hud been 
unmolested, vrei-e in danger of being roughly handled. 

The news of the gathering . if the crowd and its thn 
ening aspect, had reached the Mayor, who immedista 
BuuimoQcd the eherifi, and taking htm w 



DOCTORS EIOT, tJSft 



51) 



prominent citizens, hastened to the spot. Finding the 
students in the liands of the infuriated mnb, he re- 
leased them, and to the satisfaction, apparentlj'j of the 
rioters, sent them to jail for safe-keeping. 

There was now notliing left fortJiem to do, and they 
dis|>ersed, and the matter was thonglit to be ended. 

But, during tJie evening, knots of men were every- 
where disensaing the cvenla of the day, and retailing 
the exciting reports that were now flying thickly 
aroimd ; and next morning, whether fi'om any concert 
of action, or im]Telled by mere curiosity, is not known, 
crowds began to tili the street and yard in front of the 
city hoepital. The diacoveiy of the bodies tiie day be- 
fore hafl deepened the excitement, and now a more 
thorough examination of the building was proposed, 
and also an examination of tlio physicians' houses. 
Matters were beginning to wear a serious aspect, and 
the Govei'nor, Mayor, Chancellor, and some of the 
prominent citizens of the town, came together to con- 
Btilt on a eonrse of action. It was finally resolved 
to resort in a body to the spot where the mob was as- 
sembled, and make a personal appeal to it. They did 
BO, and presented an imposing appearance as they 
advanced np Broadway. Although representing the 
State and city, they did not presume on their authority, 
but attempted persuasion. Mounting the steps, they in 
tnm addressed the throng, which now kept mumcntai'ily 
iQcrGasing, and exhorted them as law-abiding citizens 
to nae no violence. Some made m(«t pathetic appeals 
to tlieir feelings, their pride and self-respect ; indeed, 
begged them, by every considenttiou of home and 
ju6tiire, to desist, and retire peacefully to their homes. 
They solemnly pnsmised that a most thoi-ough invest!- 



60 



( OF NEW YORK CITY. 



gatiun ehoiild be Diade, and they alionld have all the 
satisfaction the laws could afford. More tljey ought 
not to ask. These appeals and prumiBes produced a 
favorable effect on many of Uie mob, and they left 
But the greater part refused to be pacified. Their 
blood was up, and they insisted on making the exam- 
ination themselves. They did not propose to commit 
any violence, but having begun their investigations 
they were determined to go throngh with them. 

The Mayor and the Governor eeeraed to have an 
nnaeconntable repngn.inc« to the use of force, and let 
the mob dejiai-t for Cobmibia College without any re- 
sistance. The professors and students were amazed at 
this sudden inundation of the cmwd, who swarmed 
without opposition through every part of the building. 
Finding nothing to confirm their suspicions, they left 
without doing any material injury. Still unsatisfied, 
however, they repaired to the houses of the neighbor- 
ing physieiane, and the leaders, acting as a delegation 
of the crowd, wont through them with the same result. 
It was a singularly well-behaved mob, and they re- 
ceived the report of the self-constituted committees 
with apparently perfect satisfaction, and when they 
bad made the roimd of the houaes, gradually broke np 
into knots and die]>ersed. 

But the lawless spirit of a mob seldom arreata and , 
controls ilaelf. Ilaving once feit its strength and i 
]>ower, it is never i>atistied till it measures them'againBt I 
those of the legal authorities, and yields only when it I 
must. Hence, as a rule, the quicker " it feels tlie strong I 
hand of pf>wer" the lietter for all parties. Promising J 
legal satififactioQ to law-breakers is a very nnsatiafao- ] 



IXKTTUBS BIOT. ITSB 



61 



I 



I 



tory pi-oceeding. Obedience first and dieciiseion after- 
wards is tlie proper order to be observed. 

The Major had hardly time to congratnlate himself 
on Laving overcome so easily a serious difficulty, before 
he found that he had not as vet touched it. In the 
afternoon, the crowd again began to aesomble, and thie 
tune annind the jail, with the avowed purpose of 
taking vengeance on the students and physicians locked 
up there for safe-keeping. Having asserted and exer- 
cise^, against all law, the right of domiciliary visits, it 
was but a short and easy step to assert the right to 
punish also contrary to law. As tliey gatliered in front 
of the jail, it was seen that a different spirit from that 
which they liad hitherto exhibited niled them. The 
tiger was uncliained, and loud shouts and yells were 
heard. " Bring out your doctors 1 bring out your doc- 
tors I " arose on every side. Tliey threatened to tear 
down the building unless they were given up. The 
inmates became tlioroughly alarmed, and barricaded 
the doors aud windows, and armed themselves the best 
way ihey could for eelf-defence. Attempts were made 
to parley with the crowd, but they would listen to 
nothing, and answered every appeal with loud shoots 
for the doctors. What they intended to do with 
tfaem by way of punishment was not so clear, though 
what their fate wcmhl have l>een, if once at their mercy, 
there was little doubt. The city authorities now be- 
came alarmed, murder was imminent, and having no 
police force sufficient to cope with such a formidable 
mob, they decidetl that the city was in a state of iuaur- 
Mctiou, and called out the military About thre" 
oVloolt, the force marched up the street, and passed 
quietly through the crowd, whith opened as they ad- 



6^ 



THE GREAT KKIT8 OF NEW yOKK CITy, 



vanced. As tlmy moved past, a Rliower of dirt and 
Btones followed tliem, aucompanicd witli tanntB, and 
jeera, and mocking laughter. The wliole militarj 
movement was evidently intended only for intimida- 
tion — to show the rioters what could be done if they 
resorted to violence ; for tlio soldiers, instead of taking 
up their quarters, as they should have done, in the 
building, having exhibited tliemfielveB, marched away. 
But the inoh, still retaining its position and threaten- 
ing attitude, another force, a little later, consisting of 
only twelve men, waa sent up. This was worse than 
nothing, and as the little handful marched solemnly 
up, the crowd broke out into derisive laughter, and all 
sorts of contemptuoiw epithets were heaped upon them. 
Instead of waiting for them to come near, they rushed ■ 
down the street to meet them, and swarming like bees 
around them, snatched away their muskets, and broke 
them to pieces on tlie pavement." Tlie soldiere, dis- 
armed, scatt<?red, and hustled about, were glad to escape 
with wliole bodies. I 

This first act of open resistance e.\cit«d the riot- 
ers still more — they had passed the Rubicon, and were 
now ready for anything, and "to the jail! to the , 
jnilt" arose in wild yells, and the turbulent niasa 
poured like a timiultnous sea around the builduig. 
They rushed against the doors, and with united shoul- 
ders and bodies endeavored to heave them from their I 
hinges. But lieing secured witli lieavy bolt« and bars, 
they resisted all their efforts. They then smaalied in ' 
tlie windows with stones, and attempted to force an 



* 3iAa Ja7 and Buron Steuben w 
oU^r tbamob. 



both wounded in trjruiK to 




entrance through them; hut the handfnl of men in- 
side took poseessiDD of tlie&e, and, with Each weapons 
as they could find, beat them hack. Numbers were of 
no avail here, as only a few at a time eonid approach 
a window, while those within, being on the defensive, 
knocked them back as often as they attempted to elinib 
in. The rioters, bafiled in their attempts, would tlien 
fall back, and hurl paving-stones and bricks at the 
windows, when those who defended them would step 
one aide. But the moment the former advanced 
again, the latter would crowd the windows wilh chibs 
and sticks. The enraged nesailaiitB tore off picketa, 
and advancing with these, made det^perato efforts to 
clear the windows. But those within knew it waa a 
matter of life and death with them, and stubbornly 
held their ground. The tight was thus kept up till 
dark, amid yella and shouts and a pandemonium of 
nois^, and no efforts apparently were made to put an 
end to it, and release the inmates of tlie jail. But 
steps liad been taken to organize and anu a large body 
of militia under an experienced officer, and now in tlie 
dim starlight their bayonets were seen gleaming, oa 
they marched steadily forward on the dark, heaving 
mass tliat filled the street far as the eye could see. 
The rioters, however, instead of being intimidated at 
the siglit, sent up a yell of defiance, and anning 
themselves with stones and brick-bats, hurled them in 
a blinding volley on the troops. So tierce was the as- 
Bsnlt, that before the latter liad time to form, many 
were knocked down, and some badly wounded. The 
commauding ofiicer, finding the fight thus forced on 
him, gave the order in a ringing voice, " Beady, aim, 
fire 1 " A flash broad as llie street followed, lighting 



i!4 



THE GREAT KIOTS OF NEW ' 



Up the gloom, and revealing the eijowliiip faces of the 1 
mob, the batterpd front of the jail, and llie pale faces 
of tlioBe giiai'ding the windows. They had nol expected 
this clow, point-blank volley, for the timid action of 
the authorities had not prepared tliem for it, and they 
stopped in amazement and hesitation. The command- 
ing ofhuer imderstood his bueiness, and instead of 
waiting to see if they wonld disperee, poured in an- 
other volley. The rioters were confounded as tlicy 
saw their comrades fall by their side, but Etill stood at 
bay ; until at last, seeing the dead and wounded on 
every side, they could stand it no longer, but broke 
and fled in every direction. In a few minutes the 
street was clear of all but the dead and wounded, the 
groans of the latter loading the night air. The poor 
wretches were carried away, and the troops remained 
on the spot all night. The next day the city was in a 
fever of cxcilcnipnt. The nnmher of killed was 
greatly exaggerated, and the denunciations of the 
butchery, as it iviia called, were tiorce and loud. On 
almost every corner groups of excited men wore seen 
in angry discussion — multitudes gathered in front of I 
the jail, and gazed witli horror on the blood-stained 
pavement. 

The soldiers who had committed the slaughter were 
cursed and threatened by turns, but they quietly rested 
on their arms, ready, it was evident, to repeat the ex- 
periment at the first open act of violence. For awhile 
there was danger of a general outbreak throughout the 
city ; but the autlu^rities had become thoroughly aroused 
to the danger of the situation, and seeing that the 
quicker they brought the conflict to a close, the better, , 
made snch a display of force, that the riotous spirit ' 



DOCTORS KIOT, 



IS overawed. Still, it was not entirely snbdueil, and 
it was evident tliat it was kept under by fear atone. 
The physicians of the city came in for almost as large 
a Bhare of tlic hatred as the military. They were the 
original cause of the disturbance, and threats against 
tLcm became so open and general, tliat they were in 
constant di-ead of personal violence, and many fled 
from the city. They scattered in every direction, and 
tliere threatened to be a general Hegira of physicians. 
All the medical stndents wure secretly stowed into 
carriagea, and Imrried off into the country, where they 
remained till tlie excitement died away. It did not, 
however, subside readily ; indeed, the danger of opea 
revolt was bo great for several days, tliat the military 
continued to keep guard at the jail. 



BPGING ELECTION EIOTS OF 1 



Fatal Error in our Naturalization Lima. — Oui Experiment of Self • 
goTemment not a, foirono, — Fmit of 0iTiDg Foreigners the Ai^t 
to Vote.— Bitter Feelii^ between Democrate and Whigs.— Firat 
Day of Eltction. — Ships "■Constitution" njid '"Veto." — Whige 
driTen from the Polls. —Eicitemcait.^Whigsdetennined to defend 
themBelres. — Meetinf; called. — RosolntioiiB.—Secood Day's £leo- 
tion. — -Attaelt on the Frigate " Oouatitution, " — A Bloody Fight. 
—Mayor and Officers wounded. — Mob triuiniiliaiit.- 
of the WhigB.— The Streets blocked by fifteen liiooMuid ( 
mged Wbiga. — Military called out.— Occupy Araeoal and City 
Hall all Night. — Besult of the Election. — Eicitameut of Um ■ 
Whigs, — Moss-meeting in CaaUe Gaiden. I 

This country never ccitnmitted a more fatal iniatake 
thau ill making its uaturalization laws so that the im 
mease irainigration from foreign countries could, after 
a brief Bojoiiru, exereiae the right of auffrago. Oup j 
fonn of government was an e.yperiment, in the eiiccee 
of whicli not only we aa a nation were inte 
but tlie civilized world. To have it a fair one, ' 
should have been allowed to build and perfect tin 
structure with our own mat^erial, not pile into it sucl 
ill- formed, iucougruuus etufE as llie desiiutisms of Europe 
choec to send us. Growing up by a natural pre 
educating the people to the pi-oper cxercieo of t 
high trust, correcting miBtakes, and adjusting diffiuuUJ 
ties ae we progressed, the noble building would I 
settled into greater compactnees as it ai-ose in hei 



SPBINQ KtKCTION KIOTe OF ISM. 



C7 



and all its various proportions been iu harmonj. We 
ehotild have built slowly but Burely. But vehen there 
i tlirown i]pou iis a mass of material wholly niifit 
for any political structure, and we were compelled to 
pile it iu hap-hazard, it was not long before the goodly 
edifice began to show ngly Eoame, and the deapotisms 
of Europe pointed to tliera with scorn, and asked taunt- 
ingly how tlie doctrine of eelf-goveniinent worked. 
They emptied their prisons and poor-hoiiseB on our 
shores, to be rid of a dangerous ek'inent at home, and 
we, with a readiness that bordered on insanity, notonlj 
took them into onr bosoms, but invited them to aid us 
in making onr laws and electing our rnlers. To ask 
men, the gi-eater part of whom could neither read nor 
write, who were ignorant of the first principles of true 
civil liberty, who could be boi:glit and sold like sheep 
in the shambles, to assist us in founding a model re- 
public, was a folly without a parallel in tlie history of 
the world, and one of which wo have not yet begun to 
pay the full penalty. It was a cruel wrong, not only 
to oureelves, but to the oppressed masses of Europe, 
who turned their longing eyes on us for encoui'agement 
and the moral aid which our success would give them 
in their struggles against despotism. 

If the reason given for endowing this floating popula- 
tion — and dangerous element under any cii'cnnistaucos 
— with the full rights of citizens had been the true one, 
namely: to be juat to them, and consistent with the 
great doctrine of equality on wliich our Government 
rested, there might be some little comfort in reflecting 
on the mistake we made. But this was false. The 
right of suffrage was given them by a party in order 
to secure their votes, and secure them, too, by appeal- 



68 



THR GREAT E10T6 OF NKW YORK CITV. 



ing to those very passiinis that inaJe them daiigeroufl to 
the republic, and which tlie interest of all alike required 
Bhould be removed instead of Btrengtheiied. 

All ibe good the Democratic party has ever doDS 
this country will hardly compensate for the evil of thiff 
one act. 

If our experiment shall finally prove a failure, we 
verily believe it will be owing to the extension of t!ie 
political franchise to whites and blacks who were unfit 
to use it, and cai-ed for it not becaua« of its honor, or 
the good use to which it might be put, but &b a piece 
of merchandise to be sold to the highest bidder or used 
as a weapon of asgatilt against good order and right- 
eous laws. 

Of course, the fii-st pernicious effect of this transfer 
of power to ignorant, reckless men would be felt at the 
polls in New York City, where this class was in tlie 
greatest number. The elections here soon became a 
farce, and the boasted glory of a free ballot-bos a taunt 
and a by-word. That gross corruption and villau^ 
practieed here should eventually result in the open vio- 
lation of law, as it did in the charter election of 1831, 
was natural. 

Political animosity was probably more bitter between 
the Democrats, under Jackson's administration, and 
tlie Whigs, than between any two political parties since 
tbc time of Federalists and Democrats, in the days of' 
tlie elder Adams. 

In the spring of 183+ especially, party spirit na- 
very higli in the city. As usual, for a month or more 
before the election, which took place on the second 
Tuesday in April, all kinds of accusations and rumor» 
were afloat. There was no regisliy law, and compara- 



I 



SPEraO ELECTION RIOTS OF I 



tivelj few plaeea for the polla, so that there could be 
little cheek on voting, ni> end to repeating, while the 
gathering of an immense crowd around each place of 
voting became inevitable. At this election, there was 
a split in the Democratic party, Mr. Verplanck being 
the candidate of the Independent Democrats, and Mr. 
Lawrence of the " Tammany." 

The most extensive preparations were made on both 
Bides for the conflict, and it was generally expected 
there would be a personal collision in some of the wards. 

Tnesday, the Sth of April, dawned dark and stormy, 
and the rain began to fall heavily, at times coming 
down in torrents. But to anch a fever heat had the 
public feeling been carried, that no one eeemed to heed 
the storm. The stores were closed, bnsiness of all 
kinds suspended ; while the streets were black with 
men hurrying to the polls. At twelve o'clock the 
American flag was hoisted on the Exchange, when the 
building became deserted, and all gathered at the 
places where the voting was going on. Men stood in 
long lines, extending clear out into the street, patiently 
enduring the pelting rain, wailing till their turn came 
to vote. 

The famona expression of Jackson, " Perish credit, 
perish commerce," had been taken out of the connec- 
tion in which it was used, and paraded everywhere. 
The sailors had been enlisted in the struggle, and rigged 
np a beautiful little frigate in complete order, and 
named it the " Constitution." Mounting it on wheels, 
several hundred of them paraded it through the sti'eeta 
and past the polls. Aa they passed through Wall Street, 
thundering cheers greeted them, and the excited popu- 
lace, heedless of the rain, fell into the procen.'^ion, till 



THE OEKAT BIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT. 



it swelled to thotieanda, who, with songs and shonte, fol*fl 
lowed after. Fearfnl of the effent of this denionetnipj 
tiim ou the voters, the Jackson men hastily rigged oat. I 
A boat, surmounted hy a flag on which was painted iH I 
large characters, " Veto ; " and " Constitntion " and I 
" Veto " sailed after each other tlirongh the city. Tliia I 
should have been prevented by the authorities, for it I 
was impossible for tiieso two processions to meet witli- 
out a fight occurring, while it was equally certain that ' 
the Whig one would be attacked, if it attempted lo pase 
the polls in those wards in which the roughs had the 
control. Bnt the "Hickory poles" had inaugurated a 
new mode of carrjing on political campaigns. Ap- 
peals were made to the senses, and votes obtained hj j 
outward symbols, rather than by the discussion aim 
important political questions. This mode of elea^| 
tioneering culminated with the leg-cabin escitemeuL 

In the Eleventh Ward, the Jackson party had twol 
private doors through which to admit their voters to the I 
polls, while bullies kept back from the main entrance the J 
Independent Republicans. In most of the strong Jade- j 
sou wards, where it was all on one side, the votingi 
went on peaceably enongh, but in the Sixth, it wai 
Boon evident that a storm was inevitable. Oatlis au^ 
threats and yells of deliance made the polls here seenl 
more like an object on which a mob wa6 eeekiu 
wreak its vengeance, than a place where freemen wonfl 
depositing their votes under sanction of law. Tb«l 
babel of simnd continued to grow worse in spite of tlitf 
rain, and swelled louder and huider, till at last I 
Jackson roughs, headed by an ex-alderman, made I 
rush for the coumuttee room where their oppoDU 



BPBINO ELECTION EIOTS Of 



71 



were assembled. Some of tliem wem armed witli 
' clube, and otliere witli knives, which they braudielied 
fiercely as they burst iiitu tlie room. Before the mem- 
bers could offer any refiietancc, they were assailed with 
siKih fuiy, tliat in a short time nearly twenty were 
stpetehed bleeding and maimed on the floor; one so 
badly woniided that be was curried out lifeless, and 
apparently dead. It was a savage onslaught, and 
those ,who escaped injury reached tJie street hatless, 
and with eoats half-torn from tiicir backs. The mob, 
iiow being complete masters of the room, tore down all 
the banners, destroyed the ballots, and made a complete 
wreck of everythiujr. The Whig leaders, enraged at 
such dastardly, insulting treatnieut, despatched s mes- 
eetigei* in all haate to tlie Mayor for lielp, but he re- 
plied thiLt lie cutild not furnish it, as all the available 
force was away in other sections of the city on duty. 
The excitement among the Whigs now became fearful, 
and they determined to lake the matter in their own 
hands. The election was to last thi'ee days, and they 
concluded to let the polls, when the mob entered, take 
care of themselves the balance of the day, and organ- 
ize a plan for self-protection on the murraw. 

A call was at ouee issued for a meeting at Masonic 
Hall, and tliat night four thousand Whigs packed the 
bnilding, from limit to limit. General Bogardus was 
called to the cliair, who, after stating the object of the 
meeting, and describing the couduct of tiie mob in the 
Sixth Ward, offered the f ulluwiug resolutions : 

" Wh^eas, The authority of the foliok of iJie city 
has been set at defiance by a baud of hireUngs, mer- 
cenaries, vaA huiUfa in the Hixth Ward, and the livkb 
of our citizens put in jeopardy. And whereas it ia 



t2 THE OKEAT KIOTS UF NEW VOBK CITT. 

evident tbat we are in a state of anarchy, which re- 
quires the prompt and efficient intvqxisitioii of every 
friend of good order who is disposed to sustain the 
conetitution and laws, therefui-e, be it 

" Resolved, That in order to prfserve the petu:ft of 
the city, and especially of the Sixth Ward, the friends 
of the constitation and the liberties of the dtizen will 
meet at this place (Masonic Hall), to-morrow (Wed- 
nesday), at half-past seven o'clock a.m., and repair to 
the Sixth Ward poll, for the puTpose f>f keeping it 
open to ALL voTEBs until such time aA the official 
authorities may ' procure a sufficient nimiber of special 
conatahles to keep the peace.' 

" Itenoleed; Tiiat while at the Sixth Ward poll, thoee 
who are nut residents thereof will not take part in the 
election, but simply act as conservators of the p^aoA, 
until such times as the uajestt of the laws shall be 
UTkiiowledged and respected." 

'I'hiw3 remlutions were carried with acclamatioDs 
and lihoiitii and stamping of feet 

There wa« no blnster in these resolutions, but their 
meaning was apparent enungh, and the city autbori- 
tie« iindoi-st4)od it. From tliat hall, next morning, 
would march at least five or six thousand determined 
men, and if the mob rallied in force, to repeat the 
Hiition of tlio day before, there would be one of the 
bloodiest lij^hts that ever disgraced the city. It was 
Iwlteved tbat tlie great mass uf the rioters wore Irisb- 
inen, and the thought that uative-bom Americans 
should be driven from their own ballot-box 
of foreigners, aroused tlie intensost indig 
was an insult that could not and shonld i 
erated. 



a 
I 



BPRINO ELECTION I 



73 



The next morning, at half-past seven, Maeonic Hull 
was filled to re[j!etion. The exeitement can be im- 
agined, when Biich a crowd could be gathered at 
this early houp. 

In the Ninth Ward a meeting was aUo called, and a 
reeoliition passed, tendering a committee of one Iiun- 
di-ed to the general committee ; that, with a committee 
of the same number from each of the fourteen warda 
of the city, would make a battalion eighteen hutidiod 
strong, to be ready at a inonient's notice, to march to 
any poll "to protect the sacred right of suffrage." 

Theee meaeuree had their desired effect. The pres- 
ence of large Ijodiee of men at the different polk, for 
the ijnrpose of prt>lc(;ting them, overawed the unorgan- 
ized moi), although in some of the wards attempts 
were made to get up a riot Stonoa and t-luba were 
thrown, and one man stabbed ; it was thought at the 
time fatally. The Sixth Ward, "the Bloody Sixth," 
as it was called, was the point of greatest danger, and 
thither the Mayor repaired in pei-sou, aceonipatiied by 
the filieriff and a large iM>6se,aud remained the greater 
part of tlie day. Threats and opprobrious epithets 
were freely used, and oct^a&ionally a paving-stone 
would be hurled from some one on the outskirts of the 
crowd ; but the passage to the polls was kept open, and 
by one o'clock the citizens could deposit their votes 
without fear of personal violence. 

The evil of having the elt^ction continue tliree days 
now became more apparent than ever. The dis- 
orderly class, " the roughs," by their protracted drink- 
ing, became more and more maddened, and hence 
riper for more desperate action. This second night 

■ spent by tliem in carousing, and rhe next m<iniing 



74 



THE OKKAT RIOTS OK NEW YORK CITY, 



iJiey turned out to tlie fjolls, not only ready, but e 
foi- a fight. Early in the forenoon, the frigate " Con-J 
fltitiition" was again on its voyage through the streets,! 
followed by a (ri-owd. As it passed Masonic Ilall, thsa 
heod-quai'tera of the Whig Committee, it was ealutedl 
with cheers, Tliis was followed by a rush upon it,! 
on the part of the mob, who attempted to destnjy il 
Tiio Whigs inside of the buildiug, seeing the atti 
poured forth mlh a loud cheer, and fell on the asi 
ants with suuh fury, that they turned and fled. The " 
news of what was passing, Lad, in the meantime, 
reaebed the Sixth Ward folks, and a shout waa raised 
for fi>llowers. Instantly a huge emwd, composed of 
dirty, ragged, savaye-lookJng men, brobo away with dis- 
cordant yellH,andi>troamed up Duane Street towards the 
building, picking up paving-stones and brick-bats, and 
Dulling down pickets as they ran. Coming in sight of ] 
the little frigate, they raided a shout and dashed oi: 
The procession Lad now passed the hall, but 
Whigs, informed of what waa going on, again sail 
forth to the help of the sailors, who were tighting maa<| 
folly against overwhelming odds. But tbey v 
overpowered, and again took refuge in tlie hall. Thi 
was now assailed, and stnntis came crashing through ■ 
the windows. The Mayor was sent for, and soon I 
appeared with the sheriff, backed by forty watcJimen. 1 
Mounting the steps, he held up his staff of office, and | 
commanded the peats. But the hiilf-druidien mob 1 
had now got beyond the fear of the mere symbol of J 
anthority, and answered him with a shower of stODee,J 
and then charged on the force tliat surrounded hii 
A fierce and bloody fight folio\ved. Citizens rnsl 
out to the help of the Mayor, wlule 



on the mob witli tlieir clnbB, They soon stretched on 
the pavement more tlian their own number, but the 
odds against them was too great. The Mayor received 
a wound— ten or fifteeu watchmen besides citizens 
were wounded — Captains Stewart, Munson, and Flaggs, 
badly injured, the latter with his skull horribly fraut- 
nred, ribs broken, and face cut up. A few of the 
rioters were arrested, but the great mass broke through 
all opposition, and streaming into the hall, forced the 
committee to creep through back passages and win- 

The news of this high-handed outrage was carried 
like the wind to the lower anti-Democratic wards, and 
the excited Whigs came streaming up, until Duane, Elra, 
Pearl, Cross, AugUfitus, and Chatham Streets, up to 
Broadway, were black with determined, enraged citi- 
zens. Ten or fifteen thousand were in a short time 
assembled, and a fearful battle seemed inevitable. In 
this appalling state of things, the Mayor called a con- 
sultation, and it was decided to declare the city in a 
Btat« of insurrection, and call on the military for help. 
A messenger was immediately despatched to the Navy 
Yard for a company of marines. Colonel Gamble, 
commanding, replied that ho would be glad to comply 
with the request, and put himself at their head, but 
that he had jtiat sent them on lioai-d tlio " Brandywine" 
and" Vinccnnes." Application was then made to Com- 
modore Ridgely, commaTidec of the station ; but he re- 
fused, on the ground that he had no authority to inter- 
fore. A messenger was then hurried across to Gov- 
ernor's Island for help, but he met with no better snc- 

». As a last resort. General Sanford was now di- 
rected to call out tiiG city military. 



76 



THK GBEAT RIOTS OP t 



All this time the crowd kept increasing, while i 
out its boBom came an angry murmur like the moaning 
of the sea before a etorni. The i>olls were deserted, 
and it eeemed impossible that the opposing forces could 
be long kept apart. At length word passed through 
the Whigs that tlie raob wei-e about to take |x>sseseion 
of the arsenal. Instantl)' several hundred citizens 
Hiade a dash for it, and occupied it. This was a bril- 
liant piece of strategy, and no 6ooner did the rioters 
hear of it, than they swarmed around the building with 
yells and imprecations. The Wiiigs, however, held it, 
and some of them passed (vut arms to their friends. 

Three terrible hours had now passed since the flret 
outbreak, and fi-om the Park to Duane Street, Broad- 
way, and the cross streets on the east side of it, were 
packed with excited men, their shouts, calls, and curseB 
rising over the dwellings in tones that sent terror to 
the heart. But for the narrow atreots, in which bat 
few could come in contact, there wonld doubtless have 
been a collision long before, 

Butat this critical moment a detachment of infantry 
and two squadrons of cavalry came marching down 
Broadway, and in close column. The crowd divided 
as they adx-anced, and they drew up before the arsenal. 
The gle-atuing of the bayonets and tlie rattle of sabres 
had a quieting effect on the rioters, and they began to 
disperse again to the polls, to watch the progress of the 
voting. In the meautime, the infantry took up their 
quarters at the arsenal, and the cavalry at the City 
Hall, for the night. 

AVTien the p<)ils closed at evening, the biillot-box of 
the Sixtli AVard was taken under a strong guard to the 
City Hall, and locked up for 'he night. It 



I 



BPKISO KLl-KTION RIOTS OF 18M. 



77 



li>wed by four or five thousand e:^cited men, but no 
violence was attempted. 

Tlie election was over. For three diiya the city had 
been lieaving to the tide of human passion, and trem- 
bling un tiie verge of a great diBaster, and all becanse 
a few nifliana, not a fourth part of whom could 
probably i-ead or write, chose to deny the right of suf- 
frage to American citizens, and constitute themselves 
the proper representatives of the city. 

Cut the excitement did not end with the election. 
It was very close, and as the returns came in slowly, 
the people aaaembled in great numbers, to hear them 
reported. The next day, till three o'clock at night, ten 
or fifteen thinisand people blocked Wall Street, refus- 
ing to disperac, till tliey knew the result. It was 
finally announced tliat Mr. Lawrence, the Democratic 
candidate, was elected by a small majority. 

The next tiling was to ascertain the character of tlie 
Common Council, The same mighty throng assembled 
next day, forgetting everything else in the intense 
interest they felt in tlie result. It would seem impos- 
sible to get up such a state of feeling over the election 
of a few local officers, but the city shook from limit to 
limit as the slow i-etums came in. At last, it was an- 
nounced that the Wliigs had carried the Common Coun- 
cil by a small majority. As the news passed thi-ough 
the immense concourse, a shout went up that shook 
Wall Street from Broadway to the East River. It 
rolled back and forth like redoubled thunder, till every 
throat was hoai-se. 

When the crowd at last dispei-sed, it was only to 
assemble again in separate bodies m different parts of 
the city, and talk over the victory. 



78 



THE OKEAT BIOTS uF NF-W YfiKK CITT, 



Even then the excitement was not allowed to die 
away. The event was too great to be permitted to pasa 
without some especial honor, and a mass-meeting was 
called in Castle Garden to celebrate it. Webster was 
Boiit for to make a speech, the most distinguished 
Bjreakprs of New York were called upon, and a day of 
general rej<iiciiig followed, great as that which suc- 
ceeded Lee's surrender. 



CHAPTER VI. 



ABOLITION K!(IT3 OF 1 



The BlaveiT QneBtJcm B^tated.— The End, GiTil War.— The Re- 
sults. — William Llojd QarrisoD. — Feellog' of the People on the 
Subject. — First Attempt to call a Ueetjng of the AboUtioDiBte 
in New Tork.— Ueeting in Chatham Street Chapel,— A Fig'hl^- 
HobtokePoBseEsioD of Boweiy Theatre. —Sackingof Lewis Tap- 
pan'i Honse.— Fight between Mob and Police.— Mobbing of Dr. 
Coe'b Church, in Laight Street. — UiB llouae brolcen into. — 
Btieet Bnrricniiad.— Attack on Arthur Tappan'a Store. — Second 
Attack on Church in Loight Street.— Church Backed in Spring 
Street. — ArriTal of the MUitary. — Barricades carried.— Mr. Lud- 
Iow'b Souse eQterHd.^Mob at Five FoinU, — DeBtrnotion of 
Hcusea. — The City Militaiy called out. — Mob oierawcd, and 
Peace restored. — Five Points Eiot. — Stone-cutters' Biot. 

Most of the riots of New York have grown out of 
canses more or lees local, and wholly trausieut in their 
nature, nence, tlie object sought to be obtained was at 
unce secured, or abandoned altogether. But thtiee aris- 
ing from the formation of Abolition societies, and the 
discussion of the doctrine of immediate emancipation, 
wtre of a diffei-ent character, and confined to no locality 
or time. The spirit that produced them dovehiped it- 
self in every aeetJon of tlie country, and the question 
continued to assume vaster proportions, till the Union 
itself was involved, and what was first only a conflict be- 
tween the police of the city and a few hundred or thon- 
) of ignorant, reckless men, grew at last into the 



r BIOTS OF NEW TORK CITY. 



most gigantic and terrible civil war that ever cnrficd 
the earth. The Union was rent aeiinder, and State 
arrayed against State, wliile tlie world looked or 
aghast at the etrange and bloody spectacle. The final 1 
result has l>eeu the emancipation of the slaves, and I 
their endowment with all the rights and privileges of j 
American citizens. But with this has come a fright- > 
fnl national debt, the destrnction of tliat feeling of 
common interest and patriotism, which is the strongest 
security of a country ; a contempt for the Constitntion, 
the concentration of power in the hands of Congreas, 
email regard for Stato rights, while the controlling j 
power in the South has passed into the hands of i 
ignorant, incapable, irresponsible class; and. worse I 
than all, tlie people have become accustomed to the I 
strange spectacle, so fraught with danger in a republic, 
of seeing the legislatures and executives of sovereign 
States overawed and overborne by the national troopa. j 
That frightful conflict for the slave has sown danger- I 
ous seed; what the final harvest will be, the future'! 
historian alone will be able to sliow. 

The inconsistency of having a system of slavery in- 
corporated into a republican govermnent was always 
felt by piX)d men North and South, as well as its dam- 
aging effect on the social and politic'al well-being of 
the whole community ; and steps had I>een taken both 
in Virginia and Kcntncky to do away with it by leg- 
islative action. \YIicther these incipient steps would | 
over have ended in relieving us of the evil, can only j 
be conjectured. We only know that a peaceable sohh 
tion of the question was rendered impossible, by thol 
action of the Abolitionists, as they were called, whn^ 
governed by llic short logic, that slavery being wpong,J 



I 



ABOLITION RIOTS OF 1 



81 



[ it could not exist a moment witliout sin, and therefore 
muBt be abandoned at once without regard to con- 
sequences. The eyetem of slavery was no longer a 
social or political problem, calling for great wisdom, 
' pnidence, statesmanBhip, and patience, but a personal 
crime, not to be tolerated for a moment. The whole 
South was divided by them into two classes, the op- 
pressor and oppressed, the kidnapper and kidnapped, 
tthe tyrant and the slave — a relationship which liberty, 
religion, justice, humanity, alike demanded should be 
severed without a moment's delay. 
These views, in the judgment of the press at the 
time, and of sound statesmen, would eventually end in 
irivil war, if adopted by the entire North, and lience 
they denounced them. The Abolitionists were consid- 
ered by all OS enemies to the Union, whom the lower 
elasses felt should he put down, if necessary, by vio- 
lence. This feeling was increased by the action of 
"William Lloyd Garrison, the founder of the society, 
who went to England, and joined with the antislavery 
men there in abusing this country for its inconsistency 
and crime. Those causes produced a state of public 
feeling that would be very apt to exhibit itself on the 
1 first opportunity. When, therefore, in the autumn of 
1833, after Garrison's return from England, a notice 
appeared fur an antislavery meeting in Clinton Hall, 
some of the most respectable men in New Tork de- 
I termined to attend, and crash out. by the weight of 
I their influence, the dangerous movement. Anotlier 
class was resolved to effect the same project in another 
1 way, and on the 2d of October the following placard 
B posted ill flaming letters all over the city : 



THE GREAT RIOTB OF NEW YORK CITY, 



To all persons J'rom the South. 

All persons interested in the eiibject uf tbe meeting^ 
called by 

J. Leavitt, W. Goodell, 
W. GrecD, J. KankiD, 
Lewis Tappan, 

At Clinton II&ll, this evening, at 7 u'clock, are i 
quested to attend at tlio same botir and plaue. 

MANT SOUTnEENERS. J 
New York, Octulier 2d, 1833, 

N. B. All citizens who may feel disposed to mani- 
fest the true feeling of the State on this subject, are 
requested to attend. 

Putting tbe appeal in the name of tbe Southerners, J 
was an artful device to call out the people. 

At an early hour crowds began to assemble in fraut 
of Clinton Hall ; but to their surprise they found a uft- 
tice nailed on the door, that no meeting would be held. 
Many, seeing it, returned home ; but still thcci'owdo 
tinned to swell to thousands, who rent the air with shouts 
and thi-eatfl against Garrison. Determined not to h«l 
disappointed in a meeting of some kind, they furcedl 
their way upstairs, till tbe room in wliich it woe tafl 
be held was crammed to sufFocation. Tlte iiieGtiuj» 
wa« then organized, and waited till quarter past b 
when it was moved to adjourn to Tammany IlalLl 
Thprc it was Again organized, and a gentleman i 



ABOLITION K10T3 OF Ism AND 183S. 83 

about to address the crowd, when a inau stepped for- 
ward to the president, and stated that the meeting an- 
notinced to be held in Clinton Hall was at tliat rao- 
nient under full headway in Chatham Street Chapel, 
Instantly several voicea ehouted, "Let uh go there and 
rout them I " But the chairman said they bad met to 
pasa certain reeoliitions, and they should attend to thia 
business lirst, and then every one could do as he liked. 
The rewilntions were read, and after some remarks had 
been made upon thetn, adopted, and the meeting ad- 
journed, A portion of those present, however, wepo 
not satisfied, but resolved to go to the chapel and break 
np tlie meeting tliere. The little handful assembled 
within, apprised of their approach, fled, so that when 
the mob arrived, the building, though the doors were 
open and the lights burning, was empty. It immedi- 
ately took possession of the room, and giving a negro 
wbo was foremost iu the spoit the name of one of the 
Abolitionists, made him chairman. The most absurd 
resolutions were then offered, and carried, when the 
chairman returned tlianks for the honor done him amid 
the most uproai-ious laughter, and what had threatened 
to be a serious riot ended in a wild, lawless frolic. 

This was the beginning of the Abolition riots in 
New York City, which afterwards, to a greater or less 
extent, prevailed for years in different parts of the 
Union. 

Next summer the excitement, which during the win- 
ter had nothing to call it forth, broke out afresh, end- 
ing in destruction of property and bloodshed, and the 
calling out of the military. On the evening of the 7th 
of July, an assembly of colored persons of both sexes 
Chatham Street Chapel, for the puipose of 



S4 



THK QRRAT Rim's nP NEW YORK ( 



listeiiiug to a sermon frnm a negro preacher. 
New York Sacred Miisic Society had leased the I 
ing for certain evenings in tlic week, of wliich it v 
asserted lliia was one. Justice Lowndes, of the PoIia| 
Court, was president, and I5r, Rockwell vice-presidenj 
of the society, and tliey repaired to the building durin|' 
the evening, and finding it occupied, at once elaini 
their right to it, and demanded that the blaeks bIio 
leave. But the latter, having hired and paid for i 
fused to do so, when a fight ensued, in which 1ami>8 and 
chairs were broken, loaded canes used freely, and same 
persons seriously injured. The news of the fight 
spread rapidly, and a dense crowd gathered around tlie 
door. But the police soon arrived, and forcing their 
way in, drove white and black out together, and locked 
up the chnrch. 

The riot, Iiowever, continued for some time i 
street ; but the blacks, finding themselves outnumb) 
fled, and peace was restored. 

A portion of the crowd, having recognized 1 
Tappan, one of tlie leading Abolitionists, followed h 
home with hoots and yells, and even hurled stones i 
his house after ho had entered it. 

The next evening, at dusk, the crowd began agaifl 
to assemble in front of the chapel But the 1 
it had closed and locked the gates. The miUtltudj 
determined, however, not to he disapjK>inted of a mec 
ing, and forcing open the gates, obtained cntrauec 
The meeting was then organized, and Mr, William 1 
Wilder called to the chair. After making a speech, i 
which he showed the evil effects of a sudden abolitii 
of slavery, by relating Iiis experience in San Doming( 
tie moved an adjqtirament nntil the next meeting of tJ 



ABOLITION EHJra OF 1 



Antifilavery Society. The motion was carried, and the 
aibly broke up. This was, however, altogether too 
quiet a termination for a part of the crowd, and a 
shout was made for the Bowery Theatre. The attacks 
on lis by the English, for upholding slavery, and their 
sympathy and aid for Garrison, and co-operation with 
him in agitating the question of abolition in this coun- 
try, had rekindled the old sbimbering feeling of hostil- 
ity to that country ; and Mr. Farren, the stage man- 
ager of tlie Bowery, being an Englisliman, it was trans- 
ferred to him, especially as reports had been eircnlated 
that he had spoken disrespectfully of the Americana. 
This night liaving been selected to give him a bone- 
fit, his enemies had posted placards over the city, stat- 
ing the fact of his hostility to this cfjiintry — whether 
with the intention of causing a thin house, or breaking 
it np altogether, is not known. At all events, the mob 
resolved on the latter course, and streaming up the 
Bowery in one wild, excited mass, gathered with loud 
shouts in front of tlie theatre. The doors were closed 
in their faces, but pressing against them with their 
immense weight, they gave way, and like a dark, 
stormy wave, they surged up the aisles toward the foot- 
lights. In the garish light, faces grew pale, and turned 
eagerly toward the doors for a way of escape. But 
these were jammed with the excited, yelling mob. The 
play was " Motaraora," and was under full lieadway, 
when this sudden inundation of the rioters took place. 
The actors stojiped, aghast at the introduction of this 
new, appalling scene. Messrs. Hamlin and Forrest 
advanced to the front of the stage, and attempted to 
address them ; but apologies and entreaties were alike 
in vain. The thundering shouts and yells that inter 



THE GEEAT KIOTS OF KKW TORK cmf. 



nipted them were not three of ndniiration, and f 
toi-s and autors were coui|)eUed to remain silent, whilftJ 
tliie eti-aiige audience took w>mpiete (JOBeessiou of tli«l 
house, and iiiaugnraled a play of their own. 

But the police, having received information of wlia 
waa going on, now arrived, and forcing their way ia,fl 
drove the rioters into the stix-et, and restored order-j 
Bnt the demon of lawless violenue, that was now fully;! 
raised, was nut to Ije tlius laid. Some one gut hold of 1 
a hell, and hegan to ring it violently. Tiiis 
the oxeitoment, and suddenly the ehont arose, " to | 
Arthur Tappan'e." * The cry was at oneo taken np by a I 
thousand voices, and the crowd started down the street. 
Bnt instead of going to his house, they went to that of 
his brother, Lewis, in liose Street, a still more ohnox- 
ions AbolitionisN Reaching it, they staved open the I 
doors, and smashed in the windows, and began to pitch J 
the furniture into the street. Chairs, sofas, tables 
pictures, mirrors, and bedding, went out one aftef.^ 
another. But all at once a lull occurred in the work [ 
of deetniction. In pitching the pictures out, onsl 
came across a portrait of Washington. Suddenly the I 
cry arose, " It is Wasliingtoii I For God'« sake, doi^t I 
bum Washington, ! ^'' In an instant tlie spirit of dis 
order was laid, and tlie portrait was handed care- I 
fully from man to man, till at length the populace, J 
bearing it aloft, cai'ried it witli shouta to a neighboring I 
boueo for safety. It was one of ihoso etraiigu frcatM I 
or sudden changes that will sometimes come over thai 
wildest and most brutal men, like a gleam of goutlal 
light aci'OBB a dark and stormy sea — tlw gixKl in i 



* A rflk mercbaitt, and one of Ulb tuittns AbOlIUoidit>. 



87 



for a moment making its voice beard above the din and 
atrife of evil paeeione. 

This singular episode being tenniuated, they rctnrned 
to their work of deBtnictioo. Ent eiiddenly the cry 
of "Watdimen!" was heard, and the nest moment 
the police came charging down the street. The mob 
fecoilfld before it, then broke and fled, and the former 
took poBsessiou of the Btreet. Bnt the latter, coining 
across some piles of briek, iillcil their nnns and hands 
fnll, and rallying, retnmed. Charging the watchmen 
in turn with a blinding shower of these, they drove 
them from the ground. They then kindled a fire on 
the pavement, and as tbe flanjca titifihed up in the dark- 

8 and gained headway, tbey piled on bedding and 
fnmitm-e, till the whole street was illominated with 
the costly bonfire. This cnnsed the lire-liells to be 
rnng, and soon the engines came thundering down the 
street, before which tJie ci-owd gave way. The burning 
furnihiro was then extinguished, and the Iiouso taken 
poeecEsion of. It was now two o'clock in the morning, 
and the mob dispersed. 

Tlie nest day nothing was talked about in the 
saloons, groggcries, and on the comers of the by-etreets, 
but the events of the night before; and as evening came 
on. a crowd began to assemble in front of the Imttered, 
dilapidated house of Leivia Tappan. Another attack 

B imminent, when the police came up and dispereed 
them. They had not, however, abandoned the purpose 
fnr whidi tbey bad assembled. 

The little band of Almlitionists, that the year before 

t bad been compoaed mostly of comparatively obacore 

men, Iiad now increased Iwith in numbers and men of 

infloence. Persecution had i)roduced its iisnal effects 




THE QKBAT EIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT. 



— advKQced the canee it desired to destroy. Among 
• otlier well-known citizens wlio liad joined their ranks 
were the two brotliei-s, Di-, Abraham Cox, M.D., and 
Dr. Samuel Cox, the latter, pastor of Lai;:;ht Street 
Cliurch, and one of the most popnlar preachers of tho 
city. Though opposed by a large majority of his con- 
gregation, lie had become known as a bold, outspoken 
man against slavery ; and now the mob, bent on mis- 
chief, streamed across the city towai-d his clmreJi. It 
was dark, and ae they gathered in a black, dense muss 
in front of it, enddenly, aa if by a common impnlse, 
a loud yell broke forth, and the next moment a shower 
of stones and brick-bats fell on the windows. Babel 
was now let loose, and, amid the crashing of window- 
glass, arose every variety of sonud and all kinds of 
calls, interspersed with oaths and curses on " Abolition- 
iBls and niggers." 

Shrieks of laughter and obscene epithets helped to 
swell the uproar. It was evident they would not be 
satisfied until they left the chnrch a ruin ; but at this 
critical mouieut, the Mayor, Justice Lowndes, the Dis- 
trict Attorney, and a posse of police officers and watch- 
men arrived on tho ground. Kxpecting trouble, tliey 
had arranged to bo ready at a moment's warning to 
hasten to any threatened point. Their unexpected 
presence frightened the crowd, and fearing arrest, they 
slunk away in squads, and the danger seemed over. 
But, evidently by previuns arrangement, the broken 
fragments, arriving by different streets, came together 
in front of Dr. Cox's house, in Charlton Street, 

The doctor, however, was not at homo. He had re- 
ceived warnings and threats from various quarters, and 
knowing, from the fate of Lewis Tappan's house, what 



f 

I 



ASOLtnos BiiTis or 1 



that of his own would be, be had, daring the dsT.qiuMr 
ly removed bis famiture, and in the afienioon pM his 
family on board of a eteamboat, and left the dty. 

The mob foand the d'X)r barriered, bat ther bnJce 
it open, and began to sma&h the windows and blinds 
of the lower story. Before, however, they had be^no 
to sack the house, police-ofikers and watchmeD, with 
two der.acbineiits of horse, arrived and dblodged tbem. 
They did not, however, disperse. A more dangeroos 
and determined spirit was getting poeeession of them 
than they had before evinced. Crowding bock oa 
each other, they packed the street east, within foor 
blocks of Broadway. Seizing some carts, they made 
a hasty barricade of them across the streets, while a 
neigbboring fence supplied them with clnba. A large 
number were armed with pavitig-etones, wlucli ihey 
would smite loudly together, saying in deep undertones, 
"all togetherP As Ihey thus stood savagely at bay, 
a collision seemed inevitable, and had they been at- 
tacked, would doubtless have made a desperate tight. 
But being let alone they slowly dispersed, A portion, 
however, though It was now late at night, could not 
retire witliotit venting a little more spite, and return- 
ing to the church, broke In some more windows. 

Dr. Cox came back to liis bouse nest morning, to 
see if it was safe. As he left the mutilated building, 
A crowd of boys, who were looking at the ruins, im- 
mediately gave chase to him with yells and deriwve 
laughter, and pi-e^ed him so closely, at the same time 
hurling dirty missiles at him, that he was compelled to 
take shelter In the house of a parishioner. 

The crowd ai-ound the house coutinned to increase 
all the morning, but a hmidred policemen arriving at 



I 



THIi GKKAT EIOTS OF NKW TOEK CHT. 



one o'clock, no disturbance of the peace was attempted. I 
In the aftemooii. Mayor Lawrence issued a proclama- 
tion, denouncing the rioters, and calling on all good I 
citizens td aid in inaintnining the peace, and assuring 
theiu that he had taken ample meaeurcs t^i repress all | 
attempts at violence. At tlie Areenal, City Uall, and I 
Cazaar, large bodies of troops were oseenihled, roadyto 
inarch at a moment's notice ; and it waft evident that I 
the coming night M'as to witness a trial of streugth be- j 
tween the rioters and the city authorities. 

As eooii as it was fairly darli, large crowds gathered 
in front of Arthur Tappan's store, and began to stone j 
tlie building. Some fifteen or twenty watcliiiien were j 
stationed here, and endeavored to arrest the ring- j 
leaders, when the mob turned on them, and ]iandled j 
them so roughly that they wore compelled to take I 
refuge in flight. Alderman Lalagb was severely 
wounded ; but he refused to leave,and standing fiercely I 
at bay, denounced and threatened the maddened \ 
wretches, who in turn swore they wou!d take his life. 
He told theut to force open the doors if they dure ; that | 
the inside was full of armed men, who were ready to I 
blow tlicir brains out the raoraeut the door gave way. 
TliiB friglitened them, and they had to content them- \ 
selves with stoning the windows, and cursing the Aboli- 
tionist who owned the building. In the meantime, I 
Justice Lowndes came up witli a strong police foi-ce, I 
when they fled. 

While tills was gtiing on here, similar scenes were J 
passing in other parts of tlie city. At dark, some 1 
three ur four Inindred gathered arouxid Br. Cox'a J 
church, in Laight Street, discussing the conduct of the I 
Alxilitioni&ts, but making no outward demouetrutions 1 



ABOLITION EIOTS C 



91 



calling for the interference of the polioo, imiil iiiiio 
o'clotik, when a reinforcement came yelling down 
Varick Street, armed with stones and brick-bats. Those 
chai^d, without halting, so furionsly ou the police- 
officei's, and the few watchmen stationed there, that, 
bruised and bleeding, they were compelled to flee for 
their lives. The next moment stones rattled like hail 
against the clinrch, and, in a few minutes, the remain- 
ing windows were smashed in. The police rallied 
when they reauhed Beach Street, and huriied off a 
messenger to the City Hall for the military. In the 
meantime, lend sitonts were he»rd in the direction of 
Spring Street, and with answering shonts the mob left 
the chnrch, and rushed yelling like Indians to the spot. 
A vast crowd was in fitint of a church there, under the 
care of Rev. "ULr. Ludlow, another Abolitionist, and had 
already eominenced the work of destruction. They 
had torn down the fence surrounding it, and were de- 
molishing the windows. Through them they made an 
entrance, and tore down the pulpit, ripped up the 
seats, and made a wreck of everything destructible 
without the aid of fire. The session-room shared the 
same fate, and the splintered wreck of both was car- 
ried in their arms, and on their shoulders, out of d<.x>rs, 
and piled into barricades in the street on both sides of 
the building, to atop the anticipated chaise of cavalry. 
Carts, hauled furiously along by the mob, were di-awn 
np Ijehind this, and chained together, making a formi- 
dable obstruction. They then rung the bell furiously, 
in order to bring out the firemen. The watch-house 
bell in Prince Street gave a few answering strokes, but 
information being received of what was going on, it 
ceased, and the firemen did not come out. It was now 



THE GREAT KIOTS ( 



near eleven o'clock, wlien, all at once, an unearthly I 
jell ai-ose from the immense timing. Word had passed I 
tlirongli it that the inilitftry was approaching. Pande- ] 
moniiim seemed suddenly to have broken loose, and 
shonte, and yells, and oaths arose from five thousand 
throats, as the men sprung behind their barricades. 
It was a moonli?s3 niglit, but the stara were shining 
brightly, and, in their light, the sheen of nearly a thou- 
sand bayonets made the street look like a lane of steel. 
The Twenty-seventh Regiment of National Gnards, led I 
by Colonel Stevens, had been sent from the City Hall, 
and their regular heavy tramp sounded ominously, aa 
they came steadily on. The church-bell was set ring- 
ing f lu'iciusly by the mob and there was every appear- 
ance of a determined resisfauee. Aa Colonel Stevens 
approached the firet bari-icade, he halted his regiment, 
and ordered hia pioneer guard to advance. They 
promptly obeyed, armed with their axes, A shower I 
of stones met them, while clubs were waved frantic- 
ally in the air, accompanied with oaths and threats. | 
They, however, moved firmly up to the barricrade, and \ 
the shining steel of their axes, as they swung them ia 
tlie air, was as terrific as the gleam of the bayonets, i 
and tlie cixjwd retired precipitately behind the second | 
barricade. The firet was now sjieedily torn down, and i 
the head of the columu advanced. The second was a 
more formidable affair, in fact, a regular baatton, be- 
hind whiuh were packed in one dense mass an im- 
mense body of desperate men, reaching down the J 
street, till lost in tlio darkness, tt seemed now that 
nothing but deadly volleys would answer. One of tha 
city officers advised Colonel Stevens to retreat, but, ■ 
instead of obeying, he ordered the pioneer guard tw 



I 
I 



ABOLITION BlnT!! (IF 1SS4 AND ISSB. 93 

atlraiice, and BUEtained it by a detachment of troops. 
Aniid the raining miBBiles Uiey rnoved forward, when 
the crowd fell back, Bt>rae fleeing up the side Btreets. 
The guard then niomited the barricade, and in a ehort 
time it was scattered in every direction; and when the 
order " Forward " was given, the column marched 
straight on the mob. At tliis moment, Justice 
Lowndes, at the liead of a band of watchmen, arrived 
on the ground, when the two forces moved forward 
together, clearing the street of tho riotei-s. While 
the fight was going on, some of the gang remained 
inside the church, and kept the bell ringing violently, 
nntil Colonel Stevens ordered one of liia officers to cut 
the rope. 

A portion of the mob now hurried to Thompson 
Street, wliere Mr. Ludlow resided. The family had 
retired for the night, but their repose was suddenly 
broken by loiid yells and the sound of stones dashing 
in tlieir windows. Jumping up in wild alarm, they 
saw the doors broken in, through which streamed the 
shouting, yelling crewd. 

Either from fear of the military, which they knew 
would soon be upon tltem, or some other cause, they 
decamped almost as suddenly as they came, and re- 
lieved the terror-stricken household of their presence. 

About this time, another immense mob had collected 
at Five Points. The rioters here seemed to be well 
OTganized, and to act in concert. Kuimers were kept 
passing between the different bodies, keeping each in- 
formed of the actions of tho other, and giving notice 
of the approach of (he police. 

The destruction at Five Points was on a more exten- 
«ve scale, and the gatherings in this, then dangerous 



94 



THE 0EE4T KIOT3 OF NEW VORK C 



Bectinn of the dty — the home of deepemdoee and de-l 
praved bemgsof every kind — were of such tt character,! 
tliat for a time the city authorities seemed to bo over-l 
awed. The rioters had it all their own way for sevorati 
lioure, and tlie midnight heavens became lurid wtthv 
burning dwellings. It somehow got round that Uieyfl 
had resolved to att^ick every lionee not ilhiminated with I 
candles, and these dirty streets soon became Itrilliant I 
with the lighted windows. Five houses of ill-fame were J 
gutted, and almost entirely demolished, St. Philip's I 
Church, in Centre Street, occupied by a colored con- 
gr^iatiou, was broken into, and for two hours the mob 
continued the work of destruction unmoIcBted. They 
left it a complete ruiu. A house adjoining, and three 
houses opposite, shared the same fate. The mob was i 
everywhere ; and although the police made some arrestal 
and had simie fights, they were too weak to effect much, f 
About one o'clock a shout arose, " away to Anthony J 
Street!" and tliither the yelling wretches repaired. 

The Mayor was at the City Tlall all night, doing I 
what he could ; but the mob had arranged their plautl 
to act in concert, appearing in separate bodies iafl 
different sections of the city at the same time, sol 
that he hardly knew, with the force at his disposal,! 
where to strike. The next morning he issued another I 
proclamation, calling on the citizens to report toi! 
him and be organized into companies to aid thel 
police. lie called also on all the volunteer militarjcfl 
companies of the city to rally to the support of the lawi 
They did so, and that (Saturday) night they, with m« 
of the fire companies, who had offered their servic 
were stationed in strong bodies all over the city ; c 

B riotci-B saw that their rule was ended. Beside, manw 



ABOUnON EI0T3 OF IKH , 



95 



1^ the inoet notorious riiigleadere liad been arretted 
■nd put in prison. A eLort fight occurred in Catha- 
riuo Street between tiie police and mob, in wliit^h botii 
liad some of their men badly hurt ; and an attempt 
was made to got up a riot in Keaile Street, but it was 
promptly pnt down. The city was rife with ruinorB of 
bloody things wliich the mob had threatened to do ; 
but, with the exception of the military in the streets, 
tlie city on Snnday presented its usual ap{)earance. 
The lawless spirit was enigliE^d out, and a hundred and 
fifty of the desperadoes wlio had been instrumental in 
lousing it were locked up to await their triah 

In June of the summer of 1835 occurred the Five 
Points riot, which grew out of the feeling between 
Americans aud foreigners. It threatened for a time 
to bo a very serious matter, but was finally quelled by 
the police without the aid of the military. Dr. W. M. 
[Gaffrey was accidentally killed by one of the mob, and 
Justice Lowndes was dangerously wounded. 

In connection with the series of riots of 1S34 and 
1835, might be mentioned the Stonecutters' riot, though 
it was promptly suppressed. 

STONKCDTTEES' ElOT. 

The contractors for the building of the New York 
TJniveraity found that they could purchase dressed 
■tone at Sing Sing, the work of the prieouers there, 
nach cheaper than in New York, and bo concluded to 
This, the stonecuttei-a of the city said, was 
jaking tJie bread out of their mouths, and if allowed to 
p> ou would destroy tJieir hustness. They held excited 
meetiugs on the subject, and iinally got up a procession 



m 



THE ORKAT HIOTS OF NEW 1 



and paraded the streets wifli placards asserting their 
rights and denouncing the contractors. They even at- 
ta<;ked the houses of some of the citizens, and assumed 
anch a tlireatening attitude, that the Twenty-eoventh 
Regiment, Colonel Stevens, was called out. Theii 
steady, determined inarch on the rioters dispersed them 
and restored quiet. Apprehensions were felt, however, 
thiit they would reassemble in the night and vent their 
rage on the Univereity building, and so a part of the 
regiment encamped in Washington Square in full view 
of it. Tiiey remained liere four days and nights, until 
the excitement Bubsided, aud the work could go on un- 
molested. 



^ 




I 



StaiTBtioii will alwaTB oreate a Riot-^Foreiga Fopulatiou eaiilj 
■ronsed ogiuiuK the Bich.— Sevoro Winter of 183G. — Scarcity of 
Plouc. — Meeting of Cittwns called without Result. —Moctdug 
oslled in the Park.-'StHXMhcB. — Sauking of Hart & Co.'s Flour 
Store, in Wasblngtou Street. — Stnioge Spectacle. — Ntttional 
Gnanls called out. — DisperBo tbe Mob.^ — Attoclc on Hemck'a 
Flour Store.— Folly of the Riot. 

HnMaKK will drive any poople mad, and once lot 
there be i-eal suffering for want of food among tlie 
lower classes, wliile grain is piled up in the store- 
houBes of l;he riuh, and I'iota will surely follow. In the 
French RevnUitioii of 1769, there was a great scarcity 
of provisioL8, which caused frightful outbreaks. It 
will nevej' <\v to treat with seorii the cry of millions 
for hread. When, amid the general suffering in Paris, 
ODft eaid to Foulon, the minister of state, the people are 
starving for bread, he replied, " Let theni eat hay." 
The next day he was hung to a lainji-post. The tu- 

loltuous multitude marching im Versailles, shouting 
wildly for '"bread," was a fearful spectacle. One can 
hardly blame starving men from seizing f<Ktd by vio- 
lence, if it can be got in no other way ; and if ever a 
mob could be justifiable, it would be when they see 
their families euffei-ing and ))eriBhing around them, in 
the very sight of well-stored granaries. 

In the okl despotisms of Europe, the pour and op- 



J 



i t? i^jKon of d 
tat iear nC dw tfn^ knd «C tbeirralen. 

Thmm mem, coibiiiiscd kA odIt b; tfanr ova solbr- 
np, bat b; the tiMfitioat <if ifae pao, wben tb^ cnoe 
t9 tfaweavrtiT are eaah- nwed to cGOmut ictft of rio- 
[fi lf^ br mytfaiffg tbxt Ksnndt tfacai <rf ^Kf^ r 4>M Dtt- 
pRMnoki Tbej" bsfc iMtod uw womwroa md toB 
pU, and lefue to baie k p t««e i) to their lips in « 
amotrj wbere lib«i^ » tim butfar^fat of alL Tbb is 
wtnthM made, and rtOl nnkea^ tbe fore^ popnlatioa 
amoi^ na so dangerooe. The vart pcoportkMi of than 
ant from lliia very claao. Ignocant of etecytliing but 
llieir wma^ ihey rue in ai^r^ rebellina at anj at- 
tPRipt, or fancied attempt, to mew them here. Ui)-, 
furtiinatelj there are Aioericat» among of, vho, know^J 
lug tbi«, work apun this eeostttve, saspicioos fceUi^< 
t4> acoomplMb tlieir own eodd. The poUticiao doea it to 
aecare votee; bat tbe worst ctaea is compoeed of tbos»{ 
wbo odit papers tbat circulate ool^' among the scam of 
■ocietj, aiid embittered by tlie sight of loxariea bevtrnd^j 
tbcir rt-acb, are always ready to deoonnce tbe rich oud;^ 
exittto the lower classes against wliat tbey call the op*' 
preMion of Uie anBtocracy. 

It ii duubtful whetliur tbe frightful riot of 18631 
would ever have taken place, bnt for this tone asanrned 
b^ many of tlia city papera. So of tliia flonr riot, it- 
pntlmbly would nover have happouod, but for dcin- 
n^iitfuoM, wbo liinhcd the igiiuraiit foreign Yiopolatioa' 
intii fury ufjaiiist their rich oppreeeors. Starvation,' 
which u Wfl said may be a justification of violence, did.j 
^ WHl'lii**. ^^ ^'^ ""'y ^^'^ b'gli prifc of proviaiona^l 




FLOPS BIOT OF 1837. 



99 



I 



g rowing ontof eearcity, tliat caused it, but which scar- 
city, they were told, was created solely by the cupidity 
of tHe ricli. 

The year in which the great fire occurred, was a. 
disastrous one to the crops of the country. The 
mighty West, that great granary of the nation, was 
not then open as now, and the main supply of grain 
came from east of tlie AUeghaniea. Ilent-e the cause 
which would create a short crop in one section, would 
be apt to prevail mcu-o or Icsa ovor all the grain region. 
We imported wheat at tins time very largely ; not only 
from England, but from the Black Sea. 

In September, floiic__\vas about seven dollars a bar- 
rel, but this, as the winter Came on, went up to twelve 
dollars — a great rise at that time. ■!. , 

From Virginia, a great wheat State, came SisaBtrons 
tidings ; not only was the crop &liort and the price of flour 
high, but it was said that tlie lafter would probably go up 
to fifteen or twenty Tlollars a bai'rel. In Troy, a great 
depot for State flour, it was stated that there were only 
four thousand barrels against thirty thousand at the 
same time the previous year. As February came on,^ 
report circulated In the city that there were only three 
or four weeks' supply ou band. This was repeated 
in the penny papers, with the information added, that 
in certain stores were hoarded vast amounts of grain 
aodHour, kept out of the market to compel a still greater 
advance in the price. This was very probably true, 
OS it is a riTTe with fiierf'hants, when they have a large 
Block of anything on hand, of ^vhich there threatens to 
be a scarcity, to hold on in ordei- to make the scarcity 
greater — thus forcing higher prices. This will always 
prove a dangerous experiment in this oountry in the 



irio 



article of flour. It is the prime neccseiiry of life, >lBd>H 
the right to make it scarce for the sake nf gain, and at W 
the expanse of human auEferiDg, will alwa^'s be quee- 1 
tioned by the poorer classes. 

Althongli the stock of grain on haud at- tluB.time I 
was small, thei'e was no danger of starvatio n, no r wa8 1 
it to the instinct of self-preservatiou that dem agog nea I 
appealed. They talked of the rich oppressing the I 
poor by their extortions — of monopolists, caring onlj I 
to increase their gains withont regard to the diBtreesI 
they occasioned. 

There was, doubtless, much suffering among the! 
poorer classes, not only on account of the high price I 
of flour, but also of all the necessary articles of living. I 
Meat advanced materially, while from some strange 1 
fatality, coal went up to ten do!lai-s a ton. There I 
seemed no reason for this, as the amount sent to mar- 1 
ket was said to be largely in excess of llic previous | 
year. In Canada, coal was so scarce, that the line of I 
steamers between Montreal and Quebec was suspended I 
before winter set in. 

This state of things excited the attention of the peo- I 
pie generally, and in tlie foi-e-part of tliis month, a f 
public meeting was called at the Tabernacle to consider I 
what could be done. It amounted to nothing. Some I 
speeches were made, resolutions offei-cd, but notliingl 
practical was proposed. The temperance peopie at-I 
tempted to make a little capital out of it, by asserting;! 
that the high price of grain was owing ti> the amonncl 
used by the distilleries — rye being sold as high aa t: 
dollar and seventy cents per bushel. 

But a different class of people were now diaeu^ein^ 
the subject, and iu a different spirit. Tlioir attentioQ | 



FLOCR RIOT OF IfOZ. 



was directed totnen,not theories — tlie iiidivitinal np- 
preeeoi's, not the general causes. 

Chief aiming tliose^against whom the popular feeling 
-was UHW directed, W«bs Ilart & Co., Ifirgo cuniintssioQ 
raercliaiitB in WashiJigton Street, between Dey and 
Cortlandt Streets/ ^iTbeir sToro was packed with flour 
and wheat, and every day men passed it with sinister 
looks. Sometimes a little knot of men would stop 
opposite it, and talk of tlie loads of grain stored up 
there, while tlieir own families were pinched for bread. 
They would gaze savagely on its heavy iron doors, that 
Beenied to defy tlie weak and helpless, and tlien walk 
on, muttering threats and curses. These signs of a 
gathering storm were, however, unheeded by the pro- 
prietors. Others, better informed, were not so tran- 
quil ; and by anonymous lettere tried to arouse Mr. 
Hart to take precautionary measures. An anonymous 
letter addressed to Mr. W. Lenox was picked up in the 
Park, in which the writer stated that a conspiracy was 
' formed for breaking open and jjlundering Mr. Ilart'a 
etore, and gave the following plan of action. On some 
dark night, two alarms of fire were to be given, one 
near the Battery, and the other up town, in order to 
draw off the watchmen and police, when a large crowd 
already assembled in the neighborhood would make a 
I Budden rush for the building, and sack it before help 
I £onId arrive. This letter was handed to the High 
I Constable Ilays, whosliowed it to Hart &Co.,butthey 
aed to regard it as an attempt to frighten them. 
This was followed by anonymous letters froTu other 
parties, that reached the Mayor, insisting on it llmt 
^r was hanging over this house, lie sent them to 
L Hart & Co., but they, thinking it was only a IrJck to 



102 



THK OEEAT K10T8 OF NKW YORK OITT. 



put down t.Iie price of flonr, paid no attention to them. 
They Iwked llieir three massive iron doors at ntght as 
nsnal, and went to their homes witlii>iit fear, and tlie 
underground eweil kept on increasing in vohirae. 

The fir^t plan of operation, if it ever existed, was i 
either abandoned by the mob or deferred till after j 
other meaanres were tried. 

At le ngtli, on the afternoon of the 10th of Fcbnaiy, 
the-foUowing plauard was posted np all over the aby : 
tx_ 

Bbead, Msat, B^t. FosIlL-' 
The voice of the peo^ shaU he _ 

The people will meet in the Pass, rain o 
fonr o'clock on 

MoNDAt Aftbhnoon, 

to inquire into the cause of the present nnexampled 
distress, and to devise a suitable remedy. AlLfrieDds ' 
of humanity, determined to reeist monopoliets and ex- 
tortioners, are invited to attend. 



Moses Jacqnes. 
Paidus Hedle. 
Daniel A. Robertson. 
Warden Tlayward, 
ITbw Tokk, Feb. lOlA, 1887. 



Daniel Graham. 
John Windt. 
Alexander Ming, Jr. 
Elijah F. Crane. 



Tht! idle crowd Imd all day Snnday to talk over thia J 
call. Everywhere knots of men were secM f^atbct 
before tliese plai^ards— some spelling out slowly, i 
with great difficulty, the words for themselves — othOtf 




b 



I 



TvaiAiog the call to tbnee unable to read it The grng- 
geries were filled with excited men, talking over the 
meeting, and interspersing their goths with coptoos 
draughts of liqaor. and threntenii^ openly to teach 
these rich oppressors a lescon they would Dot 800O for- 
get. 

There was somethiu^ ominous in tl»e hour selected 
for the meeting ; four o'clock in Februarj" meant night, 
before it would get under full headway. It was evi- 
dent that the leaders did not mean the meeting to be 
one of mere speech-making. Thoy knew that under 
cover of darkneee, men could be incited to do wiiat in 
broad dayliglit they would be afraid to undertake. 

Before the time a ppoin ted, a crmrd began toassem- ^ 
ble, the character of which boded no good. j/Dirtv, ^ 
ragged, and roiigh-IfxikJng.'AS lliey flowed from differ- 
ent quarters together into tlio JQcIoeurc, tlicee who 
eompoecd it were evidently a mob already made to 
■Ijand. 

At length, fonr or^ve thousand slih-ering wretchea 
••mm gathered in front of the City Hall. Moses 
Jacques, a man who would make a good French Com- 
muniet to-day, waa chosen chairman. But this motluy 
multitude had no idea or respect for ordci-, or regular 
proceedings, and they broke up into different groups, 
each pushing forward its favorite orator. 

One of the etrangeBt fi-eake of tliis meeting, was an 
addreae to a collection of Democrats by Alexander 
Ming, Jr. lie forgot all about the object of tlie meet- 
ing, and being a strong Bentonian, launched out into 
the currency question, attributing all the evils of the 
Republic, past, present, and to come, to the issue .if 
bank-notee; and advisiiig hit hearers to refuse to take 



104 



'HE OHKAT BlOTt" t'F NEW YOKE CITT. 



tlie trasli altt^ther, an<l receive noihiog Tmt spGcia \ 
Tliis was the more i^omical, ns not one out of ten of tiio I 
poor wrelchea lie addressed ]iad tLo chanijo to refuse J 
cither. Ilalf starving, tliey wonM have been glad to 1 
receive anything iii the shnpe of money that woiild I 
help them throngh the hai-d winter. Yet when Mr. 
Ming offered a reeolutiou, projwsing a meraorial to the J 
IjCgielature, requiring a law to bo passed, forbidding i 
any bank to issue a note inider the dcnomiuation of » 
hnndred dollars, the dchided people, who had boon 
listening with gaping luoiitlis, rent the air with acvla- 
tnations. It was a curiouB exhibition of the wisdom > 
of the sovereign people — this verdict of n ragged mob I 
on tlie currency question. They were eo delighted I 
with this lucid exposition of the cause of the Boareity I 
of flour, that they seized the orator bodily, and elevat- | 
ing hirn on their shonldere, bora him across tba street I 
to Tammany Hall, where something beside specie vraa I 
received from behind the bar to reward their devotion. 1 

There was, however, some excuse for liim. He had I 
l>Gen several times candidate for city re^stcr, and I 
henco was more anxious to secure votes than flour — I 
bo a iK>pular demagogue rather than a public benefac- I 
tor. I 

Bnt there were other JH>e^ers who kept more di- M 
rectly to the point, '^'''nr^ launched at once into a 1 
bitter tirade against laiidh'rds for their higli rents, and ] 
against monopolists for holding on \o Hour at the CK - J 
pcnse of Ihe poor and siifl'oring. Knowing (he cimrac- I 
ter of the audience before them, and their bitter hatred I 
of the rich that had grown with thuir growth, and! 
strengthened with ibeir strength in t!io old countryj^itl 
was not difficult to lash them into a tempest of pasuonTj 




order to nfis s few dofcit wen «« * faaml «( 
floor. Lend oaAft aad dMp oMMMHcd tiww MKvir«4 
UwEe sffwak, asd dm escted wrtt il a dft hfloiw* i^ 
tated with fmamm. One of tW ifteiibin oKiml Ki* 
bitter hamigDe with - Felkiw^tiiww, Mr, KU Hurt 
hu DOW !»3,(KiO barrels of flour in hi* t-htjv ; Ifl m« |pt 
mnd offer him ei^t dollars a Imrrrl ftir it, and i( Im^iU 
Bot take it — " It was not ditBciilt M know Imw Iw 
meant to close tbe eoiitonec ; hut jii«t iUkii, a frinliil 
shrewder tlian he, ficeing tJie ]vgk\ wm»^>i\\M»v» Ut 
tfaeiueelves of an open j>n)|M>&Uii»n \u h'miri Iti viii|init«i, 
touched him on the tihoiilili^r, when In H lnwiir Initu uf 
voice he conclndwl : " t/v /•/itiU r/>'jnirt in jniun'," In 
the exeitement of the iminn'iil, Im liuil iiviilniitly fnl^ 
gotten the guarded laa^nH^d li» iiil«ii>lt>d lit tiiw, itml 
was about to utter lliiit wliirli mihiIiI Iihvu ii>tiiiiii||ii>i) 
hiintoaprieoner'a cell, hut rheitlnnl liiina»lf III lllll». 
He was willing otlien Hhoiild milfcr lliu (iiiiiaiit|Mi<Mi>H 
of violating the law, to wlilcli liU iijijiuiila iil'ijoil ilium ( 
but hie love for the prx^r did net iii'iiiii|'l Um I'l tintm 
their fate. 

It was hitterlj- cold, aud it wim ii wJidur tititt f^tt 
erawd liad iJHtened {wtit-'iilly wi Um^, 'i'bw ItftfiffMlilHi 
to ffi b> H art'e rtifre with a tt^iimitii fhf fitm, w#» \\i- 

rtaufljjBeTzijd, a' ' ''■ - ' '' ■ -" ■'■ - -'"^'•'ijjfl 

wit li a *Hou iT ^ "itvii' 

ID one dark !i' i'**/' 

Waabingttjii binr*.^. ii» • >> w m< <<*^ •-"•< —'^4 UtU 
isrdmI. ksd MinrtiuK iJm 'Aty»* 'A *im rii^/ifjtf ^ 



106 



:OTS OF NEW YLIRK CITY. 



riislied to the doors and windxiwe, and beg an to cloaa ] 
a nd bolt them. T faa r w " worn tliree large irfni door 
opening on the si dew alk, and tliey had Biicceed cd in 
bolting and bai-ring all but one, wliou the mob arrived. 
Foroini; their way through lliis middle dtjov, thejgl 
seized the barrels, and began to roll tbem out intfl the . 
Btreot, Mr . Har t, who, either fioni curioeity to hear i 
wliat tlie~nioeting would propose to do, or from liia 
mispicions being aroused from what he bad previouBly 
heard, was on the spot, and as eoon as lie saw the 
crowd etreara out of the Parji, dowi^ Broadway, ha i 
hurried to the police, and ootaiifliig a'posse of officere, J 
made nil haste for liis store. Biit as they were going 1 
down Dey Street, the mob, which blocked the farther I 
end, rufibed on tbem with snch fury, tJiat before tbejrj 
bad time to defend tliemsolvea, their clubs, or staves aa j 
they were then called, were wrenched from their hands ] 
and broken into fragments. The crowd was not yet I 
very great, and the disarmed ufiicera forced their way I 
into Washington Street and into the store. Thei 
])re8ence frightened the few Inside, and they hastily I 
decamped. The Mayor, wlio was in bis room at tho f 
City Uall, had been speedily noMfied of tho riot, and I 
hurried to the spot. The ci-owd remaining in ths | 
Park liad also been informed of what was g(»ing on, 
and dashing madly down Broadway, anil thi-ougli Cort- 
landt Street, joined with loud shoutB their eompaniona 1 
in front of the store. The Mayor mounted a flight of I 
steps, and beg an to hariingiie_the mob, urging tliem to I 
desist, and warning them of the consequence of their I 
unlawful m:tion. He had not proceeded far, however, i 
before Tjrick-bala, and sticksj and pieces of ice ( 
rstntng around him in suelj a dangerous shower, that | 




he liad t o give it np, and make bia way to a place of 
B&fet;, "Tbefltreetwas now black witli the momeiiUrily 
increasing tbrong, and emboldened by their numbers, 
they made a raeh at the entrance of the store. J)riv-_ 
ing the police-officers befo re them , tbey wrenc licd by 
main force one of the heavy iron doore from its hinf^. 
A half a Bcore of men at once seized it, and nsing it as ~ 
a battering-ram, hurled it with such force against the 
others, that after a few thundering blows, they one 
after another gave way, and the crowd poured in. 
The clerks fled, and the rioters went to work withoot 
hindrance. Mounting to the upper lofts, t hoy first broke 
in all the dooi« and windows, and jbeii began to roll _ 
and heave out the flour. The barrels on the ground: 
floor were rolled, swift aa one could follow_anothei;,_ 
into the street, when they were at once seized by those 
waiting without, and their heads knocked iii,..an.d-__J 
their contents strewn over the pavement. On the 
npper lofts, they were rolled to the broken win3ow£, 
and lifted on to the sill, and tumbled below. Warned 
by their descent, the crowd backed to the farther side 
of the street. Part would be staved in by their fall ; 
those that were not, were seized as they ixillcd off the 
sidewalk, and the heads knocked out. One fellow, aa 
he stood by tlie window-sill and pitched the barrels be- 
low, slionted as each one went witli a crash to the flag- 
ging : " Here goes flour at eiglU doUaTS a barrel ! " 

The scene which now presented itself was a moat 
strange, extraordinary one. The night was clear and 
cold, and the wintry moon was sailing tranquilly 
through the blue and starlit heavens, flooding here and 
there the sea of upturned faces with its mellow light, 
or casting the deep shadow of intervening houses over 



lOS 



r ttiors OF Sh-w tors cm-. 



the black mass, while tbe street looked as if a sadden | 
enow-storm had t-arpcted It with white. The men in 
the wiiidowB and tlioee below were while with flour , 
that had eifted over their gannents; while, to ^ve a i 
etill wilder aspect to tlie B<:ene, women, some bar^ieAd- 
ed, Home in rags, were roaming aroimd like camp-fol- 
lowera after pltiiider. Here a groiiji had aeized 
empty boxes ; tliere others pressed forward with bas- 
kets on their arms; and otlicrs still, empty-handed, 
pushed along, with their aprons gathered up like a 
Back. These all knelt amid tbe fiour, and scooped it up 
with an eagerness that contrasted strangely .with the 
equal oagerneea of those who were scattering it like 
sand over the street. The heavy thud of the barrels at 
they struck almost momeiifarily on the sidewalk, conld 
be distinctly heard above the shouts of the men, Somo 
of the mob found tlieir way into Mr. Hart's counting- 
room, and tore up his papers and scattered them over 
tho floor. It was evident they were bent on utter de- 
struction; but when abmit five hundred bucrels ij 
had been destroyed, together with a thousand bu shels o f 
wheat in sacks, a huavy f.jicc of p<jlico came ma rching 
along the street. These ivere soon after followcd^byiitt/l 
tachmenta of the National Guards from Colonel Smith's , 
and ITele's regiments. The flasliing of tlie moonbeams I 
on the burnished barrels and bayonets of their musketE, ' 
struck terror into tlie hearts of the rioters. The cry <»f 
" The syldiere are coming 1 " flew f iiim lip to lip, cWft- 
Jfag a sudden cessation of the work of deal ruction, and 
each oue tliouglit only of self-preservation, llany^, j 
however, were arrested, and sent off to UridoweU under 
tbe charge of Officer Bowyer, with a squad of police. 
The latter were assailed, however, on the way, by ft no r- J 



FLOUK KIOT OF 18ST. 



tion of tbe mob that pureiied thetiij Mi.djLfie!!Ce_figlit 
fonpweJ. In tlie Btrup gle. Bowjer and liis assiatauts 
ha d tlieir clothes to rn fixjiit ^tlicir backs^^d eomejaf 

In the meantime, tbe military paraded the street, 
clearing it of tbe mob, and preventing their return. In 
fr ont o f tbe store, and far be^ond^ it, tlio flour lay balf - 
knee deep— a Bad spectacle, iu view of tho daily in- 
creistng Scarcity of grnin. 

/'Just before the mibtary and police reached the 
/ground, some one in tbo crowd eliouted "McechesV 
' Tiiis was another flour store at CoeutieB Slip, on the 
otlier Bide of the city, nearly opposite. A portion of 
the mob on tlie outside, tliat could not get to the store, 
and aid in tlie work of destruction, at once hurried 
away to this new field of operatiouB. On the way 
over, they passed Ilcrrick & Co.'s flour store, and 
stopped to dcnioliali it. They were loaded down with 
brick-bats, which they burled at the windows, stnasbiug 
tliem iu. Tlio doors followed, and the crowd, rushing 
through, began to roll out the barrels of flour. Cut 
when B*)me twenty or thirty were tumbled into the street, 
I \ and about Imlf of them Btavi'd in, tliey, for some cause 
I / or other, etopjied. Sonic said timt they ceased because 
I \ the owner promised, if they did, he would give it all 
I \|tway to Ihe piKir the next day. At all events, they 
would soon have been compelled to aliandon the work 
tif d^tructioii, for the pohce hastened tu the spot, ac- 
companied by a largo body of citizeus, who had volun- 
teered tlieir help. Some were arrested, but most of 
the ringleaders escaped, 

How many of tluiee who attended the meeting in the 
Park anticipated a mob and it» action, it is impossible 






IV) 



THE OBEAT BiOTS OF NEW YORK CITY. 



to say ; but tliat a great number of them did, tliere can 
bo tio doubt. 

Bj nine o'clock the riot was over, and those who liad 
engaged in it were either arrested or dispersed. 

The next day, Mr. Hart issued a card, denying that 
tlie exorbitaut price of flour was owing to his having 
pnrc-hased a large quantity for the sake of monopoliz- 
ing it, but to its scarcity alone. 

It was certainly a very original way to bring down 
the price, by attempting to destroy all there was in the 
city. Complaining of suffering from the want of pro- 
visions, they attempted to relieve themselveH by putting 
its possession out of llipir power altogether. With lit- 
tle to eat, they attempted to make it imi>osBible to 
eat at all. A better illustration of the insensate cliar- 
acter of a mob could not be given. 



CHAPTER VIIL 



AfiTOB- PLACE RIOTfl, lUB. 

BiToliy between Forrest and Mncready. — Maccenilj'a Arrival in tliU 
Roontiy. — Tlio Aimouiicemciit of hu Apiieaianoe &t tbe Avtor- 
Iilace Opera House, tmd I''orrest at the Broadway Theatre ths 
same Night posted Side hySide.^Bowory Boys crowd tha Opor» 
House. — AiLxiety of tbe Managere. —Consul (ad ona and Diamntio 
Soenea behind the Curtain. — Stamping of the People. — Scene on 
nuMiig the Cnrtiiiii. — Storm; Qec«ptioa of Mocready. — Howled 
down. — Mra. Pope driven from the Stage by tba Outrngeoiw 
Language of tbe Mob. — Maoready not allowed to go on.— His 
foolish Angpr, — Flees for hia Life.— His Appcanmce the Second 
Kight^PreparationB to put down the Mob. —Eiciting Scene in 
t^e Theatra— Terrific Scenes without, —Military arrive. ^-At- 
tacked by the Mob. — Patiunce of the Troops. — Effort to avoid 
Firing.— The Order to Fire.— Terrifio Scene.- Strange Conduct 
of Forregt — Unpublished Anecdote of General Scott. 

Pkobablt there never was a great and bloody riot, 
moving a mighty tity to its profouiideat depths, tiiat 
originated in bo absurd, insigniticaDt a cause aa the 
Astor-place riot. A persoual quarrel between two men 
growing out of prnfeesional jealousy, neither of whom 
had any hold on«the aEFections of the people, wore able 
to create a tumult, that ended only by atrewing the 
Btreet with the dead and wonnded. 

Mr. Forrest, it ia true, liad a certain professional 
popularity, but nothing to awaken a personal enthnsi- 
aem for him. Viewing tlie matter in this liglit, some 



113 



THE GREAT RIOTS OF NK*V YORK CITY. 



have tliodglit, thci-c was a mjsterioua underground ii 
fliionee at ^rork, that Ims never yet been disrovored; 
But one needs nut to go far to find the causes that pro 
duced it. 

In the first place, ever since onr revolt from Englaud 
especially since the second war with her, in whicli tli^ 
contest for the supremacy of the seas was decided, thi 
spirit of rivalrj' between the two countries Las beenj 
intense and often bitter. No matter what tlie contea 
was, whether between two boats, or two bullies in th^ 
ring, it at once assumed the magnitude of a national 
one, and no matter how conducted, the winner vat 
always charged with unfairness. It bo happened tl 
Forrest and Macready were the two popular tragic, autort 
on either side of the Atlantic. If they had stayed a 
home, nothing would have been thought of it, but o 
invaded the domain of tho other, and laid claim to bin 
laurels. Of course criticism followed, national prejfe 
dices were aroused, and national peculiarities ridicoledl 
The press took sides, and fanned the exuitementil 
Among other things, it was currently reported thai 
when Forrest was iu London, Macready went to e 
him act, and publicly hissed him. This was gcncrnlly J 
believed, and of coui-se it alone would insure the lat^ 
ter an unweWimo reception from Forrest's adrniren 
here, should he ever appear on our Bti^. 

Apparently uiiconscioua of this hostility toward liina 
Macready came over in the spring of lS4il,and atonoc 
made an engageTnont at tho Astor-plauo Oi>em Ilouse 
corner of Eiglith Street and Lafayette Place, Ho v 
to ap|)oar as Macbeth; and the play was annouucoC 
sometime hefi)reliand. Forrest at the same time hat 
I engagement at the Broadway Theatre. On the 7tij 



AfiTOB-PLACE BIOIS, IMiL 113 

of ii&y, the following two significant placards appeared 
side b; side in all the streets. 

AfiTOB Pt^OE OpBRA HofHS. 

7%M evening wiU be performtd 

MACBETH. 

Macbeth . . Macready. 

Ladt Macbeth . . Mrs. Pope. 

Beoadway Theatre, 

This eveniiuj will he perjbrmed 

MACBETH. 
I Macbktb . Mr. Forrest. 

' Lady Macbeth . , Mrs. Wallack. 

This pablic exhibition of rivalry stimulated tlte 
hostility of thoao opposed to Macready, and there were 
some fears of disturbance ; but nothing seriouH was an- 
ticipated — in fact, it was rather a good advertisement, 
and promiaeil fnll houses. Niblo, one of the managers 
of thu Opei-a Ilouse, unwisely gave out tickets for more 
people than the building would hold, and when, before 
evening, he found they were taken, he was alarmed. 
It looked as if they had been so eagerly bought np for 
otlier purposes than mei-cly to hear Macready. He 
therefore went to the Chief of Police, and requested 
tlie presence of a force in case any distiirbantui shonld 
be attempted. It was promised, bnt as it turned out, 
most of it came too late to be of any service, 

A tremendous crowd aasembled in front oi' the build- 



114 



ME GREAT RIOTS OF NF.W YORK CITY. 



ing loD^ before dark, and tiie moment tlie doora were 
open, a iiifih was made, and the luiman tide poured in, 
aud flowing swiftly (iver thu lioiisc, &onii filled every 
part of it, except the boxes. These filled up more 
slowly ; but luug before the curtain rose, tiie houso was 
packed to repletion, while the amphitheatre and par- 
quette wei-e crowded with liard-kxjking men — a deiiae 
raasa of Iwjne and mnscle. Tlie faaUionable portion of 
the audience in the boxes began to feel anxious, for 
not only were all the seats occupied, but all the aisles 
and every foot of etandiug r(Kim, Some wero in their 
shirt-sieevee, otliers were ragged and dirty, while all 
had their hats on. Sucli a.u audience hod never before 
been eecn in the Opera [loiifie, and it boded no good. 
Still, this heterogeneous mass was orderly, but it was 
noticed that at short intervals telegraphic signala 
made by those nearest the stage to those in tlie wii 
of the amphitheatre, and answered, indicating 
thoroughly arranged plan. The lime before the play 
was to cdinmence passed slowly, but the liard-looking 
crowd seemed very patient. Occasiimnlly, to vary tlio 
monotony, some joke would be passed around, and tmifl 
a man who was above called out to those below, imi- 
tating the English pronunciation : " I say, Jim, come 
'hup 'ere 1 'ore's some of Maeroady's b&ugels — 'haint 
tlioy sweet 'una 1'" If a lotgnette was levelled from 
one of the boxes, those uoticiiig it below would pttt 
tbeir thumbs to their noses and gyrate with tlieir fin- 
gers in rotnrn. On the whole, however, the strango- 
looking crowd were orderly, altiiough tlie quiet had 
ominous look. 

But at lialf-past seven, the Itonr for tlie play 
coiornetice, that i-egular staniping, common to 



I 




jtisnat^<LdaE mmft, wn 



1W 



I 



■nl *m 4ie «*)!(«, ><ni hccimilnff 
, i ii uij ouaHUt gMdwTMl Ptmt^h 

by invisiW* hMK^n, Ar iW mij^iy 
waaaA cekeed tiaoo^ t^ receanw Rn<l (1(vn{T\g-rvH>Tne 
beliind dw aeeoeB, Xiblo b<v«iw> Kj:>ilntv<1, tiy\i\ ^ti^ivisif^ 
forward oo the stage, peeit^i Mtimt i1m« isljp* of itn? 
curttin, and mrveTed th« Rtrnnfi:t> tufiic. 1^lIi1i1t]I: t« 
Mr. Bowrer, of the chiefs himHtii, \v\m wm I\v hid tnxh^ 
be said: "This looks mthor iliiliioim, Mr, ltrtWji»i-." 
"Tee," he replied, " tho ' Hoy's ' hi-" hore ceHBhlly. 
What made you sell s" iimiiy tli'kpt«( I'l'nple ttl-w 
making a tremcndniis rmh iit. tlit' ilimm n-t, mtrl tllt» 
house is full ; over full a\rim\y." NiUlo lln'ti lltHtvd 
to hie partner, and said: " Wlmt. do yiiu tliltik, Mf, 
Hackett. Is tiicr« (piiiig Ut ho n (lisUirlmiH'pt " "1 
don^t know," lie n;pliud ; " yii mtinf ank Mr. ntrWjW'. 

The latter, pnttitig his eye to tlie lirw^k, ('>uk it tttti- 
fnl survey of tlie andienw, wid nnmarkwl : "Tlrt»f»lll 
misehlef in the fiaTt\nnUn and nmyhifh^nlrt; brrf ptlAl- 
ably no a^-tnaJ »ift1eii'»! will M i»ff.MnfitM; itif'Uyn' 
will make a wiiac, and findwavdr t/. (ir«v*!rrf th(* jilfiy 
from proceeding, hnt pfimihly tln^y will drt n"fMTijf 
further; rficyse«nn to be paficnt and (ti'/)d-nirtnr«d, tmi 
"Mr. Kaortady may expi?iW a rf.'iif1i iwaj-*!'^ " 

Hacmtdy, who had l*i*n Ho ■ n"hw! 

and ak» tiKik * p«ep fimMn I'' Hi* 

ffOK wa« lonp and nean-liinjf. 1 n'< 

Rtiafy him, »tv\ he nirned away ii"'l li'"/iiri t'l ji* 
baarkward and forward in one of the wingn, itKXi^y i 



no 



Tine GEKAT 810'rs OF NT:H' Y'IRK CITT, 



thoughtful. The etamping had ceased while tlie or- 
chestra was playinp, but it now commenced again, 
ap)»ai-ently louder than ever. Lady Macbeth in full 
dress now came on the stage, pale and agitated. She 
also took a peep from behind the ciu'tain. The spec- 
tacle frightened her, and turning to Mr. llackett, she 
whisiiered, rather than exclaimed, "My God! Mr. 
llackett, what is the matter ! Are we to be murdered 
to-iiight?" "My dear Madam," he replied, "keep 
calm, there is no cause for alarm ; everything will go 
on smoothly ; " but his pale face and anxious look belied 
liis words. It seemed now as if the house would 
como dowu under the continuous, furious stamping. 
Uackett turned to Ilowyer, and asked if the chief had 
come. The latter replied he did not know ; and anotlier 
sileucc followed in the group behind the curtain, while 
tliey stood and listened tn the thundering tminp, tramp, 
tliat rose like mullled thunder. At length llackett 
asked : " How many policemen are there in the 
house?" "1 don't know," replied Bowyer. "But 
the chief should have known," retorted the former. 
"What do you want the police to do, Mr. Niblo?" 
quietly asked Bowyer. The latter liesitated a moment, 
when the attaches of the theatre came crowding for- 
ward in alarm, and asking by their scared looks what 
it all meant. 

Macready and Mrs. Pope, in fidl ooBtume, were at 
this time standing apart, talking together, evidently 
diecuEsing the beet course to be pursued. The uproar 
seemed to grow louder, and prudence dictated a eiia- 
pcusion of the play ; but Macready, aftei- a moment's 
hesitation, determined to risk it, and suddenly gave 
the signal to raise the curtain. The IjcU tinkled, 



I 

I 

I 




the curtaiD slowly rose, revealing the gorgeous 
and the actors standing in a blaze of light. Instantly 
the tumult ceased, and a deep sudden hnsh succeeded. 
Tljose roughs wure evidently taken abaek by tlie dazz- 
ling splendor that buret upon them. It was a new rev- 
elation to them, and for the innment they aeemed to 
forget the object of their etiming, and to bo wholly 
absorbed in the visiim before tlieni. 

The first scene passed off quietly, aTid the fears of a 
disturbance were allayed. In t!ie second, taking Dun- 
can for Macbeth, tlie crowd liegan to hies, but soon 
finding their mistake ceaeed. It was evident that 
eome one better posted than the mass had control of this 
wild element, so eager to be let loose. At length Mac- 
beth came on, and was received with deafening cheers 
by those in the boxes. As these died away, a liisa ran 
through the amphitheatre and parquette, followed by 
cal^calls, coek-erowing, and sounds of every iraaginablo 
description. Macready had hardly uttered a single 
sentence, before his voice was totally drowned in the 
uproar. Forced to stop ; he quietly folded his arms 
and faced the storm, e.xpecting it would soon blow 
over. Finding himself mistaken — that if anything it 
grew louder and fieicer, his disdain turned inti> fot^lish 
anger, and advancing to the footlights, and t1i]-o^\-iiig 
all the contempt and scorn intx> Jiis face that he was 
master of, ho deliberately walked the entire breadth «£ 
the stage, gazing haughtily as he did bo, into the faces 
of the roughs nearest hira, who were bawling their 
throats hoarse. This did not mend matters any, us he 
easily eoulil have foreseen, had he known this typo of 
American character better. lie then attempted to go 
on and outbellow, if possible, tlie audience. But it was 



1 



118 



Ttii: OKEAT RIOTS OF NEW YOKK CITY. 



like filioutiiig amid t!ie roar of breakers. K^body heard 
a word he said. Btill bo etiiuk to it till bo got lliroiigh 
that portiou of the act. It was now l^dy Mai:beth'a 
tuiii, and tlie sjipcarauce of a woman, it was thought, 
would command that respect which in America : 
almost always accorded to one. But her reception waa 
worse tlian that of Maeready, for not content with 
shouts and yells they beajied disgusting epithets on her, 
and were so vulgar in tlieir ribaldry that bUb flew in 
affright from the stage, " blushing," it was said, " even 
tlu'ongh the rouge on her face." Maeready, however, 
showing, if nothing else, good English pluek, deter- 
mined to go on. But he had scarcely tinished the first 
sentence, wlien some potatoes struck Uie stage at his 
feet; then rotten eggs, breaking and spattering their 
Eickening contents over his royal robes ; while howla 
that seemed to come from the lower regions arose i 
on every side. It was Pandemonium broke loose, i 
and those in the boxes, thoroughly alarmed, jumped 
to their feet and stood as if paralyzed, gazing on tlie 
Eirange spectacle below. Macready's passioua were I 
now thoroughly aroused, and he stubboinly stood his ■ 
ground. Suddenly a chair hurled from above, and | 
evidently aimed at his head, struck the stage at hia I 
feet and broke into fragments, followed by the about, I 
" Go off the stage, you English fool ! Hoo ! Three i 
cheers for Ned Forrest!" whitih were given with a I 
will. Then came another chair, narrowly missing I 
Macready's head, who, now alarmed for his personal 
safety, tied from tlio stage, and the curtiiin fell. But 
llie bedlam that had been let I'xiae did not stop. 
Hoots, curses, threats of vengeance, and the con- 
fused sounds of a niob given wholly over to pasfiion, 




etrack terror into all be&ns; and ibxnmdj, fieuiii^ a 
Tn&b would be made for him behind the weoee, left the 
theatre by a prirate dour, and jampic^ into a carrii^ 
was ra{'idlr drivea tu his iMrL Hk manngcr. alarmed 
for tlie eafcly of the building, aitenipted tu auimiBee 
his departnre to tbe audience, but iu rain. The; would 
not listen to him, uiil as a last report ho cli«lk«d lU 
largo Ietlei« od a board, " Macrtadtf has i^fi tha tA^ 
atre^'' and lioieled it before the fooili(j;hl8. This had 
tlie desired effect, and the headlong erowd, with shoiits 
and laughter, began to tumble out. Oiice in the street, 
they sent up a load liiirrah, and dispersed iit groiipa to 
their variotiB drinking places, to talk over their victory 
and damn all Englisbmen. 

The fact that the mob refrained from damaging tlie 
theatre, shows that they did nut desiix; destruction ; 
they had only done in tlieir rough way what other luoii 
deemed respectable, and evou legislators, hiivo often 
doue, and almost as boisterously, to pfevent an obnoxious 
person from being heard. They certainly had many 
respectable precedents for their course, and Mr. Mao- 
ready should have dune what others have lieun com- 
pelled to do— given up the Htfeinpt and waited for a 
more propitious time. That u man has n right to pluy 
or speak, is true ; but me]i of all grailes liavcalwayK an- 
serted the right to show their displeasure of the autin;; 
of the one or the sentiments of the other. Not tliat 
there is any excuse for such ctjndiict tw wo hnvo do- 
seribcd, but it can l>e hanJIy called a ecrioua riot, al- 
though by wlioineoever conimitlcd is umjiicstJonably 
riotous in its character. 

Of this contemptible, dij^rae«f«| intorf©r<*n<!ft of hU 
friends in his inarrel, Forre*t had nothinj/ U> Mty — Im 



130 



THE GREAT EIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT. 



kept a studied silence- How a man with any aelf- 
respect could have refrained from denouncing it, and ' 
repudiating all eynipatliy and eonnectton with it by a | 
public card, it will be difficult for men of ordinary I 
fiODsibility to imagine. 

Macready now determined to throw up Ins engage- | 
ment altogether, but after inncli consultation and de- 
liberation changed bis mind. A letter was addi-essed 
to him by many of the most wealtliy and prominent 
citizens of the city, in which they expressed their 
regret at the treatment he had received, and urged him 
not to yield to such a lawless spirit. They promised 
that he should 1)e protected in his rights, and hoped ha , 
would give the city au opportimity to ivipe ont the , 
stain tliat had been put upon its character. This he ■ 
unwisely consented to do, and the next Thursday waa | 
fixed for his appearance in the same play. Wlien the 
placards announcing it were pasted up, thei-e appeared 
immediately alongside of them another, announciug 
the appeai-ance on the same evening of Forrest, in the 
BroadwayTheatre, inthe character of the " Gladiator." 

In the meantime otlier posters appeared, and among 
them the following in startling capitals : 

"WORKINGMEN! 



, AUERIOANB OR ENGLISn BULB IN THIS CITY 9 

The crew of the British Bteamer have threatened all 
Americans who shall dare to offer their opinions tills I 
night at tlie 

ESGLlSn ARISTOCKATIC OPERA BOUSE. 




AfiTOK-n^CE KHXTS, 1»& 



ISl 



It vill be obeerred, that this artfal appeaj was like 
■ two-edged sword, cntting both ways. It Hiiaeil at 
the same time to etir up the hatred i>f the lower classce 
against the upper, by the word aristocmtic ; aud tliu 
national hutred of the English, by calling it the Kntf- 
Ush arUtocratij: Oper& llouse to be guarded by English 
EailoTB. Both parties now bet<;»n aclivo pre^taratious 
for the eventful night^lho rioters by increasing aud 
organizing their forties, and setting or foot plana to 
get poseeasion o£ the liouse ; the friends of Macready, 
to prevent this from being done, and at ttie same timo 
Becare sufficient aid from the authorities to suppress 
all open violence. To keep the rowdies from occupy- 
ing the house, tickets were sold or given awny only 
to those known to be friendly to Macready; while to 
suppress \-iolence, three hundred police were promised, 
to be supported if necessary by two regiinuiits of sol- 
diers, who were ordered to be under arms at their 
quartern, ready to march at a moment's notice. 

As the day advertised for the jilay approHuhed, llio 
excitement deepened, and serious trouble seemed un- 
avoidable. Oil the appointed evening, a strong body 
of police was qnititly placed inside of the honse, with 
definite iustrnctions how Ut act. la tliu meantime, an 
immense crowd had aasemblod in fmiit of tlio build- 
ing, and. when at last the doors opened, a rush was 
made for them. But the pnlicie kept the crowd liat.'k, 
and only those who had tickets were admitted. When 
the iioiise was faii-ly tilled, the doors wore closed and 
faetened. In the meantime tl e w d vs I ad been 
barricaded, witli the exception of ot e wl 1 was over- 
loftked. This the now disappomtcl ral 1 le assailed 
with stones, sending them tliro gl t nmong the 



123 THE OEEAT RIOTS OF NEW YORK CnT. 

Gtartled audience. They tried also to break down one i 
of iJie doore, but tbe policemen's clubs etoppcd tbeiu, 
Tiien coiiiTneiiced a series of yella and shouts, mingled < 
with horrid oaths and threats as tho baffled wretiJies 
purged around the building. Finding nothing else to I 
vent their rage on, they attacked the lamps in tlie I 
neighborhood, breaking thera to pieces, and putting I 
out the liglits. 

In tlie meantime, the play inside, with thia wild ac- j 
oompanimeut without, commenced. Notwitlistanding I 
all die care that had been taken, a largo number of | 
roughs bad succeeded in procuring tickets, showing I 
Uiat some professedly respectable men had been in 
collusion with them. Although the rioters innide were 

a minority, they were not daunted, and being do- I 
tormined that the play should not go on, commenced J 
stamping and yelling so, that Macready's voice from I 
the outset was completely drowned. 

TliQ police in difiguise had mingled all day with the I 
rioters, and ascertained what the mode of action inside ( 
tlie house was to be. At a certain point in the play, a | 
signal was to be given, on seeing which the entire body I 
was to make a rush for tlie stage and seize Macrcady. I 
The Chief of Police arranged his plans accoi-diugly, I 
and imparted thera to the force under him. He there- I 
fore made no effort to stop the noise, but waited for the I 

expected signaL At length it was given, and the entire I 
lH>dy of rioters i-oae with a yell and sprang forward. I 
But at that moment, tlie chief gave ^is signal. whicKs 
was lifting bis hat fi-oin his head. Every eye of those ' 
determined policemen had been intently watching it, and 

« it now rose, they sprang with a single bound upon tho 
astonished rowdies, and before they could recover from i 



ASTOK-PLACE KlflTS, IWd. 123 

their fiiu-priBe, most of them were onte!de of the bnUil- 
ing, while the ringleaders were kept back and uaged 
iiuiiijc. 

The play now went on, but it was a epiritless affair. 
Every ear was turned to hear the muffled roar of tlie 
voices ooteide, which every moment iucreased in power 
as the mighty multitude kept BwuUing in numbers. 

The afterpiece was omitted, and Maci-eady escaping 
through a private door, haatetied to his hotel. It 
Beemed for a time that tlie building would be torn 
down; but at length, a regiment of the National 
Guard, preceded by a body of cavalry, was seen march- 
ing Bteadily up Broadway. The crowd parted as it ad- 
vanced, and as it turned into Eighth Street, the shuqi 
word of command, " right wheel," rang out distinct and 
clear over the uproar. The riotoi-?, instead of being 
intimidated, rushed to a pile of paving-stones that un- 
fortunately happened to be near, and arming thom- 
aelves with these, began to jielt the horses, which soon 
became unmanageable, bo that the cavalry force had to 
retire. 

The infantry then advanced, but were i-eeeived with 
ench a deluge of stones that they, too, fell back to 
Broadway. Here they rallied, and at the order for- 
ward, moved steadily on the mob, and forced their way 
to the front of the Opera House. Wliilo forming line 
here on the sidewalk, they were assailed so fiercely 
with paviug-atones, that the soldiers fell rapidly. The 
riotei-s were in close quarters, aud the heavy Btonea, 
hurled at such a short distance, were almost as deadly 
as musket-balls. Captahi Fond eoon fell wounded, 
when the sec^tiid in command told the sheriff that if he 
did not give the order to fire, thu troops would be with- 



124 



TIIK OKKAT RIOTS 111' NKW 1 



drawn, for tliey couldn't stand it Recorder Talmadge, 1 
unwilling to i-csort to such a desperate measure, at- 1 
tempted to Iiaran(;ne the mob, lie Uogged Lliem, in. I 
God's name, to disperse and gft Iiomt. — if tbey did I 
not, the soldiers would certainly tire on tbeia, etc. " 
The only reply was bcota and yells of defian<«, andJ 
paving-stones. The Recorder then forced liia way up^l 
to General Ilall, standing at the right of tho battalion, m 
and Baid : " Yon mnst order your men to fire ; 
terrible alternative, bnt there is no other." The Gen- 1 
era! aeked for the Mayor, for he whs donbtful of bis I 
authority to do bo, witliont bis order. "He won't b© I 
here," replied Talmadge, General Saudford thea-l 
eaid : " Well, the National Guards will not stand and I 
be pounded to death with atones; nearly one -tbii-d ofA 
the force ia already disabled." After a Uttle more I 
hnrried conversation, tlie sheriff said, " If that be so, J 
you have permission to fire." The uproar all this timo] 
was deafening, and the oi-der, " Ready ! " of General)! 
Sandford, could hardly be heard ; but the sliai'p, quiclcl 
rattle of steel rose distinctly oxer the discui-d. 
terribly repugnant to shoot down citizens, Qeneralfl 
Hall and Colonel Duryea made another attempt to oA-A 
dresB tiie crowd, and begged them to cease these afc^ 
tacks. " Fire and be d — ned 1 " shouted a burlyB 
fellow. " Fire, if you dare— take the life of a frecborc 
American for a bhiody British aetnr I D — n it, yon ■ 
dassent firel" and he boldly bared his breast to the 
levelled muskets. " Firo, will you t " yelled another, 
as he hurled a paving-sloiie at General Sandford 
wonnding his swoi-d arm. " Hit 'em again I " shontc 
a third, who saw the wcU-dlroctod aim. Still averse ti 
shedding blood. General Hall told the soldiers to ( 



K-PLACE aiOTS, leitt. 



125 



vate their pieces over tlie heiids of fhs people, and fire 
at the blank wall <jf Mr, I^ngton'a house opposite, hop- 
ing tlins to frigliten tlie mob. But this only awakened 
derision, and tlie leaders shonted, "Come on, boyal 
they have blank (iartridges and leather flints ! " In the 
meantime, the police, who had mingled with the mob, 
and were making arrests, began to force their way ont, 
in order to escape the fire tJiat now eeemed inevitable. 
The troops moved at-ross the street, and faced toward 
the Bowery, obeying the word of command promptly, 
and marching with great steadiness, although the pelt- 
ing they received was mni-deroiis. To retreat wonld 
be pnailianimouB, to stand there and be pelted to death 
worse still ; and General Hall finally gave tlie order to 
fire point blank, but to aim low, so that men would be 
wonnded, rather than killed. The command fell clear 
and distinct, " Firel" 

A single mnsket-shot on the extreme left was the 
only response. They were too uear^their muzzles 
almost touching the hearts of the men, and it seemed 
terribly murdeifus to lire. " Fire 1 " shouted General 
Sand ford. 

Thi'ee more mnsket-sbots, only, followed. " Fire ! " 
Duryea then cried ont, in ringing tones, A swift vol- 
ley ran along the line, shedding a momentary glare on 
the wild faces of the mob, the streets, and adjoining 
houses, and then came the report. This time the dead 
in their midst told the rioters that it was child's play 
no longer, and they fell back. But getting a new sup- 
ply of paving-stones, they rallied, and oniie more ad- 
vanced on the troops. A second volley, more rani-der- 
008 than the first, sent them crowding back on each 
other in terror. The troops now wheeled, and formed 



126 



THE GREAT aiOT9 OF I 



line ii!;ftin in front of the Opera Hoiibc. It had got tufl 
be oleveu oVlook, ami moru troops were ordered up, 
with two cannon. The mob, tliongh dismayed, Btilu 
rcf iiBcd to retii'e, and hung Eiillon and threatening as ■ 
thnnder-clond on the skirts of the military, and a thiri 
volley was poured into them. The rioters now eepi^ 
mted, and fell back into tlie darknesa, when tlie trnopsfl 
were ordered to fire the fourth time, in different direo-l 
tion9 — owe wing down Eighth Street, and the other' 
into Lafayette Place. This last volley, judging from 
the testimony of reliable witnesses, was altogether 
needless. The eonfliet was over. 

A lawyer of Wall Sti-eet, noted for his philanthropy 
and kiiiduesa, resided in Fourth Avenne, and being in- 
formed by a friend, late in the evening, tiiat men were i 
lying dead and wounded in Astor Place, lie ha&tonedfl 
down to see if he could be of any aBsistance bo the poorl 
creatures. Heachiug Lafayette Place, he saw in tbe^l 
dim light a line of soldiei-e dra\\'ii up, though he e 
no tnob, only a few scattered men, who seoined to tiel 
tipcftators. Suddenly lie heard tlie order to Gre, andl 
the next moment came a flash And report. lie couldl 
not imagine what they were firing at ; but suddenly hel 
felt bin arm niimb, and the next moment ha grevi 
faint and diiipped on the sidewalk, his arm broken tol 
shivers. The brother of a well-known banker was shut I 
in Broadway by a random bullet; and a man, whtlal 
stepping out of a car in Third Avenue, was shot deHd.4 
Other itmoi;eiit persons fell victims, as they alwaysl 
ranst, it they will hang on t!ie skirts of a mob from 
curiosity. Men anxious to witness a fight must tako| 
the chances of getting hurt 

Qreat excitement followed ; an indignation meetin^J 




ASTOK-Pt,A(!K RftlTS, i 



127 



was called in the Park, coroners' juries Btiiltified tbem- 
eelves, aud a eeneelegs ontcry was luado geitcrally. 
Tweuty-two were killed and thirty wounded. It waa 
a terrible sacrifice to make for a paltry quarrel be- 
tween two autora about whom nobody cared ; and in 
this light alone many viewed it, forgetting that when 
the pnblic peace is broken, it matters not bow great or 
iusignificrant the cause, it must be preseiTcd ; and if 
the police or military are called out to do it, and are 
attacked, they must defend themselves, and ujjhold the 
laws, or be false to their trust. The authoi-itios have 
to do with riots, not their causes; put them down, not 
deprecate their existence, or argue their justitre. 

If public indignation had been turned against For- 
rest, it would have been more sensible. He knew per- 
fectly well that if his friends persisted in their deter- 
minatioD to attack Macready, the second night, blood 
would be spilt. It was his quarrel, and yet he delib- 
erately kept his lips closed. He neither begged them 
for their own sake, nor for his, or as good citizt^ns, to 
forbear, and let liis rival alone ; nor after it was known 
that many had been killed, did he express a siugle 
word of regret; apparently having no feeling but 
gratification, that even at such a fearful sacrifice his 
bated rival had been driven from the field. But re- 
sponsibility 18 not so easily shaken off, and in I'eal 
life as well as in tragedy, conscience will force a iniiu 
to cry: 

" Out ! damned blood spot 1 Out, I say ! " 
Macready left the country, aud the excitement died 
away; but the painful memories of this absurd yet 
deadly riot will remain till the present generation has 
passed from the stage. 



I2S 



TilE f.REAT RIOTB OF NFW YORK CITT. 



We cannot close thifl acconnt more fitly than by re- 
lating an anecdote of General Scott connected with it, 
that has never been made public. lie was living at 
the time in Second Avenne, nearly opposite Astor 
Place, He was occupying the upper part of the honse 
that evening, and his wife the lower. When the first 
volley over the heads of the people was fired, he has- 
tened down, and sent off a servant to ascertain what it 
meant. Before the latter returned, he heard a second 
volley. Ilnrrjing below, he despatched a second ser- 
vant to find out what was going on, and went back to 
his room. A third volley smote on his ear, and deeply 
agitated he hurried below, and l)egan to pace the room 
in an excited manner. His wife, observing how much 
he was moved, remarked pleasantly : " Why, General, 
you are frightened 1 " This was rather a staggerer to 
the old hero, and he turned and exclaimed : " Am I 
a man to bo frigliteued, madam ? It is volley firing, 
madam — voliei/ firing. They arc shooting down Amer- 
ican citizens I " The old chieftain had heard that fir- 
ing too often on the field of battle, to be ignorant of 
its meaning. He had Been ranks of living men reel 
and fall before it; nay, stood amid the curling smoke 
when liis staff was swept down by his side, calm and 
unmoved, but here ho was unmanned. Over the 
ploughed and blood-stained field, he had moved with 
nerves as steady as steel, and pulse beating evenly ; but 
now he paced his safe and quiet room with his strong 
nature paiufully agitated, and all because American 
citizens wore being shot down by American citizcna. 
The fact speaks volumes for the nobleness of hie nat- 
ure, and t}iat unsullied patrlritism which sheds tenfold 
lustre on his well-earned laurels. 



I 




CHAPTER IX. 



POUCE BIOT — DEAD-KABBira RIOT — BEBAD EIOT, 



Oreation of the HetropoUtim Distriot. — CoUiBioa between Maror 
Wood's Police and the Metropolitan Police.— Seventh Begiment 
colled ont. — Dead-Kohbita' Eiot — Severe Fight between the 
Boacb Guards and Dead Rabbits. — Police driven back. — Barri- 
cades erected,— Military called out — Killed and Wounded. — 
Bread Hiot, — Financial Distreee. 

The year 1S57 was a remarkable one in tlie history 
of New Yurk Cily, and indeed of the whole conutTj. 
The year previous had beeu diaracterized by intense 
political excitemeiit, for the presidential campaign had 
been carried mi as a eectinnal fight or a war between the 
upholders and enemies of the institution of slavery as it 
existed at the South. Pennsylvania alone by her vote 
defeated the antislavery part)', and the South, seeing 
the danger that threatened it, iiad already begun to 
prepare for tliat Iremeudoiis 8triigj;le, that afterwai-ds 
tested to the ntmtrst the resources and atrengtlj of tlie 
North ; while a finauuial storm overwhelmed the eutiro 
couutry in disaster. To these were added local causes, 
wliich affected New York City particularly, and made 
it a year of uncommon distnrbance. 

Tlie Repobiiean party being largely in the ascendant 
in the State, detennined to revolutionize the municipal 
government, and place the Democratic city partially 
under Republican rule. Many bills were passed during 
t^ Bes&ion of Legislature, peculiarly obnoxious t<) the 



130 



TIIG OltEAT RtOTS OF KEW YORK CITY. 



city authorities, but that which excited the raoBt bitter 
oppositinn was called tlie Metropolitan Police Act, by I 
which the couaties of New York, Kings, WcBtdieBter, , 
and Kichmoud were made one police district, to be con- 
trolled by a board of connniesioners, coiiBJating of fivg 
members appointed by the Governor and Senate, and 
to hold office for five years. This board having organ- 
ized, proceeded to create a police department. Mayor 
Wood denied tlie constitutionality of the act and re- 
tained the old police — so that there were two police 
departmentB existing at the same time in the city. The 
Mayor resorted to all kinds of legal measure? to defeat 
the action of the board, and the question was finally re- 
ferred to the Court of Appeals ior decision. 

In the mean time the death of a street co 
eioner left a vacancy to he filled. Governor King, act- i 
iDg under tlie recent law, appointed Daniel D. Conover ' 
to fill it, while the Mayor appointed Charles Devlin. 
A third claimant for the place appeared in the deputy, 
who asserted his right to act nntil the decision of the j 
Court of Appeals was rendered. Conover had no idea I 
of waiting fur this.and proceeded to assume the duties I 
of his office. The Mayor of course resisted, and bo j 
Conover got out a warrant from tlie Recorder to ar- 
rest the former on the charge of inciting a riot, and \ 
another on the charge of personal violence. Armed | 
with these papers, and backed by fifty of the new po- ll 
licemen. he proceeded to the City Hall. The Mayor, 
aware of the movement, had packed the building with 1 
hifl own police, who refused him admittance. The new 
police attempted to force an entrance, when a fight fol- 
lowed, in which twelve policemen were severely injured. 
While thinjre were in this critical condition, the Seventh J 



POLICE RIOT — DEAD-BABBrrs' niciT UREAD EHIT. 131 

Regiment passed down Broadway on its way to the 
boat for Boston, whither it was going to receive an 
ovation. A request for its interference was promptly 
granted, and marching into the Park they quickly 
quelled the riot, and the writs were served on the 
Mayor. 

Intense excitement followed, and so great was the 
fear of a terrible outbreak, that nine regimente were 
put under arms, ready to march at a moment's notice. 

But on the Ist of July tlie Court of Appeals de- 
cided the act to be conetitntional, and the disturbance 
ended. But of course, while this strife was going on 
between the police, but little was done to arrest disorder 
in the city. The lawless became emboldened, and in 
tlie evening before the 4th of July a disturbance began, 
wfaicli for a time threatened the most serious conse- 
quences. 



The origin of the tferm " Dead Rabbits," which be- 
came 80 well known this year from being identified 
with a serious riot, is not ccrtaiuly known. It is said 
that an orgauization known as the " Roach Guards," 
called after a liquor dealer by that name, became split 
into two factions, and in one of tlieir stormy meetntgs 
some one threw a dead rabbit into the room, and one 
party suddenly proposed to assume the name. 

These two factions became bitterly hostile to each 
other; and ou the day before the Itli of July came in 
collision, but finally separated without doing much 
damage. They were mostly young men, some of them 
being mere boys. 

The next day, the fight was renewed at Nos. 41) and 



TiJi; UIWAT 



42 Bowery Street, and clubs, stones, and even pietfl 
were freely weed. The " Dead Rabbits " were beaU 
and retired, yelling aud fli'ing revolvers in the a 
attacking everybcdy that came in their way. Tlieir 
nnifonn waa a blue etripe on their pantaloons, while 
that of the lioaeh Gaards waa a red stripe. People in 
the neighborhood were frightened, and fastened their 
dours and windows, No serious damage was done, 
however. 

About ton o'clock, a policeman in Worth Stree 
while endeavoring to clear the sidewalk, was knockf 
down and severely beaten. At length, breaking away 
from his assailants, he hastened to the central office ij 
White Street, and reported the state of things. J 
squad of police was immediately dispatched to arre 
the ringleaders. On reaching Centre Street they fonni 
a desperate tight going on, and immediately rushed in, U 
put a stop to it. The belligerents at once made common 
cause against them. A bloody haud-to-himd conflict fol- 
lowed, but the police at length forced the mob to re- 
treat. The latter, however, did not give np the couteatu 
bnt mounting to the upper stories and roofs of the teu( 
mont-houses, rained down clubs and stones so fierceljjj 
tljat the police were driven off with only two prisone 

Comparative quiet was now restored, though the e 
citement spi-ead in every direction. It lasted, howeval 
only an hour or two, when suddenly a loud yell was 
hcai'd near llie Tombs, accompanied with the report of 
fire-arms, aud crowda of people came pouring down 
Baxtei' aud Leonard Streets, to get out of tlie way of 
bullets. Simie wounded men were carried by, and the 
utmost terror and coufusion prevailed. The air was 
tilled with flying uiiseiles aud oaths, and shouts of t 



tres^l 
■ckel^l 
away 
ice in 
1. A 
irreqUH 
oun^H 
in,t|| 



POLICE EIOT — DKAtVRABBITe' RIOT — BREAD RIOT, 133 



fiance. Now the Dead Kabbits would drive their foes 
before tliem, and agnin be dri veil back. The bloody fight 
thua Bwayed backwards and forwards through the nar- 
row streets for a long time. At length twentj-fivo Me- 
tropolitan Police appeared on the scene, while fifty nioi-e 
B held ill reserve. Tliougli assailed at every step 
■with clubs and stones, they marched steadily on, clear- 
ing the crowd as they advanced, and forcing the Dead 
Kabbits into the bouses, whither they followed them, 
mounting even to the roof, and clubbing them at every 
step. After clearing the bouses, tbey resumed their 
march, when they wei-e again attacked by the increas- 
ing crowd, many of them armed with muskets and pis- 
tols. Barricades were now erected, behind which the 
mob rallied, and the contest assumed the aspect of a 
regular battle. The notorious Captain Ryndei-s came 
on the ground, between six and seven o'clock, and at- 

' tempted to restore quiet. Not succeeding, however, he 
repaired to the ofKce of the Police Comuiisaiouers, and 

' told Commissioner Draper, if lie had not police force 
enough to disperse the mob, he should call out the mil- 
itary. The latter replied that he had made a requisi- 
tion on Major-General Sandford, for three regiments, 
and that they would soon be on the ground. lint it 
was nine o'clock before tliej made their appearance, 
The police then formed in two bodies of seventy-five 
men each, and supported, one by the Seventy-first Regi- 
ment and the other by the Eighth, marched down 
White and Worth Streets. This formidable display of 
force overawed the rioters, and tliey fled in evciy direc- 
tion. This ended the riot, although the military were 
kept on duty during the night. 

At times, the fight was close and deadly, and 



134 TIIE CiRKAT Klfi-re OF NKW VORK CTTT. 

was reported that eight were killed and eome thirty I 
wounded, 



In the autumn there came a iinancial crisis, that was I 
80 wide-spread and disastrous that the lower classes 
suffered for want of fixid. Banks suspended speeie 
payiueut, manufactories were forced to stop work, and 
paralysis fell on the whole indiislry of tho nation. It 
'was estimated that ten thousand persons were throwa ■ 
out of employment. These 6ix>n used up their earn- J 
ings, and destitution and suffering of course followed. I 
Their condition grew worse as cold weallier came on, I 
and many actually died of starvation. At length thej I 
became gfiaded to desperation, and determined to help J 
tliemselvcs to food. Qaunt men and women, clad in T 
tatters, gathered in the Park, and that most fearful of j 
all cries, when raised by a mob, " Bread," arose ou j 
every side. PropoaitionB were made to break open the j 
stores, and get what they needed. Flour was hoa 
up in them because so little could be got on from the I 
West. The granaries there were groaning with pro- j 
visions ; but there was no money f« pay for the trans- i 
portation. There was money East, but kept locked np j 
in fear. As tins became known to the mob, their e 
asperation increased. To know that there were both I 
food enough and money enough, while they were 
starving to death, was enough to drive them mad, and 
there were ominous mtitterings. Fortunately, the au- 
thorities saw in time tho tlireatened danger, and i 
warded it off, A great many were set to work ou thai 
Central Park and other public works, while sonj^f 
houses were oponcd throughout the city, and private j 



POUOE RIOT — ^dead-rabbits' RIOT — ^BRRAP RIOT. 135 



aBsociatioiis fonned to relieve the Ba£Fering; and the 
winter passed without any outbreak, though inoro tlian 
five thousand business-houses in the country failed, with 
liabilities reaching three hundred millions of dolIarH. 



CHAPTER X. 



DEAFT KIOTS OF 1803. 



e ot the BiotB.— The London Tli'nwa.— Draft oalled ndfia) 
Mensnre. — The despotio Power given to Waahuigtoii by Coa- 

gTesB Despotia Action BometlmeB Necesaaiy, in order to Kara 

the Lite of the Katiou. — The Righte o( Oovenunent, — Drafting 
the L^tim&te Wny to raiso aa Anaj — It ts oot Unoquol oi Op- 
presdvB. 

The ostensible canse of the note of 1863 was hostil- , 
ity to tlie draft, because it was a tyrannical, despotic, | 
onjnst measure — an act which has distinguished tyrauts ' 
the world over, and should ne\'er lie tolerated by a ' 
free people. Open hostility to oppression was more 
than ouee hinted in a jwrtiun of the preas — as not only 
a right, but a duty. 

Even the London Times said, "It wonld have been 
strange, indeed, if the American people liad submitted 
to a measiu^ which is a distinetivo mark of the most 
deepoHc goverumonta of the Continent." As if the 
fact that a measure, because resorted to by a despotic 
government, was therefore necessarily wrong. It I 
might as well be snid, that because settling national * 
difflculties by an appeal to arras has always been a ' 
distinctive feature of despotic governments, therefore I 
the Amorioan people should refuse to sustain the | 
government by declaring or prosecuting any war; or I 
that because it has always been a distiaetive fratora ' 



137 



[of despotic govemnientB to liave naval and militaiy 
I Bcliools, to ti'ain men to tlio art of war, tlierefoi-e the 
American people ehonld not submit to either. It ia 
not of tLe Blighteat conBequenee to iis what despotic 
govei'iiiiieuts do or not do; tlie simple question is, 
Tvlietlier tlie measure is necessary for the protection of 
onr own government, and the welfare of tlie j^ieople. 
To leave this untouched, and talk only about des- 
potism, the right of the people, and all that, is mere 
demagogism, and shows him who uttera it to be unfit 
to control public opinion. Besides, there ia a gi'eat 
difference between measures that are despotic, which 
are put forth to save the nation's life, or honor, and 
those put forth to destroy freedom, and for aeltish 
ends. Not that, intrinsically, despotic measures are 
always not to be deprecated and av<iided, if po^ible ; for 
if tolerated in one case, they may be exacted in another. 
Liberty can never be guarded too carefully, or the 
barriers erected around the rights of every individual 
respected too scrupulously. But everything in this 
world ia a choice between two evils. Tlie greatest 
wisdom cannot avoid ali evils ; it can only choose the 
least. Sound stateamansliip regards any stretch of 
power better than the overthrow of the nation. Prob- 
ably there never was a more able and wise body of 
raen assembled, or more joaloua of any exercise of 
arbitrary power, than the First Congress of the United 
States ; and yet, almost in the commencement of our 
struggle for independence, wlien events wore such a 
glotiniy aspect that failure seemed inevitable, rising 
above its fears of despotic mcasuree, in its greater fear 
of total defeat, it conferred on Washington powere 
that made him to a large extent military dictator. He 



HE GEFAT KtOTS OF t 



was authorized to i-aiee eixteen battalions of infantry, 
three tbou^nd light-hoifie, throe regiments of artillery, 
tugetlier witli a coqjs of eiigineere, and appoint tA» 
ojiaera hiimelf. lie had, also, full power, when lie 
deemed it neceesar}', to call ou the several States for 
the militia; to appoint tlirougliout the entire army 
all the officers under hrigadiera; fill iip all Taeanuiea;; 
to take whatever he wanted for the use of liia troop*,' 
wherever he could find it, with no other restrictioDi 
tlian that he niiiHt pay for it, which last was nullified, 
because he was empowered to seise and lock up every 
man '"A" refused io reoeh'e in pay ContiiierUal money. 
It would seem im^Ktesible tbat u body of moa who vrero- 
eo extremely sensitive in bestowing power on a mili" 
tary eomnmnder, and so watchful of the rights of indi- 
viduals, could have eommitted such an act; and yet,, 
who doea not see tliat, nnder the cireumstancos, it wa»i 
wise. Now, granting that conscription is a despotic 
measure, no tnitlifiil, candid man will deny that, in 
case of a war, where men must bo had, and can l>e got 
in no other way, that it would be the duty of govern- 
ment to enforce it. It is idle to reply that the sup- 
position is absnrd — that in this country such a thing 
can never hai)i>cn ; for Mhat has been in the world 
can be again. Besides, this does meet the (juestion of 
the riff/ii of the Govenimeut, that must be settled 
before the emergency comes. Now, we do not believe^ 
there is sonnder principle, or one that every unbiaesedj 
mind do^ not concede with the readiness tliat it doeaj 
an axiom, that, if necessary to protect and save itsel 
a government may not only order a draft, but caU.] 
out every able-bodied man in the nation. If this righl 
doee not inhere in our government, it is built on u 



I 



DKAFT RIOTS OP 1988. 139 

foundation of saud, and the sooner it is abandoned the 
better. 

But we go farther, and deny that a draft is a 
despotic measure at all, but is a jiifit and equitable 
mode of raising an army. True, if troops enough 
can be raised on a reasonable bounty, it is more ex- 
pedient to do so ; but the m'-uicnt tJiat bonnty becomes 
BO exorbitant as to tempt the cupidity of those in whom 
neither patriotism nor sense *)f duty have any power, 
volunteering becomes an evil. We fonnd it bo in our 
recent war. The bounty was a little fortune to a cer- 
tain class, the benefit of whicli they had no idea of 
losing by being shot, and ■ hence they deserted, or 
ahammed sickness, so that scarce half the men ever 
got to the front, while those who did being influ- 
enced by no motive higher tlian cupidity, became 
woilhlcBS soldiei-8. A draft takes in enough men of a 
higher stamp to leaven tlie mass. The first Napoleon, 
when asked what made his first "army of Italy" bo 
reeistlcBs, replied that almost every man in it was intel- 
ligent euongh to act as a clerk. The objection that a 
rich man, if drafted, can buy a snbatitnte, while the poor 
man, with a targe family depending upon him, must go, 
if of any weight at all, lies against the whole struct- 
ure of society, which gives the rieli man at every step 
immunities over the po<ir man. When pestilence 
Bweeps through a city, tlie rich man can flee to a 
liealthy localily, while the poor man must stay and die ; 
and when the itestilencc of war sweeps over the land, 
must one attempt to revci-se all this relation between 
wealth and poverty ? 

^Vlien society gets iu that happy state, that Uie rich 
man baa no advantages over the poor, there will be 



14f> 



THE GERAT KlilTS iiF XKW VOHK aiT, 



no need either o£ drafting or volunteering. Yet, after I 
all, it is not bo unequal as it at fii-st aight appears. ) 
War rauBt have niouey as well as men, and 
former the riuh have fo furnieh ; and if tliey do 
this, it is but fair that they should be allowed to 
furnish with it also the men to do their fighting. 
Besidcfi, there must be aome rule that would exempt I 
the ipen that carry on the business of tlie wiuntry. 

We have said this much, because the riots in New J 
York, which might have ended in national destruction, 
were brought about by preaching views directly the op- j 
positc of these. 

The military spirit is so prevalent in the nation, that | 
in any oi-diiiary war the Government can get all the , 
troops it wants by giving a moderate bounty, and I 
wages hut a little greater than can bo secured at any J 
ordinai-y bnsiness or ocfupalion. Still, the right to f 
raise tliem differently ehoidd never be denied it. 

When the old militia system was giveo up in tha I 
State, and a certain number of regiinenta were raised I 
and equipped and drilled for active duty, and for j 
which the people paid taxes, it was thought tliey would 1 
furnish all the quota that wonld ever be called for from 
the State — and in any ordinary war will. The ci 
however, in which we found ourselves had never been i 
anticipated, and hence not provided against, and when I 
Congress attempted to do it in what seemed to it the j 
best way, an outcry was raised of injustice and [ 
opprcssiou. Itwa8hard,doubtleR9,buttheroareagreat J 
many hard things in the world that have been aJid 1 
have to be boruo. The feeling of hostility unque»- I 
tionably would have been less intense, had not bo many j 
of those to be di-afted been bitterly opposed to the I 



1 



I>RArT BltrrS. OF ISO. 



14t 



■war. Believing it to have been brought alioiit bj- lire 
reckleE8 demagogism and fanatioisiii ot tht-ir {mtit- 

il opponents, and levied as it was a^inft llionit who Iiad 
beeu their warm political friends, iiidoed, oliicf de- 
pendence for political Buccess, it was aaking a gcxid 
deal, to require them to Btep to the front, and figlit ill 
6uch a war. Whether this feeling was right or wrong, 
had nothing to do with the inflncnce it aetually exerted. 

On this feeling was baaed, in faet, the real hofltility 
to the draft, in which a [xjrtion of tbo jtrciw Hharod. 
But, as we eaid before, wo having nothing to do 
with thejnsticeor injustice of tlti» belief or feeling; 
we only state the fact, with our dciiini tliat it fnrnifthtKl 
any excnse for the denunciations uttered Bgainat tlie 
drftft as a wn>ng use of power, or the refuwl U> Kubmit 
to it on that acuotuiL The Government, wlieilinr wrotig 
or right, niDBt be supported, or nimttdntHni and given 
over tu K\'Aatu>a. In '^iJtary t!rn«ia, ^muiuAalUm r/f 
its measuree, and tbe auM Mr^iurru* i^ifunti/m to 
tbem, ic tbe riglit and ofteu tlte dnty ^4 tmrj Ktm- 
sata^om taaa. TUt riglil, rMnwwd hj tJw ynam^ 
H one of l^ aMK aCMHl iUt*M» agpuMt «1/«m», 
u>4 the aao* f ow wft j l*««r t» wnrl fsU/nn m4 
Aaoff^ 'Bttm»pt^ v tim , tf/mtMm^»m4f atClAmk 
A mammm «■ vlndi IW falti *4 4« iwlfA* kamflpt, h 



CHAPTER XI. 



Ogbta of HunidpalitkH. — toterference of the Legislature wiOi tlia 
Citj* OoTeinmeiit. — Can&ict betwcca tbe Governor ami Polica 
CommismonecH.— A Wrong becomeg o Practical Biewung.— Pro- 
voEt MamholB. — Riot not anticipated. — Bad tJnio to commence 
the Draft.— PreporationB of Snperintcndpnt Keoneilji — The 
Police SjBtenL— Attook on Ptovort MarHhal Captain Brhardt. — 
Tele^rama of the Police .^Eomiedr starts on a Tour of Observii- 



TuE righf.a of inunieipalitiea have been conceded 
from the first dawn of oonstitntional liberty ^indeed 
municipal freedom may be said to be the first step in 
the onward progress of tlie race toward the full rec- 
ognition of itfl rights. To interfere with a great coni- 
meruial city like New York, exeept by general laws, 
is ns a rule unwise, impolitic, and, indeed, nnj list. Like 
a separate State, it had better suffer many and great . 
evils, than to admit tlio right of outward power to reg- 
ulate ita internal affairs. To do so, in any way, is 
fraught with mischief; bnt to do so as a jwliticsl 
party, is infinitely more pernicious. It leaves a great 
metropolis, on which the welfare of the commercial 
business of the nation mainly depends, a foot-ball for 
ambitious or selfisli politicians to play with. But as 
there are exceptions to all rnlee, so there may be to 
this — still theyaiiouUi always be exceptions, and not 
claimed as a settled policy. 

We mention this, because tJie interference of the J 
Legisliiture, or rather the dominant part of it, in th© 



DRAFT HK>TS OF 1§S1 143 

internal policy of New York, alwnt the time the war 
conimeii(«d, was iu itself a misuhievona and tyrannical 
atrt, while, under the circnmetances that soon after oc- 
curred, it pnived of incalcnlable benefit. 

With the city stripped of its military, and the forts 
in die harbor of their garrisons, the police, nndcr the 
old rcSgime, during the draft riots, would have been 
trustless and powerless, even if the city government 
had attempted to uphold the national authority, which 
is doubtful. The Republicans established a Board of 
Police Commissi liners, the majority of which were of 
their own political faith, wlio had the entire control of 
the department. Uuder their hands, an entii-e differ- 
ent set of men from those formerly selected, compoeed 
the force, and a regular system of drills, in fact, a 
thorough organization, adopted. 

But in 1862 the Democrats elected their governor, 
though they failed to sectiro the Lcgislatore. Mr. 
Seymour, immediately on his inauguration, summoned 
the Commissioners to appear before him, the object of 
wlucli was to change the character of the board. The 
latter understood it, and refused to appear. Legal pro- 
ceedings were then commenced against them, but they 
were staved off, and in the meantime the Legislature 
had got to work, and took tlie matter in hand ; and 
Messrs, Bowen, Acton, and Bergen, were made to con- 
stitute the board — ^John A. Kennedy being superintend- 
ent of police. Mr. Bowen, the president of the board, 
having been appointed brigadier-general, resigned, and 
Mr. Acton, under the law, becutue president. This 
political character of the boaixl, bo diametrically op- 
posed to the feelings and wishes of the vast majority 
of the citizens, tested by the ordinarj' mles and princi- 



144 



TUli CiBEAT KIOTS OK NEW TIlltK CtTT. 



\ilcs of a Repiiblicati Goverament, was unjust ; 
palpable, deliberate encroaclirneiit ou tbo right of eclf 
government. But as we remarked, jnst now, 
fortunate for tbe country that Buch a state of things ex- 
isted. In the extraordinary, not anticipated, and jicril-1 
ous condition in which we found oureelvee, cverythingt 
was changed. Neither constitutiona nor laws ha(" 
lieen framed to meet such an emergency, and both, ioj 
many caees, had to be enspended. What was right h 
fore, often became wrong now, and vit-e versa. Thflj 
article inserted in the Constitution of the State, tbirf 
the moment a bank refused specie payment, it becam 
bankrupt, was a wise and just provision, but to enforce 
it now, would be financial rntn, and it was not done. 

This usurpation of the government of New York 
by the Republican party, wliich seemed so unjust, Wfta|l 
doubtless, under the oiraumstancee, tlie salvation i 
the city. It was, moi-cover, highly important to thefl 
whole eountrj', in the anomalous war which tbreateuM 
our veiy existence, that the controlling jxiwer of t' 
city should be in sympathy witli the General GoPi 
eniraent, but it was especially, vitally bo, when i 
latter put its provost marBhals in it to imfnrce the drafbfl 
That this mode of enforcing the draft by provofll 
mai-shals, was an encroachment on iho rights anm 
powers of the separate States, there can he no donbti 
It is equally clear tbat tbe proper way was to call oill 
the fiepar.ate governors for their quota, and let tAet 
enforce the draft. If they refusfid to do it, then it wa| 
time for the General Government In take the matter ii 
ila own hand. This, however, was no encroachment € 
individual rigbts. Tlie oppressive nature of tbe &c4 
and the result wei-c the same to the person, wliether eiv 



DK4FT RIUTS OF 1S63 



145 



loitjed l)y tlie State or General Govemraent. Still it 
was B. total departure from the practice of the Genersl 
Government since its first organization, and it more- 
OTer establiehefl a dangerons precedent, which the 
sooner it is abandoned the better. But this had 
nothing to do with the opposition to the draft. That 
wae a pentonal objcL-tiou. 

With the Police Department in ejnipathy with the 
rioters, it is not difficult to see what the end wonld 
have been. We do not mean by that, that the heads of 
the department would not have endeavored to do their 
duty, but it wonld have been impossible to control the 
kind of element tliey wonld inevitably have to deal 
with. This even the long-tried, tnisted leaders of the 
Democratic party acknowledged. In fact, the police 
force would not have been in a condition, with ever 
so good a will, to have acted with the skill and prompt- 
ness it did. 

The draft riots, as they are called, were suppoeed by 
some to bo the result of a deep-laid conspiracy on the 
part of those opposed to the war, and that the saccesa- 
ful issue of Lee's invasion of PoimRvlvania waa to be 
the signal for open action. Whether this be so or not, 
it is evident that the outbreak in New York City on 
the 13tU of July, not only from the manner of its com- 
mencement, the absence of proper organization, and 
almrat total alienee of leadership, was not the r^ult 
of a general well-understood plot. It would seem from 
the facts that those who started the movement had no 
idea at the outset of proceeding to the length they did. 
They eimply desired to break up tlie draft in some of 
the upjier districts of the city, and destroy the registers 
in which certain names were enrolled. 



146 



THR (iHI'::AT EIWT3 OK NKW Y»KK CITV. 



A general provost marsliai had been appointed over 1 
the whole city, which was Bubdivided into varioue dis 
tricts, In each of which was an assistant provost mar 
shall. Although tliere had been iio jirovision for a I 
general assistant provost marshal or aid, jel Colonel I 
Nugent acted in this capacity. The drafting was to I 
take place in tlie separate districti>, under the direction I 
of the assifitant provost marshals. 

Althoiigh there had been some rumors of resistance I 
to it, they received very little credence, and no Bpeelal | 
provision was made for such an emergency. The city J 
was almost denuded of the ifaHitary; the regiments J 
having been called tft Pennsylvania to rei^el Lee's Inva- I 
sion ; yet so little fear was entertained, that cvi 
police department was not requested to make any j 
special preparation. The Invalid Corps, as it was I 
called, composed of the maimed and crippled soldiera ,1 
who could no longer keep the field, were fliought to bo I 
quite sufficient to preserve the peace. 

The draft commenced on Saturday In the Eleventh. I 
and Ninth Districts, and passed off quietly ; and itwas I 
thongbt the same order would be maintained through- 1 
ont, and If any force were necessary to repress violence^ f 
it would be when the conscripts were required to take I 
their place in the ranks. 

Still Superintendent Kennedy of the Police Deparb-I 
ment feared there might be some difficulty experienced I 
by the officers in diargeof the draft, even if no serious | 
resistance should be offered. Some of the onrollinj 
officers, a short time previous, while taking the names! 
of those subject to draft, had been assailed with verj 
abusive language, or their questions received in euUei 
tea t)r answered falsely ; fictitious names often bein^l 



DRAFT EI0T8 OF 1883. 



147 



pven instead of the true ones. In the Ninth District, 
embracing the luwer part of the citj,the provoBt marshal, 
Captain Joel T. Erliardt, came near losing his life in 
the performance of this duty. At the comer of Liberty 
Street and Broadway a building was being torn down, 
preparatory to the erection of another, anil tlio work- 
men engaged in it threatened the enrolling officer who 
came to take down tiieir names, witli violence, and 
drove him off. 

Captain Erliardt, on the report being made to him, 
repaired to liead-quartcrs, and re^juested of Colonel 
Nngent a force of soldiere to protect tlie officer in the 
discharge of his dnty. But this the latter declined to 
do, fearing it would exasperate the men and bring on 
a collision, and requested the Captain to go liiinself, 
sayii'gi if he did, there wonld be no difficulty. Cap- 
tain Erhai-dt declined, on the ground that he was not 
an enrolling officer. But Colonel Nugent persisting, 
the Captain finally told him, if he ordered him, as his 
superior officer, to go, he would. Nugent replied that 
he might so consider it. Erhai-dt then said he would 
go, but only on one condition, that if he got in trouble 
and asked for help, he would send him troops. To 
this he agreed, and Captain Erhardt proceeded to the 
building on the comer of Broadway and Liberty Street, 
and stepping on a plank tliat led from the sidewalk to 
the floor, asked a. man on a ladder for his name. The 
fellow refused to answer, when an altercation e;isuiug, 
be stepped down, and seizing an iron bar advanced on 
the provost marshal. The latter had nothing but a 
light Malacca cane in his hand, but as he saw the man 
meant murder he drew a pistol from his pocket, and 
levelled it full at his breast. This brought him to Of 



us 



TUE GREAT RIOTS OF HEW VUHK CITV. 



halt ; and after looking at ErLardt for awhile liQ 1 
diupped his bai'. Erbardt then put up liis pistol, and 
vent on witli Iiie enrolling. The man was dcgged and 
angry, and watching his opportunity, suddenly made & 
rush at tlic provost marshal. The latter Lad only time 
to deal Lim, as he sprang forward, one heavy blow 
with his cane, when they closed. In a moment botli 
reeled from the plank and fell to tlie cellar beneath, 
tlie provost raai^hal on top. Covered with dirt, he 
artxe and drew his pistol, and mounted to the sidewalk. 

The foreman sympathized with the workmen, and 
Erhardt could do nothing. Determined to arrest them 
for resisting the draft, he despatched a messenger to 
Colonel Nugent for the pi-omised force. None, liow- 
ever, was sent. lie, in the meantime, stood with drawn 
pistol facing the men, who dared not advance on him. 
Aid not ariiving, lie sent again, and still later a thii'd 
time. He stood thus facing the workmen witli his ' 
pistol for three hours, and finally had to leave without 
making any arrests. This failure of Clolonel Nugent 
to fulfil Iiis promise and perfonu his duty came near I 
costing Erhardt his life, and then and there starting 
the riot. The next day he had tiie foreman arrested, 
and completed his work of enrolling. 

The time selected for commencing the draft wa» J 
uniortnnate. Saturday, of all daj-s in the week, w« 
the worst. It was a now thing, and one under any 
circumstances calculated to attract universal attention [ 
among the lower classes, and provoke great and angry I 
discussion. Ilcuce, to have the draft commence on J 
Saturday, and allow the names to be published in tho I 
papei-s on Sunday morning, so that all could read tl)eni, . 
and spend the day in talking the matter over, and lay J 



DRAFT EIUT9 OF 1M3. 



plaiiB for future action, was a most nnwise, thouglitleas 
procedure. If tliero iiacl been any choice aa to tlie day, 
one, if possible, eliould liavc been chosen that preceded 
the busiest day of tlie week. Tu liave the list of 
twelve hundred names that had been drawn read 
over and commented on all day by men who enlivened 
their discussion with cojiious drauj^hts of bad wliiskey, 
especially when most of those drawn were laboring- 
men or poor mechanics, who were unable to hire a 
BuhBtitute, was like applying fire to gunpowder. If a 
well-known name, that of a man of wealth, was among 
the number, it only increased the exasperation, for the 
law exempted every one drawai who would pay three 
hundred dollars towards a substitute. This was taking 
practically the whole number of soldiers called fear 
out of the laboring classes. A great pix)[)ortion of 
these being Irish, it naturally became an Irish question, 
and eventually an Irish riot. It was in their eyes the 
game of hated England over again — oppression of 
Irishmen. Thin state of feeling could not be wholly 
concealed. Kennedy, aware of it, felt it necessary, on 
Honday morning, to take some precautionary meas- 
ures. Still, in the main, only email squads of polico- 
meu were sent to the various points where the drafting 
was to take place, and merely to keep back the crowd 
and maintain order, in case a few disorderly persona 
Bhunld attempt to create disturbance. It was true, a 
mmor had been put in circulation that a body of men 
had planned to seize the arsenal, and Kennedy, as a 
matter of precaution, sent fifty policemen to occupy it. 
But during the morning, word was brought him that 
the street-contractor's men in the Nineteenth AVard 
were not at work. This looked ominous, and he be- 



150 TIIK OKEAT EI0T3 OF NEW YOKK CITY. 

gan to fear trouble. Thinking that Pravost Marsbal 
ilaniere'e office, U90 Ei-oadway, and tliut of Marshal 
JenkinB, comer of Fortj'-sixth Street and Third Ave- 
nue, would be more likely to be the points attacked, 
he hurried off the following telegrams : 

July 13, 8.35 a.m. From Central Office to Seven' 
teenlli, Eigbtcuntb, and Twenty-first Precincts : Send 
ten men and a sergeant forthwith to No. 677 Third 
Avenue, and report to Captain Porter of Nineteenth 
Precinct for duty. J. A. Kennedy. 

July 13, 8.50 4.M. To Twenty-ninth Precinct : Place, 
a equad of ten of your men, with a competent sergeant, 
at No. 1190 Broadway, during the draft— if you want 
more, inform me. J. A. K. 

8.55 A.M. To Sixteenth and Twentieth Precincts: 
Bend your reserve to Seventh Avenue Ai-senal forth- 
with. J. A K. 

Telegrams were now pouring in from different quar- 
ters, Bliowlng that mischief was afoot, and at nine 
o'clock he sent the following despatch: 

" To all platoons. New York and Brooklyn : Call in 
your reserve platoons, and hold them at the BtationB 
subject to further orders." 

It should be noted, that ordinarily one-half of the 
police of the Metropolitan District, which took in 
Bi-ooklyn, is relieved from both patrol and i-eeerve duty, 
from six o'clock in the morning till six in the evening. 
The other half is divided into two Bectione, which 
alternately perform patrol and reserve duty during the 
day. A relief from patrol duty of one of these 
tioufi takes place at eight o'clock a.m., when it goes 
breakfast. Ilence, the orders iBsued by the Su] 



I 



DRAFT BIOTB OF 1888L 



151 



tendent; to call in these could not reach them without 
a considerable delay. 

It now being about ten o'clock, Mr. Kennedy, having 
despatched an additional body of men to the Twenty- 
ninth Precinct, got into his light wagon, to take a 
drive through the districts reported to be most dan- 
gerous. He went up far as the arsenal, and giving 
such directions as he thought necessary, started across 
the town to visit Marshal Jenkins' quarters in the 
Twenty-ninth Precinct 




I 



CHAPTER XU, 



if the Hob.— It« Lme of Miircb.—ItB immeaae Site. 
— Attacks a. ProvoBt-iuBJ-shal's Office, io Third Avenue. — Set on 
File. — Teirible Stmgglfi of Kennedj for bis Life with the Uob. 
— Carried t« Hpad-quorteiH unctmsciouH.— Acton'a Prejiaratiyna, 
— Tha Telcp^ph Synttitii. — Mob cutting down Telegraph Polen. 
—Number of Deajmtchca sent over tha Wires during the Riot. — 
Superintendent of Telegraph Bureau aeized anil held Priaaner 
by the Uob. 



JUeanwhile, oveiitB were aBsiiraing an alarming as- 
pect in the western part of the citj*. Early in the 
morning men began to assemble here in Eeparate 
groups, as if In acunrdauce with a previous arrange- 
ment, and at last moved (jnietly north along the various 
. Women, also, like camp followers, took the 
eame direction in crowds. They were thus divided 
into separate gangs, apparently to take each avenue in 
their proftress, and make a elean sweep. The facto- 
ries and workshops were (isited, and the men compelled 
to knock ofiF work and join them, while the proprie- 
tors wei-e threatened with the destruction of their 
property, if they made any opposition. The separate 
crowds wore thus swelled at almost every step, and 
armed with sticks, and ehibs, and every conceivable 
weajjon they could lay hands on, tliey moved north to- 

k wards scmie point which had evidently been selected aa 
a place of rendezvous. This proved to he a va<;ant lot 
pear Central Park, and soon the living etreatuB I 



I 



DRAFT KIOTS OF 1 



153 



to flow into it, and a more wild, savage, and heteroge- 
neous-Iooking mass conld not be imagined. After a 
ehort coDBultatiou they again took up the Hue of 
march, and in two separate bodies, moved down Fifth 
and Sixth Avenues, until they reached Forty-sixth and 
Forty-seventh Sti-eots, when they turned directly east. 

The number composing this first mob tias been bo 
differently estimated, that it would be impossible from 
reports merely, to appi-oximate the truth, A pretty 
accurate idea, however, can be guincd uf its immense 
size, fi'om a statement made by Mr, King, son of 
President King, of Columbia College. Struck by its 
magnitude, he had the curiosity to get some estimate 
of it by timing its piMgress, and ho found that although 
it tilled the broad sti-eet fi'om curbstone to curbstone, 
and was moving rapidly, it took between twenty and 
tweuty-iivu minutes for it to pass a single point. 

A ragged, <;<jatlQ86, heteroge neon sly weaponed army, 
it heaved tnmultuously along towai-d Third Avenue, 
Tearing down the telegraph poles as it crossed the 
Harlem & New Haven Railroad track, it surged an- 
grily up around the building whore tlie drafting was 
going on. The small stjuad of jiolice stationed there 
to repress disorder looked on bewildered, feeling they 
were powerless in the presence of such a host. Soon 
a stone went crashing through a window, which waa 
the signal for a general assault on the doors. These 
giving way before tlio immense pi-esaure, the foremost 
i-ushed in, followed by shouts and yells from those be- 
hind, and began to break up the furniture. The 
drafting r.fficers, in an adjoining room, alarmed, fled 
precipitately thi-ough the rear of the building. The 
mob seized the wheel in which were the names, and 



154 



TOE GKEAT KI0T8 OF NEW ToEK CITT. 



wiiat books, papers, and lists were left, and tore thorn, 
np, and scattered them in every direction. A safe 
stood un one eido, which was Eupposed to contain im- 
portant papers, and on this tliey fell with clnbs and 
Btones, but in vain. Enraged at being thwarted, they 
set fire to the building, and harried out of it. As tho 
smoke began to ascend, the oulooking tnnltitndo with- 
out sent np a loud clieer. Though the upper part of 
the building was occupied by families, the rioters, 
thinking that tho officers were concealed there, rained 
etonoB and brick-bats against the windows, Bonding 
terror into the hearts of the inmates. Deputy Provost 
Harsbal Vandeqjoel, who had mingled in the crowd, 
fearing for the lives of the women and children, 
boldly stepped to the front, and tried to appease tha 
mob, telliug them the pai)era were all destroyed, and 
begged them to fall back, and let others help the in- 
mates of the building, or take hold themselves. The 
reply was a heavy blow in t!ie face. Vanderpoel 
shoved the man who gave it aside, when he was aa- 
Bailed with a shower of blows and curses. Fearing 
for hie life, he broke through the crowd, and hastened 
to the spot where the police were standing, wholly 
powerless in the midst of this vast, excited throng. 

In the meantime, the flames, unarrested, made rapid 
way, and communicating to the adjoining building, sot 
it on fire. Tlio volumes of Bmoke,rolling heavenward, 
and the crackling and roaring of the flames, seemed 
for a moment to awe Uie mob, and it looked iiilently 
on the ravaging of a power more terrible and deetruo- 
tive than its own. 

At this time Superintendent Kennedy was quietly 
making his way across the l-own toward the oftiiie 



I 



1>EAFT KIOTa OF 18BS. 



the provost marshal, Jenkins. But noticing a fire bb 
he apjiroacbed, he left his wagon at tho corner of 
Porty-Bixtb Street and Lexington Avenue, and walked 
over toward Third Avenue. The street was blocked 
with people, hut tliey eeeined quiet and orderly as any 
gatliering in presence of a fire, and differed fnim it 
only in that the countenances of all Hoemed to wear a 
pleased, gratified look. As he unsuBpiuiousty edged 
his way forward toward the fire, he heard some one 
cry out, "There's Kennedy!" "Which is liim!" 
asked a second j and he was pointed out, 

Kennedy was dressed in ordinary citizen's clothes, 
and carried only a slight bamboo cane. Thinking the 
allusion to him was pivmpted only by curiosity,he kept 
on, when suddenly lie felt himself violently pushed 
against. Turning aroimd, he encountered a man in a 
soldier's old uniform, and sternly demanded what he 
meant by that. The words bad hardly escaped his 
lips, when a heavy blow was planted full in his face. 
Instantly the crowd closed arcunid him, and rained 
blows in rapid suceesaiou on him, until he fell over and 
down the graded street, some six feet, into a vacant 
lot. Tlie crowd, \rith yells, poured after him. Ken- 
nedy, springing to his feet, started on a run across the 
lot towards Forty-seventh Street, distancing his pursu- 
ers. But as he reached Forty-seventh Street, and at- 
tempted to ascend the embankment, another crowd, 
which had witnessed the pursuit, rushed upon him, and 
knocked hiui back again in front of his pnrsners. Ue 
qoickly sprang up, though bleeding and stunned, for 
he knew Im only chance for life was in keeping his 
feet. But the crowd closing around on bfjth sides 
gave him no chance to niu. One huge fellow, armod 



156 



' Yt'KK CITY. 



witli a heavy club, endeavored to break in hie Bkull, I 
but Kennedy dodgbd his blows, Careful only for his I 
head, he let them beat hJs bt>dy, while he made desper i 
ate efforts to break through the mass, whose demoniacal | 
yellfl aud oatlis showed that they intended to take hiB I 
life. Ill the struggle the whole crowd, swaying to and ( 
fro, slowly advanced toward Lexiugttm Avenue, com- 
ing, as tliey did Eo, ujxm a wide mud-hole. " Drown I 
him I drown him ! " arose at once on every side, and I 
die next moment a heavy blow, planted under hia ear, I 
sent him beadforemost into the water. 

Falling with his face amid the stones, he waa kicked 1 
aud trampled on, and pounded, till ho was a mass of I 
gore. Still struggling desperately for life, he managed 
to get to his feet ^;;uiu, and made a dash for the mid- 
dle of the pond. The water was deep, and his mui'- j 
dei-era, disliking to get wet, did not follow bini, but I 
ran around to the other aide, to meet him as he camo I 
out. But Kennedy was ahead of them, and springing J 
up the bank into Lexington Avenue, saw a man wlioio / 
he knew, aud called out : " John Eagan, come here and I 
save my life 1 " Mr. Eagan, who was a well-knowii j 
aud influential resident of that vicinity, immediatelyj 
rushed forward to his assistance, and an-csted his pur- 
suers. But tlio Snpenntendent was so terribly bruised j 
and mangled, that Eagan did nut recognize him. He, j 
however, succeeded in keeping tlie mob back, who, I 
seeing the horril)lo condition tlieir victim waa in,! 
doubtless thought they had tiuished him. Other citi-T 
zens now coming forward, a passing feed wagon wa*l 
seeured, into wliicb Kennedy was lifted, and driven t 
police Iiead-qnarters. Acton, who was in the street i 
the wagon approached, saw the mangled luidy withli),! 



OR A FT EIOTS OF ISK. 



157 



but did not droam who it was. The driver inquired 
where he should take him. " Around to the station," 
carelessly replied Auton. The driver hesitated, and 
inqnired again, " "Wliere to ? " Acton, eiipposing it 
was some dmnliard, bruised in a hrawl, replied rather 
petulantly, " Aronnd to the station." The man then 
told him it was Kennedy. Acton, scanning the feat- 
ures more closely, saw that it indeed was the Superin- 
tendent himself in this horrible condition. As the 
officers gathered around tlie bleeding, almost nncon- 
scions form, a murmur of \tTatli was heard, a sure pro- 
monition what work would be done when the hour of 
vengeance should come. 

Kennedy was carried into head-quarters, and n snr- 
geon immediately sent for. After an examination had 
shown that no bones vffive broken, he was taken U) tim 
house of a friend, and, before the week closed, wa« on 
his feet again. 

Acton, now the legal head of the police force, wKin 
showed he was the right man in the right place, Oi a 
nervous tenii^erament, he was quick and prompt, yot 
cool and decided, and relentless as death in tiie <1In- 
charge of his duty- Holding the views of Mio flntt 
Napoleon respecting mobs, he did not believe In npeitcli- 
making to them. Ilis addresses were to hi< liieuKt 
clubs and grape-shot. Taking in at onra the ymvity of 
the situation, lie, after despatching such force ui wiw 
immediately available to the scene of tliu riot, t«l«- 
graphed to the different ]irecinctH tti have thi* nnlli'M 
reserve force concentrated at liea<l-quarlcrH, which vruna 
in Mulberry Street, near Blecckcr. 

He saw at once, to have his force i.<£Fect!vii It iiiiiNt 
be well in hand, ito that lie could Hand it out in iiiiy 



15S 



THE GKEAT RIOTS OK : 



diretition in sufficient strength to bear down all oppo- 
sition. Subsequent events proved tJie wisdom of liia 
policy, fur we sliall see, after it bad been aceompliehed, 
the police never lost a battle. 

There being tliiity-two precincta in the limits of the 
Metropolitan Polioe, a vast territory was covered. 
These were reached by a system of tel^raph wires, 
called the Telegraph Bureau, of which James Crowley 
was snperintendent and Eldred Pcilliainus deputy. 
There were three operators — Cliapin, Duvall, and Lucas. 
A telegraph station was in each pieciiict^thus making 
tliirty-two, all coining to a focus at head -quarters. 
These are also divided into five sections — north, south, 
east, west, and central. The Cora mission era, therefore, 
sitting in the central office, can send messages almost 
instantaneously to every precinct of the city, and rft- 
ceive immediate answers. Hence, Mr. Acton was a 
huge Briareus, reaching out his arms to Fort Washing- 
ton in the north, and Brooklyn in the south, and at the 
same time touching the banks of both rivers. No 
other system could be devised giving such tremendous 
power to the police — the power of instant information 
and rapid concentration at any desired point. That it 
proved itself the strong right arm of the Comraission- 
ere, it needs oidy to state, that during the four days of 
the riot, between five and six thousand messages passed 
over the wires, showing that they were worked to their 
utmost capacity, day and night The more intelligent 
of the mob understood this, and hence at the outset 
attempted to break up this communication, by cutting 
down the poles on Third Avenue. This stopped all 
messages to and from the precincts at Fort Waahing- 



I 



DRAFT EI0T9 OF 1861 



159 



ton, manhattanville, ITarlem, Torkville, and Blooming- 
dale, as well as with the Kineteenth Precinct. 

But fortunately, the ordera to tLeso had passed 
over the wires before tlie work was completed. Sub- 
sequently, the rioters cut down tho poles in First 
Avenue, in Twenty-second Street, and Ninth Avenue, 
destroying communication between several utJicr pre- 
cincts. 

Mr. Crowley, the Snperintondent of the Telegraph 
Bureau, was made acquainted early, Monday, by mere 
accident with this plan of the rintei-s, Comiug to town 
in the Third Avenue oars from Torkville, where he re- 
sided, he suddenly found tlie car arrested by a mob, 
and getting out with the other paaeengera, discovered 
men chopping furiously away at the telegraph poles ; 
and without stopping to think, ruBhed up to them and 
ordered tbcra to desist. One of the niffiaus, looking 
up, cried out, " he is one of the d — d operators." In- 
stantly yells arose, "Smash him," "Kill him," when 
those nearest seized him. By great adroitness lie dis- 
armed their suspicions sufficiently to prevent further 
violence, though they held him prisoner for an hour. 
At last, seeing an opportunity when more important ob- 
jects attracted their attention, he quietly worked hia 
way out and escaped. 




Boldiora beaten by the Mob. — OaUant Fight of Sergeant McCredie.— 
Hob Triilmphnnt.^Bent Police Offiecra nnmercifnlly.— Fcarfnl 
Sceies.— Fifty thoasand People block Third Avenue. — A whole 
Block of HouBos buniic^. ^Attack on a Qan Factory. — Defeat of 
the Broadway Sqmwi.^IIouaeH nocked in Lexington Avenue. — 
Telegraph DispataheH, — Bull's llead Tavern burned.— Block on 
Bcondwoy burned —Burning of the Negroes' Orphnn A^flnm. — 
Attnek on Mayor Opdyko'a Honse,— A Cri»iH nobly mot. — GaJbmt 
Fight and Victory of Seigeant Carpenter. _A tbrilling gpeote- 

In the meantime, the niob that stood watcliing thai 
spreading conflagration in Third Avenue increafier 
rapidly, fed by trihutaries from the teueinent-lionsee,, 
alums, and workshops in that vicinity. But they wertti 
soon startled from fheir state of comparative quietneeSj 
by the cry of " tlie soldiers are coming." The Iiivali 
Corps, a Email body sent from the Park, was approach- 
ing. As it came tip, the soldiers fired, eitlier Maul 
cartridges, or over tlie heads of the crowd, doubtless 
thinking a single discharge would disperse it. The 
folly of such a course was instantly shown, for the mob, 
roused into sudden fury, dashed on the small body of 
soldiers before they could reload, and snatching awayj 
tlieir mnakets, pounded tliom over the head, and 
cliased tbem like sheep for ten blocks. One soldi 
was left for dead on the pavement, beaten to a jel 
Another, breaking froTn the crowd, attempted to cHral 
some rocks near Forty-second Street, when bis 



I 

1 



■ KiOTS OF lasa. 



161 



I 



ers grabbed him and draped him to tlie top, where 
they tore off hie iiiiiforiu, and beat him till he was 
Benseless, and tlien threw liim down to the bottom and 
left him. 

In the meantime. Sergeant McCredie, " fighting 
Mac," as he was ealled, from the Fifteenth Prednct, 
Captain C. W. Caffrey, arrived on the 6cene with a 
few men. Marching down Forty-third street to Third 
Avenue, thty looked np two blocks, and to tJieir 
amazement beheld tlie broad avenue, as far as tliey 
coald see, blocked with the mob, while before it, bearing 
swiftly d(>wn on tliem, and running for life, came the 
terror-stricken Invalid Corps. At this jtinctrire, other 
squads sent from various precincts arrived, swelling this 
force to forty-fonr. It was a mere handful among 
these enraged thousands; but M(<?redie, who at once 
took command, determined to stand his ground, and 
meet as best he could the overwhelming numbers that 
(sme driving down like a storm, filling the air with 
yells and oaths, and brandishing their clubs over their 
heads. He thought that another police force was be- 
yond the mob, on the north, aud if he could press 
through and form a junction with it, the two com- 
bined would be sti-ong enough to liold their own. He 
therefore quickly formed his men in line across the 
BtrOGt, and awaited the shock. As the disorderly mass 
following up the fugitives drew near, MeCredie or- 
dered a charge, and this mere handful of men moved 
swiftly and steadily upon it. The rioters, stunned by 
the suddenness and strength of the blow, recoiled, aud 
tiie police, following up their advantage, drove them 
hack, step by step, as far as Forty-sixth street. Here the 
sergeant, instead of meeting another body of police, as !«• 



162 



TFTE GKKAT I 



I OF SKW YOKK CITY. 



expected, met a heavier body of riot«ra that were blcwl 
iug up Forty-sixth Street on both eidcB of tho avenai 
Eauked by these, the main body rallied and charged 
on the exhausted police force in tnni, and almoet biit- 
roiinded them. To render their already desperate sit- 
uation hopeless, another mob suddenly closed in behind 
them from Forty-fifth street. | 

ThiTB attacked iu fi-ont and rear with ulube, iron- 
bat-B, guns and pistols, and rained u|)on with stones 
and brick-bats from the roofs of the liousea. they were 
unable longer to keep together, and broke and fled — 
part np the side streets, and some down tlie avenue — 
bruised, torn, and bleeding. 

The desperate nature of this first conflict can be im-j 
agined, when, out of tlie fourteen men compoaii 
Sergeant McCredie's original force, only fi\-e were left; 
unwounded. At the very outset of the charge, tlie 
sergeant himself was struck with an iron bar on thoj 
wrist, which rendered tlie arm almost nseless. In tho; 
retreat, four men assailed him at once. Knocking 
down two, he twok refuge in tlie house of a Gennai^! 
when a young woman told liim to jump between twm 
mattresses. He did so, and she covered him up j 
aa Ilia pnrsuei's forced their way in, Streamine| 
through the bouse from cellar to garret, they cami 
back, and demanded of the young woman where thi 
man was hid. She quietly said he had escaped by the' 
rear of the house. Believing she tuld the truth, th& 
took their departure. Officer Bennett was knockec 
down three times before he ceased fifrhting. The laal 
time he waa supjKisod to be dead, when the wretehi 
began to rob bim even of his clothing, stripping hi! 
of every article except his drawei-s. He ^vas 



I 



DRAFT RIOTS OF 1«W. 



163 



after taken up and carried to St. Luke'a Hoepital, and 
placed in the dead-liouae, where he lay for several 
hours. "When the sad news was brought to his wife, 
Bhe hastened to the hospital, and fell weeping on the 
lifeleBB form of her husband. She could not believe 
he was dead, and laylug her hand on Lis heart, found 
to her joy that it pulsated. She immediately flew to 
the officials of the hospital, and had him brought in, 
and restoratives applied. He revived, but remained 
■unconscious for three days, while the riot raged around 
him. Officer Tnivis, in the flight down the avenue, 
flaw, as he looked back, that his foremnst pursuer bad 
a pistol. Wheeling, he knocked him down, and seized 
the pistol, but before he could use it, a dozen clubs 
were raining blows upon him, which brought him to 
the ground. The infuriated men then jumped npoa 
liim, knocking out his teeth, breaking his jaw-l)oue 
and right hand, and terribly mutilating his whole 
body. Supposing him U) be dead, they then stripped 
him stark naked and left him on the pavement, a 
gliastly spectacle to the passers-by. Officer Phillips 
ran the gauntlet almost unharmtid, but was pursued 
block after block by a portion of the mob, till he 
reached Thirty-ninth street. Here he attempted to 
enter a house, bat it was closed against him. As lie 
turned down the steps, one of the pursuers, in soldier's 
clothes, levelled his musket at him and fired. Missing 
his aim, he clubbed bis weapon, and dealt him a 
deadly blow. Phillips caught the musket as it de- 
scended, and wrenching it from his grasp, knocked 
the fellow down with it, and started and ran across 
a vacant lota to Fortieth Street. But here lie was 
led off by another portion of the mob, in which 



1C4 



THE GREAT RIOTa OP 1 



was a woman, wbo m&de a lange nt him with 
shoemaker's knife. The knife missed hia tJiroat, bi 
passed through Lis ear. Drawing it back, eIi 
another stab, piercing his arm. Ho was now bleeding 
profusely, and his death seemed inevitable, when a 
stranger, seeing his condition, sprang forward, am 
ijoveriug Iiis body, declared be wonld kill the first inai 
that advanced. Awed by his determined manner, 
fieudB sullenly withdrew. Offiuora Sutherland and 
Mingay were also badly beaten. Officer Kicrnaii, 
receiving a blow on hia head \ritli a stone, another 
iin the back of his neck with a hay-bale rung, and 
two more on the knees, fell insenaible, and wonld 
doubtless ha\'e been killed outright, but for the wife 
of Eagau, who saved Kennedy, Throwing herself 
over his body, she exclaimed, " for God's aoke do not 
kill him," Seeing that they had got to attack this lady 
to get at Kiernan, they passed on. 

Tlie ficeiio in Third Avenue at this time was fearfq^ 
and appalling. It was now noon, but the hot July snit 
was obscured by heavy clouds, that hung in ominous 
shadows over the city, while from near Cooper In&litute 
to Forfy-eixtli Street, or about tliirty blocks, the avenue 
was black with human beings, — sidewalks, house-to| 
windows, and stoops all filled with rioters or sped 
tors. Dividing it like a streaih, horse-cars arrested 
tlieir course lay strung along as far aa the eye con! 
rt^ach. As the glance ran along this mighty niasa 
men and women north, it rested at length on liu| 
columns of smoke rolling heavenward from biuiili 
buildings, giving a still more fearful aspect to 
scene. Many estimated the numl»er at this time iti 
street at fifty thousand. 



u u 

and|^ 
na^H 
th<M 



DKAFT KIOT8 OF 1 



165 



rin the meantime the tire-bell had brought tlie fire- 
men on the ground, but the mub would not lot them 
approach the biirniDg lionscs. The flames had com- 
municated with the adjoining block and wero now mak- 
ing fearfnl headway. At leiiglh Engineer Decker ad- 
dresfied the mob, which by this time had grown thinner 
by the main mass mov-iiig farther down town, who told 
them that everything relating to the proroet raarshars 
office was destroyed, and now the fire was destroying 
private property, some of which donbtless belonged to 
pereoBB friendly to them, and finally persuaded them 
to let the engines work. Water was soon deluging the 
buildings, and the fire at length arrested, but not nntil 
four were consumed with all their contents. 

The drawing commenced in the Eighth DiBtrict, 1190 
Broadway, Captain Maniere provost marshal, on the 
same morning, and continued quietly nntil abont 12 
o'clock, when it was adjourned, and policemen who had 
been stationed there to guard it were sent over to the 
Ninth District, where the mob was carrying e\erythiug 
before it. But coming in small bodies, they were easily 
overcome and scattered. Sergeant Ellison, especially, 
got badly beaten ; and Sergeant Wade, who came up 
soon after, and charged gallantly on the mob, shared 
the same fate, and had to be taken to St. Luke's Hos- 
pital. The work of destruction having commenced, it 
went on after this with the wild in-egularity character- 
istic of mobs. The news of the uprising and deetmc- 
tion of property, as it spread through those portions of 
the city where the low Irish dwelt, stirred up all t!ie in- 
matee, and they came thronging forth, till there were in- 
cipient mobs on almost every comer. From this time no 
oonsecntive narrative can be given of the after dnings. 



: ^i »pparentljr 
- ,r ! ., ,-ry in 

I'ther. 

-. -^..-^ that 

1 JLvcBoe and 

i. umI eoou a 

..^..-.u. TbePulice 

f this, and faaBtiljr eent 

jpv it, and they mo- 

>;*--r.ifj. uj i:"i'J^ ir:iiL;i. aci'i in paiis, ia reaching It — 

thirt^'Sre all told. These men, selected for their euie^ 

being all six feet or upward, irere ordered lo bold the 

place at all hazardEv 

lu the meantime the mob endeavored to gain admit 
tanoe, hot warned off bjr Sergeant Bnrdick, lefL But 
scarcely a qaarfer of an bt>ar had elapeed, whcu the/ 
relumed heavily reinforced, armed with all Idnda of 
wcapTfDB, sad jelUiig and hootiiig like fiends. Stones 
and bricks came crashiug through the windows, bnt 
fltill the Bqnad, thoogh every man was armed with a 
carbioo, did not fire. 

Tho mob then tried to set the factory on fire, but 
failed. Enraged at being baffled, a powerful man ad- 
vanend on ttic duiir with a ek-dgivhammer, and b^an 
to pound against it. At length one of tiie ])anoLs gave 
wny, and an a, i-huut arose from tlioee looking on, he 
boldly utk'inpted to crawl thmiiffli. TIio rc'ixjrtofa 
tiolitary oai'liino was lieard, and ibc bi-ains of the man 
lay scattered on the floor. This staggered the moh for 
a moment, but soon fear gave way to rage, and ahotsj 



4 



■t 

^V ill the 
^V tbroiif 



DBA FT RIOTS OF IBIiS. 



167 



BtoneB were rained against the building, smaBhing 
ill the windows, and rapidly making a clean breach 
tbrongli the door. IJurdick sent to Captain Cameron 
for aid, but ho replied that he could not reach him. 

At 3.45 the following telegram was seut from the 
Eighteeutli Precinct : 

" The mob have attacked the armory, Second Avenue 
and Twenty-firet Street, There is danger of firing the 
building." 

Fifteen minntes later came : " It is impossible for us 
to protect the armory at Second Avenue and Twenty- 
first Street." 

Answer — " Draw your men off. D. C." 

The squad, in evacuating the building, found them- 
eelves cnt off both in front and at the sides. 

The only mode of escape was througli a hole in the 
rear wall, some eighteen feet from the ground, and 
Bcarcelyn foot and a half in diameter. Piling up boxes 
to reach this aperture, these large men squeezed them- 
selves through one by one, feet foremost, ai:d swinging 
to a gutter-trongh, dropped into the yard belim'. Climb- 
ing from thence over a wall into a stone-yard, they 
sped across it to the Eighteenth Precinct Station in 
Twenty-second Street. Here taking off their uniforms, 
ihey made their way singly, or in groups of two or 
three, back to the central office. 

No sooner did they leave the building tlian the mob 
entered it, and the work of pillage commenced. Every 
man armed himself with a musket. The stacks of 
weapons left, after they had taken all they wanted, were 
broken up or rendered useless. One thrown out of 
the window fell on a man's head in the street and 
killed him. 




16S 



THE r.KKST r 



While die armory was beiDg attai-ked, anotlie 
mob was eackiiig and burning houses on Lexiugto: 
Avenne, near Forty-seventh Street. Within five min-j 
ntes from the aimouncemcnt of this fact, uame from-tl 
Sixth Precinct the following diapstdi: "A mob < 
about Eeveu hundred attacked some colored people it 
Baxter Street, and then went to the Baloon of Samuel 
Crook, in Chatham Street, and beat some colored waiters 
there." 

A few minutes later from Sixteenth came: 
crowd of about three huiidi'ed men have gone to the* 
foot of Twenty-fourth Street, to 6t*)p men in the foua<4 
dry from working." 

At the same time the following was received frotul 
the Twenty-lirst Precinct : " TI10 mob avow their detei^ J 
raination of burning this Btation, Our connpction by J 
telegram may Ik; interrnptod at any moment." 

Another from the Twentieth said: "Avery largol 
crowd is n(jw going down Fifth Avenue, to attack tlieJ 
Tribune building." 

Aa fast OB the wires conld work, followed " from tlieif 
Twenty-fourth Precinct:" 

" The mob have fired the buildings comer of Broad- J 
way and Twenty -fourth Street." 

All this time, while new notes of alarm were eonnded, 1 
and tile police department was struggling to get its I 
force in hand, the work of destruction was going oal 
in the upper part of the city. Bull's Head Tavern, I 
Forty-sixth Street, attracted tlie attention of the mob.l 
The sales of the immense herds of cattle iu the ad*| 
joining yard had been suspended, and tlie hotel c 
The crowd, however, forgetting the draft, and i 
only on pillage, streamed np aronnd it, and she 



m 


1 






1 




1 


1 


L^"" Ij 


1 



DKAJT KliytS OF HCt 



KO 



" Fire it ! fire it t " "WTiflB fotoe were calling for axes 
•Dd crowbaus, teu pcnrerfol meti jnmped un the stoop, 
atxl with a few beavr bknn eeiit the Itall door By- 
ii^ from its hinges- Thejellitig crowd tbcn roeked in, 
and after helpiii^ dietnselvcs to what the; waoted, ap- 
plied tbe tordi, and aaoa &e entire ttiulding waii a 
man of flame. 

At this time anotber mob was eacking boneee in Lex- 
i^ton Areaae. Ek^ant fnrnitiire aod silver plate 
were borne awajr hy ittc crowd, while tlie ladies, with 
tbdr dtildreu and aerraoiB, fled in terror from tlie 
■eeoe. The proTcstmanfaal'afaeadqiiartGni were also set 
oa fire, and tlw wbc^e block oo Broadway, between 
Tweity-ei^ith and Twenty-ninth Streets, was l>nrned 
down, while jewelry storea and ebope of all kinds were 
plundered and their contents oirried off. A vant horde 
fbllcnred the riotera for tbe eole pnrpoee of p]iii)der, 
and loaded down with their ^toik, could be Been liasten- 
ing home in every direetioa. 

While these fires were mider foil headway, a new idea 
seemed to strike tbe mob, or at lea^t a portion of it. 
Atving atopped the draft in two diitricts, saeked and 
■at OD fire nearly aBoore (rf Itoosea, and half killed m 
many ni«i. it now, implied by a Mninge lo^e, Bought 
to destroy the Colored OnAaa Ai^lirm on Fifth Avo- 
nne, extending fromForty-tfainltoForty-founli Street. 
llHce would hare been no draft bnt for the war— 
dure woold have been no war but for alarery. Diit 
the davee were black, er^o, sU blacks are reKp<?nMiI>l« 
Cor the war. Tbia tinted to be the logic of the mob, 
and having reached the aage etmcliMion Ui wbiuli it 
oonducted, tbey did not stop to oonsider bow poor 
heUplcflB oq>hane ij»ald be held re^Kinsiblc, but pro- 



170 



TDE OKEAT KIOTH OF NEW 1 



(•et;ded at once to wreak tlieir vengeance on them. 
The building was four etories lu'gh, and besides the 
matrons and officers, contained over two hundred cbil- 
di-en, from mere infants np to twelve yeara of age. 
Around ihia building the rioters gathered with loud 
cries and oatlis, sending terror into the hearts of the 
inmates. Siiperin tendon t William E. Davis hurriedly 
fastened the d<x)re; but knowing they would furnish 
but a momentary resistance to the armed multitude, he, 
witli otiiers, collected hastily the terrified children, and 
cai-rying some in their arms, and leading others, hur- 
ried them in a confused crowd out at the rear of the 
building, just as the ruffians effected un entrance in 
front. Then the work of pillage commenced, and 
everything carried off that could be, oven to tlic dresses 
and trinkets of the children, while heavy fumitni-e 
was smushed and chopped up in the blind desire of 
destruction. Nut siitisfiod with this, they piled the 
fraguieute in the di£Fercnt I'oonis, and set lire to them. 
At this juncture Chief Engineer Decker arrived, and 
determined, if [xiesible, to save the building, addreetied 
the crowd, as he had in tlie morniug, hoping to induce 
tliem to forbear further ^^iolouce, and let hijn extin- 
guish the flames. But they had now got beyond argu- 
ment of any kind, and knocking him down twice, 
pitched him into the street. But ten brave firemen 
at this juncture rnelied to his side, and together fought 
their way through the crowd into the building, where 
they were joined by two assistant engineers, Lamb i 
and Lewis. They at oace began to scatter and extin- 
guish the burning fragments, keeping back for a while, 
by their bold bearing, the riotei-s. The laltei', however, 
80011 rallied in force, and some mounting to the loft, si 



171 



it on fire in every part. Deckerandliis few gallant allies, 
finding it impossible to save the building, retreated 
into the street, and &oon tlie maeiiive structure was a 
sheet of flame. 

The crowd now proceeded to Mayor Opdjke's liouae, 
and gatliering in front of it, sent up shouts and calls 
for the Mayor. They were, Iiowerer-, deterred at that 
time from accomplishing their purpose by an appeal 
from Judge Barnard, wlio addi'essed them from the 
steps of an adjoining house. 

Soon after, an inimouBe mob was reported coming 
down Broadway, for the purpose, some thonght. of at- 
tacking the negro waiters in tlie Lafarge House, be- 
tween Amity and Eleecker Streets, but in fact to at- 
tack police head-quarters in Mulberry Street, and break 
up the very centre of operations. It was a bold stroke, 
but the ringleaders had been drinking all day, and now, 
maddened by liquor, were ready for tlie most desperate 
attempta. When the news of this movement reached 
head-quarters, the commissioners saw that a crisis had 
come. The mob numbered at least five tiiousattd, 
while they conld not muster at that moment two hun- 
dred men. The clerk, Mr. Hawley, went to tlie com- 
missioners' room, and said ; "Gentlemen, the crisis has 
come. A battle lias got to he Jvug/ii now, and won 
too, or all is lost," They agreed with him. ■' But 
who," they asked, " will lead t!ie comparatively small 
force in this fight J " He replied tliat ho thonght that 
Sergeant Carpenter sboidd bo selected, as one of the 
oldest and most experienced officers on the force. 
" Well," they said, " will you go down to his room and 
Bee what he saya abont it J" He went, and laid before 



I 



173 



! OBEAT BIOTB OF NEW yo 



him the perilous condition of things, and that&nim- 
medi&te and successful battle mutt bo foiiglit. 

CariJentcr heard him through, and taking in fnlly the 
periloiia condition of things, piiused a moment, and 
then rising to his full height and lifting hie hand, Baid, 
with a ternble oath, " I'll go, and I'll win that tight, or 
Daniel Uaj'penter xciil ntfoer come bach a live man^ 
IIo walked out and anmmoned the little force, and U 
" Fall in, men ; fall in," was repented, they fell into line 
along the street, Wlum all was ready, Acton tnrned 
to Carpenter, every liueumeut of whose face showed 
the Btem jjnrpoae that mastered him, and quietly eaid, 
" SergeaiU, make no arrests." 

It was to be a battle in which no prisoners were to 
be taken. " All right" replied Carpenter, aa ho but- 
toned np his ctMit and slioiited " Forward." Solid, and 
silent eave their heavy, measured tread on the pave- 
ment, they movod down Bleecker Street towards 
Broadway. As they tnrned into the latter street, only 
a blouk and a half away, they saw the mob.whicli filled 
Uio entire street far as the eye conid reach, moving 
tiunultnously foi-ward. Ai'ined with clubs, ])itchfoi'k9, 
iron bars, and some with gims and pistols, and most of 
tliem in their shirt-sleeves and shouting as they came, 
they presented a wild and savage appearance. Pe- 
(lestrians fled down tiie side streets, stores were hastily 
closed, stages vanislicd, and they had the street to them- 
sclveH. A Imge board, on which was inscribed " No 
Draft," was bortie aloft i>8 a banner, and beside it 
waved the Stars and Stripes. 

The less than two hundred [wlicemen, compact and 
firm, now halted, wliile Carpenter detached two com- 
panies of fifty each np the j)arallel streets to the 



I 



DRAFT RIOTS OF l.SftS. 



173 



and left, as far b« Fourth Street. Coming down thia 
Btifet from l>oth di [■cut ions, they were to atrike the mob 
on Ivolh llaiikB at the same time lie charged thera in front. 
Ho waited till they had readied their poBitions, and then 
ahoiited, "By the right fianh Com^ny front, doiAle- 
quick, ciiAROE." InBtantanermsljevery club was Bwnng 
in air, and solid as a wall and awift as a wavo tliey 
swept fnll on the astoniehed multitude; while at the 
same time, to cut the monster in two, the two corapa- 
nicB chai^d in flank. Caritenter, Btriding several steps 
in advance, his face fairly blazing with esciteraent, 
dealt tho first blow, stretching on the pavement a pow- 
erful pufliaii, who was rushing on him with a huge club. 
For a few minutes nothing was heard but tho heavy 
thud of clubs falling on human skulls, thick and fast as 
hailstones on windows. Tite mob, just before so con- 
fident and bold, quailed in terror and would have 
broke and fled at once, but for the mass behind which 
kept bearing down n\\ thera. This, however, soon gave 
way before the side attacks and tho panic that followed. 
Then tlie confusion and uproar Ixtcarae terrible, and 
the raasa surged hither and thither, now rolling np 
Broadway, and again borne back or shoved np against 
the stores, seeking madly for a way of escape. At 
length, breaking into fragments, they rushed down the 
side streets, hotly pursued by tJie police, whose remorse- 
less clubs never ceased to fall as long as a fugitive was 
witliin reach. Broadway looked like a field of battle, 
for the pavement was strewn thick with bleeding, pros- 
ti-ate foims. It was a great victory and decisive of all 
future contests. 

Having effectually dispersed them. Carpenter, with 
captured flag, marched up to Mayor Opdyke'a 



174 



THE GREAT RIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT. 



house, when, finding everj'tliing quiet, he returned to 
head -quarters. This successful attack of the police was 
recei^'bd with cheers by those spectatorB who had wit- 
nessed it. 



CHAPTER XrV. 

>To Milituy in Che City.— Tbe Viayot calla on Geuenl Wool, com- 
munding Eastern Deportment, for Help. — Also on QeceiBl 
Sandford. — Geneml Wool scndB to General Brown, cominiuid- 
iog Gamson in the Harbor, for U. S. Tcoopfl, — Uaj-meij of the 
Kttvy Yard ordered up. — EFentnaUj, West Point and Heveral 
States appealed to for Troope, — OeneTul Brown auumes Com- 
mond. — Attack of Hub on the Tribwie Building. — Its severe Pnn- 
isbnient. — Govenmient Building gnrTiBoned.—Difficnlty between 
GencralH Brown and Wool — Head^qnarters. — Police Commis- 
Bioners' Offiee Military Heud-quartierB. 

TuE terrible pniiifehment the rioters received at the 
hands of Caqjenter had, however, only cheeked their 
movements for a time ; and, as the sun began to hang 
low in the euinmer heaveiie, men looked forward to 
the coming night with apprehension. 

In the meantime, however, the aothoritiea, conscioua 
of the perilous condition of the city, had resorted to 
every means of defence in their power. Unfortunately, 
as mentioned before, nearly tlie whole of ita military 
force, on which it depended in any great emergency, 
was absent. Lee's brilliant flank movement aroimd 
Hooker and Washington, tenninatiug in the invasion 
of Pennsylvania, had filled the conntry with consterna- 
tion. His mighly columns were moving straight on 
Philadelphia, and the Government at Washington, 
roused to the imminent danger, had called for all the 
troops within reach, and New Y<jrk had sent forward . 
nearly every one of her regiments. Ordinuiy pm- 



176 



TlIK GBKAT BIOTB OF NKW YORK CITY. 



(lence would have dictated tlial the draft should be 
poatponed for a few daj-s, till tlieao regiinfuts, iiow on 
tJieir way back, or pi'eparing to return, should arrive. 
It was rnuning a needless risk to urge it in such a 
crisis — indeed, one of the follies of whifh tlie Adrainift- 
ti'ation at this time was eo needlessly guilty. 

General Wool, at this juncture, commanded the 
Eastern Department, with his head-quai'tcrs at the cor- 
ner of Bleceker and Gi-eene Streets. Mayor Opdyke 
immediately called on him for help, and also on Major- 
general Sandford, connnanding the few troops that 
were loft in the city. The latter immediately i»ued an 
order requesting the Seventh Regiment to meet that 
evening, at their drill-rooins, at eight o'clock, to consult 
on the uieasiirea necessary to be taken in tlie preeeat 
unexpected crisis, and another to the late two-years' 
vohmtcers then in the city, tu report at the same hour 
in Grand Street, to Colonel William II. Allen, for tem- 
porary duty. 

General Wool, also, during the afternoou, while the 
rioters were having it all their own way, sent an officer 
to the adjutant-general of General Uiown, commanding 
the troops in garrison in New York harbor, ordering 
up a force of alwut eighty men immediately. 

General Brown, on his way fi-om his o3ice to Fort 
Ilamilton, was informed by Colonel Stinsou, chief 
clerk, that a serious riot was raging in the city, and 
that General Wool had sent to Fort Hamilton for a 
detachment of some eighty men, and that a tug had 
gone for them. Surprised at the smallness of the 
number sent (he was, by special ordera of the War De- 
partment, commandant of the city, and commander' 
of all the forta and tivx)ps in the harboi' except Fort 



I 



DRAFT RIOTS OF IMS. 



177 



ColumbuB), lie immediately oMered the company at 
Fort Wood to the city, and sent a tug for it. He then 
made a reqiiieition on the quartermaster for tranaporta- 
tion of all the other companies, and jjroceeded withont 
delay to Fort Ilamilton. General Brown's office was 
close to General Wo<ira ; but he did not think proper 
to consult Iiim on the lufivement. 

General Brown, immodiately on his arrival at Fort 
Hamilton, directed that all the troops there, as well as 
at Forts Lafayette and Hichinond, be got in readiness 
to move at a moment's notice, and also that a section 
of artillery be organized, in case it should bo wanted. 
naving taken these wise precautitms he liastened up 

, to the city, and reported to General Wool. The result 
proved the wisdom of his forecast A new order was 
at once dispatched for the remaining traops, and just at 
twilight, Lieut. McElrath saw two steamere making 
directly for the fort. Tliey were hardly fastened to the 

, dock, when an officer stepped asliore and handed him an 
order from General Brown to send up at once all the 

I efficiont troops in the forts, and liave their places sup- 

I plied as best he could with some volunteer artillery 

I companies. 

The rcfwrta coming in to police head-quarters had 
ebonm that it was no common uprising of a few dis- 

' affected men to be put down by a few squads of police 

I or a handful of soldiers. The Mayor, after consulting 
with the Police Commissionei-s, felt that it was the 

[ "beginning of a general outbreak in every part of the 

I citj-,and by liia representations persuaded General Woo! 

' to apply to Rear-admiral Paulding, commanding the 
Navy Tard, for a force of marines, and eventually to 
Oolouel Bowman, Superintendent of West Point, and 



I 



178 



; GREAT BIOTS OF NEW YOKE CITT. 



also to the authorities of Newark, and CTOvennwa o£l 
New York, New Jersey, MaseacLusetts, Cotmecticntyl 
and Rhode lelaud for troops. 

General Brown, after reporting to General Wool, I 
repaired to police liead-qnarters, which he adopted ai 
his own, and issued the following order : 

" Hbad-quabtess, New York, Ja\y 13, 1863. 
"In obedience to the orders of the Major-general I 
cotnmanding the Eastern Department, the undersigned 1 
aseuinee command of the United States tnx)pa in this J 
citj. 

" Lie II ton ant-colonel Frothinghaiu and Captain Be- I 
voile are of the EtafE of the undersigned, and will be | 
obeyed accordingly. 

" Harvey Ekowk, 
"Brevet Brigadier-gentraV* 

He also sent a dispatch tn General Saiidford, at thol 
arsenal, notifying hira of his action, and reqnestingj 
him to come down and consult with him on the course* 
to he pursued. General Sandfoi-d, after awhile, did'l 
romc down, and, to General Umwii's amazement, in- 1 
sifited tliat all the troops should be sent up to the a 
Kcnal. General Brown, seeing the utter madness oEl 
such a disposition of his force, refused decidedly tol 
permit it to he done. This was of course denying^ 
Saudford's claim to he his superior officer. It l 
well for the city that he took tliis ground. 

Ulayor Opdyke also issued a proclamation, calling onfl 
tlie rioters to dispei-ae. 

But while these meaauree were being set on footjtl 
rioters were not idle. 



^f All 
■ Park t 



DEAFT RIOTS OF 1863. 



All day long a emwd bad been gatheriDg in the 
Park around the City Hall, gi-owing more reetlese as 
□iglit eame on. Tlio railroad-cars pasBing it were 
searched, to see if any negroes were on board, while 
eyes glowered savagely on the Tribune buililing. Tliey 
had Bouglit iu an eating-hoiiae for the editor, to wreak 
their vengeance on him. Nut finding him, they deter- 
mined that the building, fmm which was issued the 
nefarious paper, should come down, but were evidently 
waiting for help to arrive before commencing the work 
of destruction. The mob, which Carpenter liad bo 
terribly punished iu Broadway, were marching for it, 
designing to burn it after they had demolished police 
head-quarters. Their dispersion delayed the attack, and 
doubtless broke its force, by the reduction of numbers 
it caused. There seemed enough, however, if properly 
led, to effect tlieir purpose, for the Park and Printing- 
bouse Square were black with men, who, as the dark- 
ness increased, grew moro restless ; and " Down with 
it I bum it I" mingled with oaths and curses, were 
heai-d on every side. 

At last came the crash of a window, as a stone went 
through it. Another and another followed, when sud- 
denly a reinforcing crowd came rushing down Cliat- 
liam Street. This was the signal for a general assault, 
and, with sliouts, the I'ahble jioured into the lower part 
of the building, and began to destroy everytliing 
within reach. Captain Warlow, of the First Precinct, 
No, 29 Broad Street, who, with his command, was in 
the gallant fight in Broadway, after some siibsequent 
fighting and marching, had at length reached his head- 
quarters in Broad Street, where a despatch met him, to 
proceed at once to the Tribune building, lie imme- 



ISO 



IITS OF NEW T'lltK CITT. 



diately started off on tlic double-quick. On reaching ' 
tlio upper end of Nassau Street, he came to a halt, and 
gave the club signal oii the pavement, to fijrm column. 
Captain Thome, of the City Hall, in the meantime, 
had joined bia force to him, with the gallant Sergeant 
Devonrsuey. Everytliing being ready, the order to 
"Charge" was given, and the entire force, perliaps a 
hundred and fifty strong, fell in one solid mass on the 
mob, knttcking men over right and left, and laying 
heads open at every blow. The panic-stricken crowd fled 
up Chatham Street, across the Pai-k,and down Spruce 
and Frankfort Streets, punished terribly at every step. 
The space around the building being cleared, a portion 
of the police rushed inside, where the work of deetruc- 
tion was going on. The sight of the blue-coats in their 
midst, with their uplifted clubs, took tlie rioters by 
surprise, and they rushed frantically for the doors and 
windows, and escaped the best way they could. In the 
meantime, those who had tnken refuge in the Park 
found themselves in the lion's jaws. Carpenter had 
hardly rested from his march up Fifth Avenue to 
Mayor Opdjke's house, when he, too, received orderB 
to hasten to the protection of t!ie Tribune building. 
Taking one hundred of his own men, and one hundred 
under Lispector Folk, of Brtioklyn, who had been early I 
ordered over, and been doing gotid service in tlie eity, ' 
he marched down Broadway, and was just entering the J 
Park, when the frightened crowd came rushing pell- \ 
mell across it. Immediately forming " company front," 
he swept the Park like a storm, clearing everythiug 1 
before him. Order being restored, Folk returned with J 
bis force to Brooklyn, where things began to wear a I 



IJKAiT KIOTB < 



181 



threatening aspect, and Carpenter took np his station 
Bl City Hall fur the night. 

This ended the heavy fighting of the day, though 
icinor djaturbanees occurred at varions points during 
the evening. Negroes had been hunted do^vn all day, 
as though they were so many wild beasts, and one, 
after dark, was caught, and after being severely beaten 
and hanged to a tree, left suspended there till Acton 
sent a force to take the body down. Many had sought 
refuge in police-stations and elsewhere, and all were 
filled with terror. 

The demonstrations in the lower part of the city 
excited the greatest anxiety about the Government 
bnildings in that section— tlie Cnstom House and Sub- 
treasury were tempting prizes to the rioters. General 
Sandfurd, commanding the city military, had sent such 
force as he could collect eariy in the day to tlie arse- 
nal, to defend it ; for, shonld the mob once get possea- 
Kon of the arms and ammunition stored there, no one 
could tell what the end would be. United States 
troops also were placed in Government buildings to 
protect them. Almost the last act of the mob tliis 
eveuing was the burning of Postmaster AVakemau'a 
house, in Eighty-sixth Street. Mrs. Wakeman was 
noted for her kindness to the poor and wretched, who. ] 
now repaid her by sacking and burning lier house. 
The precinct station near by was also destroyed, 

In tlie meanwhile, an event hap|)ened which threat- 
ened to disarrange all the ]>lan8 that had been laid. 
Military etiquette often overrides the public good, and 
here, at this critical moment, General Wool chose to 
cousider that, as General Sandford wsis Major-general, 
though not in the United States service, lie, therefore-, 



THE GREAT RIOTS OP NKW YOUR tilTT, 



ranked Brigadier-gener&l Brown of the regnlar army, 
and required him to act under the other's orders. This, 
Brown promptly refused to do, and asked to be relieved, 
telling General Wool that such a proceeding was an 
unlieard-of thing. Tliat he was right tlie order below 
will show* tliat his troops must be under liis own com- 
mand, as he was responsible for their action to the 
Government, and Sandford was not. Wool, however, 
continued obstinate, and a total disruption seemed in- 
evitable. Mayor Opdyke, President Acton, Governor 
Seymour, with several prominent American citizens, 
were present, and witnessed this disagreement with 
painful feehngs. They kjiew that it ■wi>nld work mis- 
chief, if not paralyze the combined action they hoped 
to put forth in the morning. General Brown, finding 
Wool inflexible, turned away, determined to retire 
altogether. The Mayor and others followed him, and 
begged hira not to abandon them in the dee^ierate 
strait they were in — to think of notiiing but Ba^■ing the 
city. General Brown had been too hasty, sticking on 
a point of mere etiquette, with, perhaps, too much 
tenacity. True, an ofhcer must insist on hie rank as a 
rule, but there are emergencies when everytliing of a 
personal nature must be forgotten^rises where it may 

* [QBirBBAL OrdebNo. 36.] Wab DEFABTMBitr, 

Adjutant-general* Offlw, Wat/tiagton, April 7th, 1868. 
6. The niilitnry comm&Dder'R duties in roferenoe t» oil troops and 
enJuted meo wlio happen to serve within the limits of his oommnnd 
will hoprtand!) thme ofii tximmimding qffkrro/a military poit. 

Tbe dntics of military camnundem above dofined, will devolve 
in the C% if Neu> Tork. and tRu mHita^j/ pmft in Uiil vieinitif, vo 
Brevet Brigadiet-genernl H. Brown, Coltmol Fifth IT. S. ArtiUeiy. 
By order o[ the Seorelary of Wor, 

(Signed) L. Thomas, .li^utanZ-^eru 



DHAFT KIOTS OF IMS. 



1S3 



be an officer's duty to eerve in any capacity, however 
anbordinate, and trust to being righted afterwards. 
Lnckily, General Brown, on a sober Bscond thonght, 
took tlie proper view, and returned to General Wool, 
and asked to be reinstated in his command, but giving 
him to nnderstaiid tbat, tliongh he would co-operate in 
every possible way with General Sandford, he still 
must retain distinct and separate coiuniand of bis own 
troops. This was right, and whether General Wool 
perfectly nnderstood the anangement. or seeing how . 
deeply the gentlemen pi-esent felt on the snbject, chose 
not to press a mere jwint of etiqncttc, does not appear. 
We only know that if General lirown had given np the 
uommand of his tnxips, tlie results to the city would 
have been disastrous. 

While these events were passing in the St. Nicholas 
Hotel, the streets were comparatiTely qniet. It bad ' 
been a hard day for the rioters, as well as for the po- 
lice, and they were glad of a little rest. Besides, they 
had become more or less scattered by a terrific tbonder- 
Btorm that broke over the city, deluging the streets 
with water. In the midst of it, tliere came a tele- 
graphic dispatch to the commissioners, calling for as- 
sistance. The tired police were stretched around on 
the floor or lioses, seeking a little rest, when they were 
aroused, and enmmoned to fall in; and the next mo- 
ment tliey plunged into the darkness and rain. They 
were drenched to the skin before they bad gone a 
block, but they did not heed it — and then, as to the end, 
and under all circumstances, answered promptly and 
nobly to every call. 

Acton had now gathered a large force at head -quar- 
ters, and felt ready to strike at any moment. 



1S4 



THE GEEAT ElOTS OF NEW YORK CITY. 



While the men flutig themBelvea on the hard floor, | 
like soldiers nil the field of hattle, ready to start t 
dnty at the firet oall, Actiug SuperiutBudent Actonl 
and his assistatits iierer eloeed their eyes, but spent thel 
night in telegraphing, organizing, and preparing for* 
the fiercer iighta of next day. Much was to be dono-B 
to cover and protect a district that reached frcun-l 
Brooklyn to Westchester, and it was an anxione niglit,! 
They had one consolation, liowever; though taken un-l 
awares, they had at the ch.>se of the day come out viol 
tors, which gave them confidenee in the future, espe-l 
cially as now Brown and his trained soldiers were witli| 
them. 

Some fifteen or twenty policemen had been more orM 
less severely injured, while the number of the killed! 
and wounded of the mob was wholly unknown. Both I 
the dead and maimed were left by the police where fl 
they fell, and were almost immediately liurried awa^l 
by their friends. 

The destruction of property on this first day, eon-j 
etBted of four buildings on Third Avenue bnmed, ' 
also a block on Broadway between Twenty-eighth and 
Twenty-ninth Streets; two brown-stone dwelUuge in 
Lexington Avenue ; Allerton's Hotel near Bull's Ilead ; 
a cottage, corner of Forty-tiflh Sti-eet and Fifth Ave- 
nue; tiic Colored Orphan Asylum, and the armory 
corner of Twenty-first Street and Second Avenue. 



CHAPTER XV. 



TcJ^raph Btu«aiL— Ita Work.— RUO and DuiugMd flD«n>n at Hm 
Force.— loteresting lacMmtB — nairbr««illfa &cap«M.~Dclm- 
tive Force.— ItB ardiicaa L*bo(B.~lla Dtognfaw.—llhrowdtWM, 
T*ol, and Coiitag«.— Kamv Enspaa.— Bswiej, the OhM 
CUeIe. — Hm exhwutiB; Lebon. 

Ohb tiling CommiaaK>nera .\ntmi and Bfrgen in 
j their caDstiItati<>n ^ettlt^l loiut )m <l'ine nt till liamrJs 
— telegraphic commnni^-atifin ranst be kftpt <'[>eu with 
tbe different pret-in'jla. fAherwise it Wf>nlfl (fft tmpn«- 
nble to concenFrale men at any givCTi prtint, fjnick 
1 ti> arrwt the mob bef'^re they spread devMita- 
1 tkn and condapration far aztd wide. Every Iiotir 
1 by a mob in aircnmiiiafin^ f»r <.rptnizing ifa 
I fercea, inorea^ies tlie diflicnity of dispersing it. The 
I lioten nndersfixid thia partially, and had acted aecord- 
L IDgty ; hni the rich spoib they liad come across durinf^ 
lliw day. had driven, for the time bein^, all other 
fliiiH^tHhnt plunder ont of their heads. Some com- 
I mqnicationa liad ali^ndy been destroyed, and the rioters 
I wonld evidently by nuimiiig have their eyes open to the 
lunpertance of doing this everywhere, and their cff >rtH 
: he foiled, no inatter what the risk or narrifiee 
[might be. They hiwl ah-csuly cut down over *ixty 
[ poleft, and rpnderLil upwaixls dH twclvw miles of wire 
[nselen; and how much more would share tbe uune 
a the iM«xt day, no one ooiiid tell. 
Th* Mtiiei-iniendent and deputy of tlie ' 



ISO 



Bureau, Messrs. Crowley and Polhaome, with tlie ope- 
ratxjrs mentioned before, were, therefore, set at woi-k 
this very evening in the storm to reetoro the brokun | 
lincH. 

This was a perilous uudertaklng, for if once discov- 9 
ered, their lives would be instantly sacrificed. 

The details of their operations, their disguises, in- 
genious contrivances, deceptions, and boldness In car- j 
rying ont their object, would make an attractive chap- f 
ter in itself. Often compelled to mingle with the mob, 
always obliged to conceal what they were about, not I 
daring to raise a pole oi- handle a wire iiiilcss. cautioasly 
or secietly, they yet restored the lines in the north ] 
Beetiou by morning, and those in the south by Wednoa- | 
day evening. Sometimes they were compelled to cany | 
a wire over the top of a house, sometimes round it, 1 
through a back-yard ; in short, every device and ex- 
pedient was resorted to by these daring, sharp-witted | 
men. Once Polliamus had his boots burned off in I 
tramping thrungh the bumhig ruins of a building after | 
the wires. Once he and Mr. Crowley came near being J 
clubbed to deatli by the police, who mistook them for J 
rioters, so ingenimisly and like them were they at work [ 
among tJio ruins. Captain Bntwer rescued them, or | 
their services might have ended »n the spot. 

This work was kept steadily up during the continu- 
ation of the riots. On one occasion, Mr, Crowley, j 
hearing that the wires were down in the Ifiuth audi 
Tenth Avenues, hastened tliither alone, when heJ 
encountered a lai^ mob. Fearing to paas throuf^hl 
it be hesitated a moment, when he noticed a carriogol 
driving in the direction he wished to go, in whichfl 
was a Catholic priest. He immediately hailed it4 



DHAFT aiOTS OF 1 



18T 



and was taken in. As the carriage entered tho moh, 
the latter Garroundcd it, and supposing the inmates 
were reporters, began to yell " Down willi the d — d 
reiXJrters ; " but the moment they recognized the priest, 
they allowed it to pass. Often the two would take a 
hack ; and passing themselves o£E as drivers, go through 
infeuted district, and seareh jiointe to which they 
otherwise could not have gone. One time tliey were 
returning from an expedition through Third Avenue, 
and had reached Ilouston Street, when they were hailed 
by a gang of rioters, who demanded to be taken down- 
town. They had to comply, for the men were armed 
■with pistols, and so took tliera in and kept along Ilous- 
ton Street, under the pretence of going down through 
Broadway, knowing that when they reached Mulberry 
Street they would be in hailing distance of the 
head-qiiartei's of the jwlice. It was just after day- 
break, and Crowley and Polhamua urged on the horses, 
expecting in a few miiuitcs to have their load safely 
locked up. The fellows evidently not liking the 
vicinity to whicli tlie drivers were taking tbem, 
ordered them to wheel about, which they were com- 
pelled to do, and drive under their direction to an 
old house in the Tenth Ward. There thoy got out, 
and offering the drivem a drink and fifty cents, let 
them go. On one owasion, Crowley, whiio examining 
the wires in Second Avenue, was suspected by the mob, 
who fell upon him, and it was only by the greatest 
coolness and adroitness he convinced them he was a 
rioter himself, and so escaped. At another time they 
were going along in a common wagon, when they were 
hemmed in by a crowd, and escaped by passing tliom- 
selvee off as farmei-s fnnn Westchester. Had they 



188 



■HE GREAT KIOTS OV SEW YORK CITY. 



been discovered, they would have been killed cm the 
sp<:rt, 

DETECTIVE FOECE. 

The duties of this force ai-e well known, but during I 
the riotB tliey had eometliing more important to dofl 
than to work up individual ea^e. The force, with J 
John Young as chief, and M. B. Morse as clei'k^ I 
consisted in all of seventeen persons. Tlieso i 
selected for their superior intelligence, shrewdneeai 1 
sagacity, and undoubted courage. Full of resource^ I 
they must also be cool, collected, and fearless^ J 
Dnring the riots they were kept at work day and nighty 1 
obtaining knowledge of facts tJiat no others could g 
and tliiia supplying the different preciucts and head- ' 
quarters with invaluable information. Their duty 
was a most perilous one, for it called them to go into 
the very heart of tlie turbulent districts ; nay, into tlie 
very midst of the mob, where detection would Uavu 
been followed by death, and tliat of the most horrible 
kind. Cliief Young, with iiis clerk, was engaged i 
Iiead-qu alters, so that Hfteen men had to perform t 
required work for the whole city. Sometimes al 
souiethnes two or tliree togetliei', they seemed oi 
pi-cacnt. In all sorts of diaguises, feigning all i 
of employments and characteiit, sometitiies on hots 
back and again driving an old cart or a hack, t 
pressed with the most impcrtnrhaljle effrontery into tl 
very vortex of danger. Ever ou tJio watch, and i 
customed toniitice everj^ expression of the conn teuanoc 
they would discover at a single glance when 
were suspected, aud remove the suspicinu Kt < 
by some clever device. Sometimes one of ihem, Be 



DSAfT BWTS or I 



himsrif watched, wmiU quietly ascent) the stepA tit r 
residence, uid ringing tbc bell, make some iuqutry 
as tbongh he were »n bi^inee^ and then dt>lil>erHtv1j 
walk off; or if he thought it wonid mit do to hav« liia 
face too closely scanned, he wonid step iiisi<lo and wait 
till the crowd mored on. Sometimee, with a »tom> or 
clnb in their hands, they would shout with the loiidost, 
andenga^ngin converBatiun with the ringlotidvra thorn- 
selves, ascertain their next move ; then qiiiutly Blip awny 
to tlie nearest station, and tclegrapli tohnid-cinftrtern the 
information. When the tek-grnpli 'Imd boon cut nff, 
tfaey had to take the placo of the wirt^n, and t^urry 
throngh the very heart of the crowd their now* to (ho 
department. 

On their cars again and ajjatn would riti(( thu fnar- 
fnl cry, " There goes Kennedy's ttpioH;" and It roi|iilrflil 
the most consnmniate acting and »i(:lf-[io«iMM)hiri to nWuy 
the suspicion. Often on a single word or iu:t Mn^Ml 
their very lives. Some of tlienu in(m wi-rn In (lin rri'<l» 
that made the fir«t attack on Mayi^ i)\it\ykts'» Ikhiwi, 
and while H])pHrent1y acting with it, lt.iiirn«"l cf iImi Ui 
tended movement down Ut polii« hn^l-'jiiiirTiira, Hiul «t 
once telegraphed tlie fact, which «rnftJflMl f'imiMtU» 
to prepare for them, and ffire th^m than Urrriirlti Umliuu 
we have described. At the bumiritf «ri'l »twiiiin( f4 
different buildings tl»ey wer* j/rMwrf, mcI //f t*»i wimUi 
follow unnoticed tfte Tinf^tmhten f'f in/nn, (nMilw 
them with the tircUiw lAMeity tA * wUmiU Ufmt4, Mrfli 
they got tliem te^mnaM fntm ftMi Kttm^, m'I (Imw 



^_ aaijtm 



h* MBMted A«M 1mm «$mf itelMriftMMM 




190 



THE OEEAT EI0T3 OF li^V YORK CITY. 



tlieir vocation with Impnnitj. To lessen this evil, the 
detectives one night quietly made visits to some half 
a dozen "lushiug cribs," as they are called, in Eighth 
and Fourteenth Streets, and seized abijiit thirty noted 
thieves, burglars, and garrotere, and locked them up for 
Eafe-keeping. They also warned the negroes of tlireat- 
ened danger, and directed them to places of safety ; 
and in catie of oinorgency acted as guides to the mili- 
tary in their operatiuna. In short, they were ubiquitooB, 
indefatigable, and of immense service. They played 
the part of unerring pointers to the comraissionors, tell'. 
ing them when and where to strike ; yet strange to say, 
such was their skill, their ingenuity, and •exliaustlesa 
resources, that they all escaped being assanlted, save 
one named Slowly. Be was passing through the very 
heart of the riotous district, in Second Avenue, when 
some one who had evidently been once in his clutcheflf 
recognized him, and pointing bim out, shouted "De- 
tective I " Instantly a rush was made for biio, and he 
was kuocked down, and kicked and stamped upon. 
Regainuig, with a desperate effort, his feet, he sprang 
lip tlie stejjs tif a house, and fought liis assailants 
liercely, till the lady of the house, seeing his perlloua 
situation, courageously opened the door and let him in, 
and then h(.>lted and barred it in the face of the mob. 
Tiirongh some strange apprehension, tlie baffled 
wretches, though they howled, and swore, and threut-. 
ened, did not force an entrance, and he escaped. 

In tliis connection, while speaking of those whi 
duties were uniform and mnning through the wliol 
period of the riots, might he mentioned Seth 0. IIai 
ley, the chief dork. Like Acton, ho has a norm 
wiry temperament. This often makes a man ra«h 



I 




headlong, and hence not reliable ; but wLeu combined, 
as in him, with perfect self-possegaion and Eclf-contrul, J 
imparts enonnoiis power. It niattere not liow nervous 
and excitable a man is, if danger and responsibility in- 
stead of confusing and nnsettiing him, only winds him 
up to a higher tension, till he becomes like a tightly- 
drawn steel spring. Excitement then not only steadies 
him, bnt it quickens his perceptions, clears his judg- 
ment, gives rapidity to bis decisions, and terrible force 
to his blow. Mr. Ilawley's duties were of a vai'ious | 
and exhausting kind, bo that daring all the Hots, he 
allowed himself only one hours' rest out of every 
twenty-four. Besides his ordinary BU]>crviBory duties 
over the clerks, etc., he Lad to see to the execution of 
the almost incessant orders of the commissioners, 
provide and issue arms, ace to the refugees and prison- 
erB, and act as commissary to over four thousand men 
on duty in and around head-quarters. Two men more 
perfectly fitted to work together in such a crisis aa 
this, tlian he and Acton, could not well be foujid. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



BECOND DAT. 

A-ppearance of the City. — Assembling of the Mob. — Fight between 
BioteiB and the Police and SDldiere. — Storming of Houges. — Riot- 
ers borled from the Roofs. — Soldifrs firo ou the People. —Awful 
Death of Colonel O'Brien,— Fight in Pitt Street. —Deadly Con- 
flict for o Wire Fttotory.— Horrible Impaling of n Man on an Iron 
Picket. — Mjsteiy attnohed to Him. — Second Attack on Mayor 
Opdjke'BnoDBe.— Second Fight for the Wire Factory. —Telegi»- 
phio DiapBtchcB.— CitiieiiB Voluntooring,— Haid on the XegroM. 
— They aie honted to Death, — SoTBgc Spectacle. — Negroes aeek 
Head-qoBiters of Police. — Appearance and State of the Oitjr. — 
Colonel Nogent'H House Baokod.— Fight with the Mob in Third 
Avenoe. —Battle at Gibbon's House .--Policcmau Shot. — Night 
Attack on Brooks and Brothere' Clothing Store— Value of the 
Telegraph System. — Captain Petty, — Seymour's Speech to the 
Hob-^Cus and Stages seiied, —Barricades. — Other FightB. — 
Acton aod hia Labors. 

The early July morning broke tranquilly over the 
great city, and the rattling of veliicles was heard in 
eoine of the streets, where men were going to their places 
of linsinesfl. In a large portion of it everything wore 
ite usual air of tranquillity, yet a close observer would 
notice an uncasineftB refiting on the couuteuancos of men. 
Fnrtive glances were cast d<jwn side etreots, and peo- 
ple seemed on the watch, as though in expectation of 
Bometliing to come, and the very atmoapheio appeared 
laden with evil omens. Around police head-quarters, 
and inside the building, were large bodies of police- 
men and the U. S. troops under General Brown. 



SFCOND DAT. 



lita 



But uptown, in the vicinity of Thirteenth Street and 
Second and Third Avenues, ci-owds of men began early 
to assemble, though perfectly quiet in thoir deinoanor, 
while smaller knots in tlie adjoining wards covild Ixt 
Been discussing the events of the day before. In thu 
meantime, exciting reports came from Harlem and Vnrk- 
vilie — aa early ag five o'clock, the following tek^ram 
was sent to the Twentieth Precinct ; '* Notify (li'in-ml 
Sandford to go immediately to Kighty-oixth Stre«it and 
Harlem — mob burning." Indeed the air wa« cbargnd 
with electricity, but the commiHsioner^ now felt ready to 
meet the stonn whenever and wherever it ifhuuld bunuL 
A lai;ge force of special policemen had bc^in ftwora in, 
while General Brown hud over wea hundred tmopa, 
ready to co-operate witli the {N>lice. T)k public build- 
ill^ were all well giiarde<I— Haikdford Iwd a ntnmg 
furoe iu the sre«ual, and the military and civil aolliori- 
ties stood wailing rhe itexl luovetneut of the mob. 
Telepsms arriring. cb'iwefl that the iwrthcm put of 
the city was slive with (^beriD(( <7>rw<U, while from 
Sixth Avvnue on the wnc marly to Seeofid Arenne in 
the eaet. and 'Iowa alinwt tr^ Bfwiue Street, tha MiMtti 
were bUtek with «a«t«d iveii. HtMM were dflwd, &£> 
tones etnplJed of their handa, wlw fohmbuHf f oh mt dw 
rio(ei«, or were itmed tato Ihcir tmk», and dien via 
eii-idently a gathMMg at ij 
fbrsieuial i 
pamd the aieeU fa dMemW wii/4a, Jwwiay *i* ab*- 
oJtaiieinia auti»u w>uld ttv n^f^/nA at nuioaM paiUl^ 
The trntif»» 
6tnwt,aud ' 




1!H 



THE GREAT 1 



« OP XKw TURK L-rrr. 



aililiera. He told them that the fate of llie cih' i 
tlieir haiidii, iind everything depended on their ^ 
condnct. Knowing the teinplations tu disorderly coi 
duct in the midst of the great citv, be urged on theni'l 
espofially to obey implicitly their officers nnder all cir-B 
fiiitnstances. His maimer und words were earucet, and-l 
listened to with profound attention. Soon a eompan^ 
headed by Sergeant Carpenter, with a police force tw 
hundred and fifty strong. started for Second and Third * 
Avenues, where the greatest gatherings were reported 
to bo. 

At this time the rioters seemed hesitating about their ■ 
(»ar&e of action. There was apparently no recognizeda 
leader, no common understanding and ]>iu'^)ose, thoaghl 
all were engaged in animated discnssionB of some topi&fl 
Dirty, feriJi;ioiis-lt>f(kirig women were scattered throngl 
the crowd ; some of the men were armed, while i 
looked deSaut and determined. 

There were doubtless many who had come froinJ 
mere curiosity, and a few attempt^id to ulluy the excita-l 
ment, among them a Catholic priest, who harangnedfl 
them, urging them to maintain peace. His addrof 
seemed to have considerable influence on those imme- 
diately around him ; hut as acaw &a he left, liia v 
were forgotten, and the mighty tliwuig, estimated b^ 
some at ten thousand, began to bo agitated by passion.! 
What wiiiihl have been the first act i-f violei 
impossible to say, bad they been left undittnrbe^jl 
Bnt at the crj' of " the police and soldiers are comiiig^'T 
everything else was forgotten. 

InspectJir Carpenter, coming down Twenty-tira 
Street, struck Seeiind Avenue, nnd wheeling, man 
.in solid column ihrcmgh tlio niiwd up to Thir^-a 



SKCOfm DAY. 



195 



Street. The force was n^sHiled with iioots and yells, 
and all kinds of ojtprobrious epithets, but no violence 
was shown, nntil It had crossed Thirty-second Street. 
The mob not only filled the street, but nnmbere, with 
piles of stones and brick-bats, had climbed to the roofs 
of the houecB. These deeming themselrca secure, sud- 
denly, with one accord, rained their missiles on the rear 
of the column. 

The men fell rapidly, and two weic dangerously 
hurt. Caqienter immediately halted hia command, 
and ordered fifty men to enter the houses, and raonnt- 
ing to the nwf, clear them of the assailants. Barri- 
caded doors were at once broken in, and every one tliat 
opposed their progress clubbed witiiout mercy, as they 
made their way to the upper floors. Captain Mount 
of the Eleventh Precinct, led this storming party. 
Oflit-ere Watson and Cole distinguished tiiemselves by 
being the first on the ixiof, fighting their way through 
a narrow scuttle. As the police, one by one, stepped on 
to the roof, they rushed ou the deBperadoes witli their 
ulubs, and felled tliera rapidly. Those who attempted 
toesGat>e thmugh the scuttles were met by the police 
in the nxims below ; or if one chanced to reach the 

' street, he was knocked down by those keeping guard 
there. Some dropped fmm second and third story 
windows, and met with a woi-ae fate than those who 
et&id behind. One hnge fellow received such a tre- 

I mendous blow, that he was knocked off his feet and 
over the edge of the roof, and fell headlong down a 
height of four stories to ilie i>avemeiit beneath. 
Crushed to death by the force of tlie fall, he lay a 

I mangled heap at the foct of his companions. 

The fight v!e» sharp and fierce, and kept up for 



! OREAT KlO-i-S OF NEW TiiRK C 



nearly an lioiir, and Ixxlies scattered around ELowedl 
witli wliat deadly force the club bad been wielded. I 
But witb the clearing of tbo bonsea there «ame a ItiU I 
in the conflict, and the immenso crowd looked on in | 
BuUen ailence, aa the police rcfonned in the street, and I 
recommenced their mai-ch. The military force that | 
had accompanied the police, bad formed un the t 
niie, about a block and a half above where the latter I 
were stationed, while tlie detachment was clearing ths | 
honsee. Two bowitzei« were placed in position com- 
manding the avenue. Colonel O'Brien, of the Elev I 
enth New York Volunteers, who was raising a regiment J 
for the war, bad gathered together, apparently on his I 
own responsibility, about fifty men, and appearing on I 
the field, from his superior rank, aeeumed command. | 
For a short time the rioters remained guict, but as tho I 
police inarched away, they Euddeiily awoke out of I 
their apparent indifference. Maddened at the sight o£ 4 
the mangled bodies of their friends stretched on the J 
navement, and ouniged at their defeat by the police, 
they now tumcd on the soldiers, and began to pelt 
themwitli stones and brick-bats, O'Brien rode up and 
down the centre of the street a few times, evidently 
thinking his fearless bearing would awe the mob. j 
But they only jeered hira, and finding tlie attack grow- I 
ing hotter and more determined, he finally gave the I 
order to fire. The howitzers belched fortti vn tha I 
crowd, the soldiers levelled tlieir pieces, and tlie wlmt- J 
ling of minie-baiia was heard on every side, 
and women reeled and fell on the sidewalk and in tlis| 
street. One woman, with her child in her arms, 1 
pierced with a bullet. The utmost consternation (ol 
" ~" wd knew from sad cxjierienco that tl 




SKCOtnj DAT. 



police would nse their clubs, but tbey eecioed to tliink 
it hardly possible tliat the troops would lire point- 
blank into their midst. But the deadly effect of the 
tire convinced them of tlieir eri-or, and tliey began to 
jostle and crowd each other lu the effort ti> get out of 
its range. In a few minutes the avenue was cleared of 
the living, when the wounded and dead were cared for 
by their friends. Orderhad been restored, aud O'Brien, 
with Bome twenty or thirty men, inarched down to 
police head-quarters, and offered his services to Gen- 
eral Brown. Colonel Fi'otbingham thanked him, but 
soon saw that the Colonel was not in a fit state to have 
command of troops, and so reported to General Brown, 
O'Brien appeared to comprehend the state of things, 
and asked to be excused on the plea of siokness. He 
was excused, and rode away. '^V^^ether he disbanded 
his handful of men, or they disbanded tliemselves, was 
not stated, but lie was soon back again at the scene of 
the riot. Ills residence was close by, but had been de- 
Berted that morning by the family, wliich had fled in 
alarm to Bror>klyn. Scowling visages lowei'ed on the 
colonel, 88 he mde slowly back among the crowd, and 
low ninttered threats were iieard. Although an Irish- 
man, and well-known in that neighborhood, his sympa- 
thy with the Government had awakened more or less 
hostile feeling against him, which his conduct to-day 
kindled into deadly hate. Apparently nneonacioua or 
reukless of this, he dismounted, and entered a neigh- 
boring drug-store or saloon. After remaining a few 
moments, he came out, and paused as he beheld the 
crowd that had assembled around the door. There 
■was tittle said, but dark aud angry counteuances were 
bent on hira from every side, and he saw that miuchicf 



198 



was intended. Drawing hie Gword, and taking a i 
Tolver ill the otbur liand, he delilierately walked out j 
into the etreet. lie had taken but a few gtepe, when a I 
powerful blow on the bauk of his head made him ataj;- 
get' forward. In an inetant a ruBli was made for him, i 
and blows were rained so faet and fierce upon him, that I 
he was unable to defend himself. IvBocked down and ( 
terribly mangled, he was di-aggod with euvage bru- 
tality over the i-ough pavement, and ewuug from eida 
to eide like a 4)illet of wood, till the large, powerful | 
body was a mass of gore, and the faee beaten to a 
pnmice. The helpless but atill animate form woold 
then be left awhile in the etreet, while the crowd, aa it < 
Bwayed to and fw, gazed un it with cool indifference I 
or cui'sce. At length a Catholic priest, who had either I 
been sent for, or came along to offer his serviues [ 
wherever they might be needed, approached the dying I 
man and read the servioe of the Catholic Charcb. I 
over him, the crowd in the meantime remaining silent. 1 
After ho had finished, ho told them to leave the pour i 
man alone, as he was faBt sinking. But as soon 
had disappeared, determined to make sure work witli 
their victim, they again began to pound and trample 
on the body. lu the intervals of tlie attack, the still 
living man would feebly lift his head, or roil it from | 
side to side on the Btonee, or heave a faint groan. 

The whole afternoon was spent in this fiendi&It | 
work, and no attempt was made to rescue him. To- I 
wards sundown the body was dragged into his own i 
back-yard, his regimentals all tom fj^iu him, except I 
bis paiitidoons, leaving the naked body, from the wsiab J 
up, a mass of mangled flesh clotted witli blood. 

But tlic dying mau could not 1)e left alone in bisowul 




BECONn DAY. 



yard. A crowd followed him thither, among which were 
women, who fommitted the most atrocious vi()leuoo on 
the body, until at last, with one convalsive movement 
of the bead, and a deep groati, the Bti-ong man yielded 
up his life. 

Wliile this tragedy was being enacted here, similar 
scenes were occurring all over the city. Moi« were 
everywhere, the sjiirit of pandetuoniiim was abroad, 
and havoc and revenge let lofse. 

Lieutenant Wood, whom General Brown liad sent 
off, with a company of regulars, came in conflict with a 
mob, two thousand strong, in Pitt and Delancey Streets. 
Maivhiiig ailing Ilfriiston to the Bowery, he tnmed 
down the latter, and kept on to Gi-aiid. On reaching 
Pitt Street, he beheld the ImotiDg, yelling crowd com- 
ing straight towards liim. lie immediately formed 
liis little force of one Limdred and fifty men in line 
across the street, and brought them to " shoulder arms." 
One of the ringleaders ete]ii>ed forward to speak to 
hiin, when Lieutenant Wood waved him ofi. This was 
the signal for the attack, and immediately a shower of 
stones fell among ttie soldiers. The officer ordci-ed the 
men to fire — it was said over the heads of the riotei-s — 
in order to disperse them. The result was scattering 
shots in return fi'om the latter. Wood then oi-dered a 
point-blank volley, when men tumbled iner right and 
left. The crowd did not wait for a second, but fled in 
every direction. Wood then marched back to head- 
quarters, but nn tlie way slipped and sprained his an- 
kle, which caused a report that he had been wounded, 

A bloody conflict also took place between the police 
nnd mob in the same avenue where Colonel O'Brien 
fell, below Tliirtieth Street. There was a wire fac- 



200 



THK GRKAT EIOTS OF NEW 1 



tory liere, in which several thousand (^rbinoB were 
eUireii. Of thia, aumc of tiie rioters were awai«, and 
communicated the fact to otliers, and a plan was formed 
to capture thein. Uaving diaeorered from the morn- 
ing's experience that the milltai-y had been called in 
to aid tlie police, arms liecame imperatively necessary, 
if they hoped to make a aiicceaafnl reaiatance. All 
public depositories of arms they knew were guarded, 
but this faetoi-j' was not, ajid hence they resolved to 
capture it withont delay. Swarming around it, they 
forced the enti'anw, and l)egan to throw ont the car- 
bines to their friende. The attack, however, had been 
telegraphed to head-quarters, and Insi)ect<ir Dilks was 
despatched with two Imndred men to save the bnilding, 
and recover any arms that might be captured. He 
marched rapidly up to Twenty-firat Street, and down 
it to the avenue. Ilei-o he came suddenly upon the 
mob, that blocked the entire stroot. As tlio liead of tlie 
force appeared, the rioters, iustead of heiiig frightened, 
greeted it wiih jeers and curses. It was two hundred 
against a thousand ; but the inapector did not hesitate a 
moment on acconnt of the inequality of uumbere, but 
instantly formed his men and ordered a charge. The 
mob, instead of recoiling, closed desperately on the 
police, and a fierce haud-to-hand encounter took place. 
The clubs, however, mowed a clean swalli along the 
street, and the oompat^t little force pushed like a 
wedge into the throng, and cleared a bloody space for it- 
self . The oi-dera were to recapture all the arms ; for thia 
was of more vital importance than the capture of men. 
Wherever, therefore, a nmsket was seeu, a man would 
dash for it, and, seizing it, fight his way back into line. 
On the pavement, the sidewalk, and in the gutters,! 



I 



SIWftKn I>»T, 



erti 



I 



a lieid of bdtHli^s broke muI toiw niniUy (Ji>\v» tin) 
street. One of the loaiiflrs wax a iiiai\ of xIpMWiihe 
(wunige,and leil on the iiiohwitli n'l-kliSM fiitv. mitti^t 
bleeding freely from tlio teirihlo pitniplnm>nl lio Iv- 
ceived. As his ooiiimdM tnrnoil tn fliv, Icitviti^ tifttt 
alone, a fearful blow i^i^iit. Iiini n>clitig hik) eln^'Hiig; 
towards the eidewatk. Aalm runditxl tf, liofpll hpnvllv 
over against the iron railing, niid hJM rhili i>ll'it<iii(i imii> 
of the mm pickota, the Hharp jiolnt, tinhirud il. fiini |ii'H- 
eti-atcd throiifjli to the roof of lii« mouth. No one no. 
ticed liini, or if tlioy did, paid no atlniiliirii U> lilui in 
the headlong flight on tho one hand, and nwlft piirBiiit 
on the orher. ThiiH horridly im|Hil(<i], his Ikh); ImiittitiK 
down along tlie sidewalk, thu wret^ihed niari wiw I«tl I'l 
die. At length Captain Ikddeii iioti'^d hifri, ktul lift- 
h^uptheeorpM, laid it down on tUe»u]«wHfk. flwna 
fiMttd, to tbe SQrpriM! of all, to \>e that of a ynng mm 
ai defaale features am] white, fair «ktn. " Alfhnnt^h 
m ft bhorer, in dirty overall* and filthy i«hirt, 
Aae were fine cafieimere p»nfi», bandnome, 
ridh nat, ami fine Linen ahirt." * Ke wan evidently a 
bbh in pn»irion far abo^e tJie rr'nsfh '.■illaitia lie l«I ftH, 
bnt baii .ilturniRed himnelf so a« not ro he kni>wn. FT* 
never wn» !<ri.iwn. The floi-poe. dimn'/rJie Sjrfit that 
IbUowiwt .ii«(»pparpf( with rh« Iwulii-a of many .Mherp. 
T3ie,»(TW'r iirinif itlcared, Dtlkn tnnied bia attention 
lb die taeatry, which wan lUlnd wiili armed ri"fi*m, wlw 
"WW determined to defend it m tlic Iwrt. Detairhinsr 
»pa*tlna of Itia fiime. he -ordered it to faint the hnildinff 
f^ storm. DBsfiiiig orer all -hitaeiw, theinen won tJia 
- o. X ftw». 




202 



THK (IKEAT KIOTS OF I 



Btairwaj' step by Btep, and entering tlie main room on 
tho second story, felled a man at almost every blow. 
TIkiso who succeeded in escapitig down-stair8 were ' 
knocked on tho head by the force in the street, and eoon 
no riot«r^ were left butthe dead and dying. How many 
fell in tliis fight it is impoBsible to tell ; btit one physi- 
cian alone dressed the wounds of twenty-one desper- 
ately wounded men. Taking what guns they conld find 
and had captui'cd in tlie street, the foi-ce marched tri- 
umphantly back, cheei-ed on their way by the Hpcctators. ' 
In the meantime, Mayor Opdyke'a house in Fifth i 
Avenne had again been attacked and partially sacked, ' 
Captain Maniere,oneof the pi-ovoat marghals, I101 
aeeembled a small force, and drove out the rioters, who 
were mostly young men and boys, before the work of 
destruction was complete. The news of this attack had ' 
been telegraphed to head-qimrters of tlie police, and 1 
Captain Ilelme, of the Twenty -seventh Precinct, dca- 
patched to its defence. At his approach the rioters 
dis|jerBed, SiK^n after, he was ordered with his com- 
mand over to the Second Avenue, accwnpanicd by a 
detachment of troops under Captain Franklin. Thia I 
was in the afternoon— the mob had reassembled, and re- ] 
inforced by those who had been dispersed at Thirty- 
fourth Street, where Colonel O'Brien fell, had over- 1 
come the small btxly of police at the wii-e factorj', and [ 
again taken possession of it. They had found some 1 
l>oxea of guna that had been overlooked by Oilks, and J 
having armed themselves, determined t/i hold it. Evem 1 
women joined in the defence, .\s tlie force approached, 
it was greeted with shouts of defiance and missiles of J 
every kind. An imnicnse crowd was gathered outside, 1 
while the windows of the fi\c-story building were filled | 



BECOND DAY. 



with angry, excited faces, and arms wildly geeticiilat- 
ing. Charging on this dense mass, and cliiblilng tlieir 
way to the building, tlie police entered ir,aiidBt]'euming 
np tlie 8tain\-ays, cleared it floor by floor, some being 
knoclted eenacless, otbere leaping from windows, to he 
killed by the fall, and others eseaping down-stairs, to 
be met by the fori^ in the street. A tliurongh 
search was now made for anns, and the building 
emptied of them. Taking poaaess^ion of these, tho 
police and niilitaiT took up their line of mai-uh for 
Iiead-C[iiarters. Tliey liud not proi;eeded far, however, 
before tbo mob that liad scattered in every direction 
began to pour back again into the avenue, and clo^ on 
the military tliat were bringing np the rear. Following 
them with hoota and yells that were unheeded, they 
bemme emboldened, and preesing nearer, began to hurl 
fitones and bricks, and everything tliey could lay their 
hands on, against the soldiers. The latter boro it for 
awhile patiently ; but this only made tho wretches 
more fierce and daring. Seeing there was but oneway 
to end this, Captain Franklin ordered bis men to 
" About face ; " and " ready, aim, fire," fell in quick 
Buccession. The yelling, shouting crowd were in point- 
blatdf range, and the voHey told with deadly cfiFect. 
Tho street was strewed with dead and dying, while tha 
living fled down tho avenue. 

In the meantime, mobs had sprung up in every part 
of the city ; some larger and some smaller ; some after 
n^roes, others firing buildings or sacking them. 

Some idea f>f the pressure on the Police Comraiaaion- 
ers during this forenoon, and the condition the city was 

I, may be gathered from the following despatches, 



f 



104 TUB USEAT RIOTS OF I 



p wliich are only a sm!it1 portion of llmSQ received and 
> snawered in two Iioiu'h: 

10.20. Fi-om Thirteenth. Send military hero im- 
mediately. 

t 10,23. To Seventh, Find military and send tliera 
b> Tliirteenth Street forthwith. 
10.45. Fn>iii Bixteenlli. A mob has just attacked 
Jones' soup factory ; stores all closed. 
10.50. To Twenfy-sixtli. Tell Inspector Leonard to 
Bend oue hnndrcd miin here forthwith. 
10.55. To Twentieth. FmmGeneral Brown. Send 
to ai-sanal and eay a heavy hattle is going on. Captiiin 
Wilkins and company of regnlars will report to me 
bei-e at once. 

11. IS. From Sixteenth. Mob is coming down to 
Btation-biinse ; we have no men, 

11.20. From Eifjliteeiith. The mob is very wild, 
corner Twenty-seuoiid Street and Second Avenne. 
Tlioy have attacked the Union stuam factory. 

11.35. To Twenty-sixth. Send anotber one Imn- 
(tlrcd men here forthwith. 

11.35. From Twentieth. Send one hundred men 
r to disperse mob assailing Mayor Opdyke's house. 

11,3S, To Twenty-firet. Can yon send a few men 
[ herel 

11.40. From Twenty -second. The mob has gone to 
I Mr. Eiggina' faotorj-, foot of Forty-third Street, to bum 

I it> 

11,45. From Eighteenth. Wlmtslwll wodol The 
I moh is about 4,500 c^troug. 

Angteer. Clear them down, if you can. 
LlLBO. From Eighteenth. Wo must leave; the 
is hero with guns. 




SECOND DAY. 



11,50. From Twentieth. Mfib t-earing Tip track on 
ElcveulJi Avenue. 

11.58. The uiob have just sacked a large gim-Btore 
in Grand Street, and are armed, and are on the way 
to atta<^ UB. 

12.10. To Fifteenth. Send your men here forth- 
with. 

12.35. From Twentieth. Send two hundred men 
forthwith to Thirty-fifth Street arsenal. 

12.36. From Twouty-firat. The mob have just 
broken open a giui-store on Third Avenue, between 
Thirty-sixth and Thirty-Beventli Streets, and are arming. 

12,40. From Twenty-first. Send help — the crowd 



And so on. 

Between these rapid telegrams asking for help, were 
others making and answering inquiries. And so it waa 
kept np from daylight till midnight for three days in 
Bucceseion. These urgent calls for help coming from 
every quarter at the same time, would have thrown 
into inextricable confusion a less clear liead than Ac- 
ton's. It was a terrible strain on him, and had it con- 
tinued a little longer, would have cost him his life. In 
the midst of it all ho received anonymous letters, tell- 
ing him he had but one more day to live. 

But while the [lolice head-quarters were thus crowded 
with business, and tho commisaionei's were straining 
every nerve to meet the frightful state of things in the 
city, other means were being taken to add to their 
efficiency. 

Governor Seymour had readied the city, and after 
being closeted with Mayor Opdyke, had issued a proo- 



200 



THE GEKAT I 



lamatioc, calling on tlie rioters to dispcKe, and m 
that tliey would be put down at alt Iiazards. 

At a meeting of the merdiantu and liaukere in W|I| 
Street, it was resolved to close up business, and foi 
volonteer coiopaniea of a hundred men each, to e 
under the militm-y. General Wetniore was one of t 
lirfit to offer his services. Tlio higli-spirited t 
William E. Dodge, was among the most protnined 
advocated of tlie measure, and soon found himself I 
captain nnder orders. The eteamboat of the harbor 
police was busy in bringing troops mid (umnon from 
Kiker'a and Governor's Island, and rapidly steamioj 
from ix)int to point on tlie river, to prevent dcstmtx 
around tlie docks. Around the ai«enal cannon i 
placed. At the city armory, iximer of Wliite and I 
Streets, wtire a company of the Eighty-f earth ' 
York Militia, and some of the Zouaves and other b 
The Su Li-treasury and Custom House were defended I 
the Tenth National Zouaves and a hundred and fift 
ftrmed citizens. In front of the Government etorea fl 
Worth and White streets, the Invalid Corpa i 
company of marines patrolled, while howitzers lot 
with grape and canister stood on the comer of I 
street. Nearly fonr hundred citizens had 1 
in at police head-quarters as special policemen, i 
had l)een furnished with clubs and badges. All t 
time the fight was going on in every direction, whi 
the fire-bells continnally ringing increased tlie 
that every hour became more wide-spread. Especid 
was this true of the negro popidation. From the 
set, they had felt tliey were to be objects of v 
and all day Monday and to-day those who i 
leave, Hed into the country. They crowded the i 



r. 207 

boats in every dii-eutioii, flcoiiig for life. But old men 
and women, and poor faiiiilice, were compelled to stay 
behind, and meet the fury of tlie mob, and to-day it be- 
came a regular hunt for them. A sight of one in tlio 
fltreeta would call forth a halloo, as when a fox breaks 
ctiver, and away wonid dash a half a dozen men hi 
pursuit. Sometimes a whole crowd streamed after 
with BhoutB and curscB, that struck deadly terror to 
llie heart of the fugitive. If overtaken, he was 
pounded to death at ones ; it lie escaped into a negro 
hoiiee for safety, it was set on tire, and tlie inmates 
made to eliare a common fate. Deeds were done and 
fiigbts witnessed tliat one would not have dreamed of, 
except among savage trihes. 

At one time there lay at the aimer of Twenty- 
Beveittli Street and Seventh Avenue the dead body of 
a negro, stripped nearly naked, and around it a collec- 
tion of Irishmen, absolutely dancing or siiouting like 
wild Indians. Sullivan and Huosevolt Streets are 
great negro quarters, anrl here a negro was afraid to 
be seen in the street. If in want of something from a 
grocery, he would carefully open the door, and look up 
ftnd down tt> see if any one was watching, and tlieu 
steal cautiously forth, and Imriy home on his errand. 
Two boarding-houses here were surrounded by a mob, 
but tbelodgerp, seeing tlie coming storm, fled. Thedea- 
peradoea, finding only the owner left behind, wreaked 
tlioir vengeance on him, and after beating him unmercl- 
fnlly, broke up ihe f uniiture, and then fired the builtl- 
ings. A German store near by, because it was patron- 
ized extensively by negi-oes, shared the same fate, 
after its contents had been distributed among them- 
selvce. A negni hiirbcr's shtip was nest attacked, and 



208 



■llf; (iREiT UMTS "r NHW VORK CITT. 



tlie torch applied to it. A negro Itidgiiig-houee in tliei 
same street next received tbe visit of these furies, an^ 
was sfwnn a mass of ruins. Old men, seventy jears ( 
age, and young diildren, toi) young to comprehend! 
what it all meant, werecrnolly beaten and killed. Tlie 
spirit of lieU seemed to have entered the hearts of'l 
these men, and helpless womanhood was no protection ' 
against their rage, Sometimes a stalwart negro would 
break away from his murderers, and rnn for bis life..J 
Willi no place of safety to which he could fiee, hefl 
wonld be lieaded off in eveiy direction, and forced to-J 
wards the river. Driven at last to the end of a pier^fl 
he would leap off, profen-ing to take liis chanccB in thfti 
water mthcr than among these bloody men. If bruise 
and beaten in bis draperatc stru^le for life, he would! 
soon sink exliansted with his efforts. Soraetimea hftj 
would strike out for a ship, bnt more often dive undei 
tlie piers, and hold on to a timber for safety, nntil 1 " 
jelling pursuers had disappeared, when lie woiUd untwfl 
stealthily ont, and with terrified face ])eer in every dlJ 
rectiou to see if they had gone. Two were tiius rnnB 
ofiF together into the East River. It was a strangBj 
spectacle to see a hundred Irishmen jwur along thea 
streets after a poor negro. If he could reach a polio« 
station lie felt safe ; but, alasl if the force happened b 
be away on duty, ho could not stay even there. Wlien-I 
ever the |>4iite could strike the track of Uie mad hun^r 
they stopped it summarily, and tlie pursuers bcfam 
the pursued, and rcuoi\-ed the punishment they liadj 
designed for the negro. All this was in the ninetecntli 
century, and in the metropolis of the freest and ma 
enlightened natiou on earth. 

The hunt for these jioor creatures became so fuurfn]^ 



BErnND DAY. 309 

liid tho ntter impossibility to protect tliem in their eeat- 
ered lotsulitiea bo apparent, that thej were received 
nto the police statinua. But tlicee soon proved inade- 
nate, and they were taken to head-quartera and the 
reenal, where they could be proteeted against the mob. 
[ere the poor ereatnres were gathered bj' hundreds, 
lod slept on the floor, and were regularly fed by the 
ntborities. 

It is imiiossible lo girc iv detailed account of what 
Ktnspired in every part of the city. If tliere had been 
single band of rioters, no matter how laigc, a force 
f military and jxiliee, properly arnicil, Rotild have been 
Dmoeiitwilfld to have dispersed it. But bodies of men, 
trger or nmnllcr-. bent on violence and de\ aat«tir>n, 
6 everywheif ; even ont at Ilarleui eight buildings 
rere burned, and the lower end of Westcheetep waa 
n a state of agitation atid alarm. A mob of thonaands 
ironld be ecattered, (Jiily to come together at other 
|x>intE. A body of police and milltaiy plunging 
through the heaving multitude, acted often oidy as a 
Btonc flung into tho water, making hnt a momentary 
iTacuum. Or, if they did not cume together again, they 
Bwnng off only to fall in, and be absorbed by a crowd 
eollect«d in another part of the city. The alarm of 
[onday had oidy been purlial.'but tn-dayit culminated. 
Fatniliea, husbande, and sons left tlieir buslnosa, and 
with arms patrolled the streets. Stores were shut np, 
Btngea and cars stopped rnnulng, and all bufitnese wa& 
Bttspended. 

The blood flowing through the thonsaud ai-teries of 
this great mart seemed suddenly frozen in its chan- 
nels, and its mighty pulsations to stop at the mandate 
of lawless men. The city held its breath in dread, but 



210 



' Yi'KK CITY. 



there wore firm hearts at police head-quarters. Aot 
never flinched, and iu General Bromi he fonnd l 
eoldicr that knew his dnty, and would do it at all ha] 
arda. Still, the uprising kept swelliiig into vaster pro 
portions, embracing a etill larger territory, 

Broadway was deeerted. A few hacks eould be seam 
but with very ditTerent occupania thau tboso wbid 
they ordinarily contained. The iron nhntters wenB 
closed on tlie Fifth A\enue Hotel, and a Btac-k 
arms stood in the hali-way. Crowds of reBj)ectabl4^ 
eitizcnB, not on dnty. were making all baate toward 
railitrnd depots and steamboat landings. Every boat^l 
aB it Bwnng from t!ie dock, was loaded to its utmoe 
capacity with people leaving a city that seemed doomo( 
to deetruction ; going, many knew not where, only out 
of New York. Cai-s were packed, and king trains w 
made up to carry the crowds in haste to get awajj 
But travel on the IIudBon Itivcr Koad was soon stopped 
by the mob, that tore up the track to prevent coin.<9 
muuicatiou with otlier pails of the Stat«, and the ai^ 
rival of troops. 

The Uarlcm and Tliird Avenne tracks were atw 
torn up, as the rioters ^vere determined to isolate t 
great dty, whiuh they had doomed to deetructioiul 
Passing from one oljject to another, now acting as ifi 
from plan, and now intent only on destruttiim and J 
plunder, the crowd streamed from point to point with 
sliouls and yolls, that sent terror through the adjoining 
etreetD. Suddenly, some one remeinl>ered that they 
were in tiio vicinity of Colonel Niigent's house, ia 
Ynrkville, the asBistant provost marshal genei'ftl, an(L 
^Qii^j; out tlie news, a ruali was made for it, and in 
'^~'' "' "i from *op to bottom. 



8KCH)NT1 DAT. 



211 



Aa tbo police were gatliei-ed together eithoi at tlie 
precinct etationa or Iiead-iiiiarters, ordinary patrol duty 
was out of the qneatioii ; hence, many isolated a«t8 of 
violence could be committed witli impunity. Thia 
freedom from close eurveillance, coupled with the con- 
tagion of the lawless spirit which wag abroad, made 
every section of the city where the lower clasaea lived 
more or less restless. It was imiiossible for the police 
to divide itself up bo to funilsh protection in individ- 
ual cases, and yet be in suflicient force to cope with the 
mobs, tliat numbered by thousands. Although the 
whole city was lieaving like a troubled sea, yet the 
main gathering thia day had been iu the upper part 
and on botli sides of it. The terrilic contests we 
described farther back were in the Second Avenue, 
on the east aide, but, nearly oppoaite, in the Sixth Ave- 
nue, cro^vda liad been gathering since early in the 
foren{K>n. 

For a long time they swayed backward and forward, 
apparently without any detiiiito purpose, and moved 
only by the spirit of disordei- that had taken pjssession 
of the city. But about two o'clock, these various bod- 
ies began by mutual attraction to flow together, and 
soon became one immense mass, and impelled by soma 
information or other, gathered threateningly around a 
lat^ mansion on the comer of Forty-aixth Street and 
Fifth Avenue. They had supplied themselves witli all 
Borta of weapons, revolvers, old muskets, stones, cIuIm, 
barrel-staves — iu short, everything that could be found, 
that might be of service in a fight — and soon com- 
menced pluudoring the residence. But tiieir move- 
ments had been telegraphed to head-quarters, and 
Captain Walling, of the Twentieth Precinct, was die- 



212 THE IJltlCAT KIIITI* <>¥ \EW VDHK Cl'lT. 

patched thither, with a compnny of regulars under 
Captain Putnam, a (leacondant of " Old Put," The re- 
port soon spread throngh the crowd, that bayoncta conld 
be seen coining np the aveune. Marohiiig up to Forty- 
eixth Street, the force turned into it, towards tlie Fifth 
Avenne; and breaking into tJie charge step, with the 
order " no prisoners " ringing in their ears, stmck the 
mob almost in tlie centre, cutting it in two, like a mighty 
cleaver. Tliere was no need of bayonets — the poli 
the head of the military, went right throngh it, and 
scattered the men in every direction. The force then 
divided into eqnads, and each one taking a section of 
tlie mob, followed it upon anwift rnn, and smote thcin 
right and left for BBvera! blocks. The larger pt)rtion 
went down Sixth Avenue, and seeing only a portion of, 
tlie police pursuing, turned and showed fight, when the *| 
leader received & bullet in the head and felt. Seeing^ 
their leader fall, the mob wheeled and took to their 
heels. 

Captain Walling in one instance saw a crowd witli 
lire-arms standing in an alley-way. Just then a fire- 
engine and company came down the street, and he with 
his email force got beliind it, and kept concealed until 
opposite the unsuspecting crowd, when, with a shout, 
they dashed on it. A volley received them, — with 
answering volley, the police charged into the narrow 
opening. The rioters fled into a tenenient-liouso, fi^in 
which came yells and screams o£ terrified women and 
children. Walling had some sharpshootere with him, 
to pick off those beyond the reach of the clubs. One 
follow, armed, was seen astraddle of the ridge pole of 
a honse. The nest moment a sharpshooter covered 
him- and he tumbled headlong to the ground. The 



I 




Bame aftenoon lie saw some twenty or thirty men at- 
t«iiiptiii)^ t) Btavc in !i liai-dware store, evidently after 
pistuls. Walling tJiarged ou them alone, and witli one 
terrible blow, his club sent the leader to the pavement 
witli Ii!b brains ooisiug out. 

Although the draft was almost forgotten by the riot- 
ers, in the thirst ior plunder and blood, Btill men in the 
streets and some of the papers talked of its being nn- 
conetitutioiial, and to be contested in the courts — oth- 
ere that it had been and would be auapended, as though 
any disposal of it now could affect the conduct of the 
rioters. Force was the only argument they would lia- 
ten to. The riot had almost ceased to wear any politi- 
cal aspect since the attack on the Triiuruf office, the 
day befoi-e, had been defeated. An occasional shout 
or the sight of a negro might now and tlieu re- 
mind one of its origin, but devastation and plunder 
were the great objects that iii'ged on the excited masses. 
The sacking of Opdyke's house was done chiefly by a 
few youngsters, who were simply following the exam- 
ple set them the day before ; while the buniiiig of negro 
buildings, the chasing and killing of negroes, seeinod 
to have only a remote connection with the draft, and 
was simijly the indulgence of a hatred they were hith- 
erto afraid to gratify. So the setting tire to the Wee- 
hawken ferry afterwards, could be made to grow out 
of politics only so far as a man who kept a liquor saloon 
there was a known Kepublican. This seemed a weak 
inducoment to draw a cl^Jwd so far, when more distiD' 
gnislied victims were all around them. It is more 
probable that some jiersoiial enemy of parties in the 
vicinity, finding the mob ready to follow any cry, led 
them thither; for one man seemed to be tlie leader. 



214 



THE GREAT RlOTd OF NKW YuUK CITT. 



who, moiitited on a fine cavalry horee, and ]>randishing 
I Bword, galloped Lackwai-da and forwards ihrougU 
the crowd, giving liis orders like a field officer. Mobs 
epringing up everywhere, and flowing tugelher often 
ai»])arently by accident, each pursuing a different ob- 
jeot: one chasing negroes and firing their dwellings; 
others only eac'king a house, and others still, wreakin|r 
their vengeance on sliit Ion -houses, while scores, tie mo- 
ment tlicy got loaded down with plimder, hastened away 
t(» conceal it — all showed that the original cause of the 
upriaing had been forgotten. A strong inicei'tainty 
seemed at times to keep them swaying backwards and 
forwards, as though seeking a definite object, or wait- 
ing for an appointed signal to move, and then at some 
shout would rush for a building, a negro, or station-house. 

The mob was a huge monster — frightful both in 
proportions and appearance, yet not knowing whore or 
iiow to use its strength. The attack on Mr. Gibbon's 
house at Twenty-ninth Street and Eighth Avenue, 
dnring this afternoon, was attributed to the fact that 
he was Mr. Greeley's consin, and that the former 
sometimes slept there — rather a far-fetched iuferenee, as 
tliough a mob would be aware of a fact that probably 
not a dozen immediate neighbors knew. 

Some one person might have raised a cry of 
" Greeley's house," which would have been Bnfiicient to 
insure its destruction. The police being notified of 
this attack, sent a squad of men with a military force 

disperse the mob. Captain Ryor formed his trtiopa 

front of the honsc, and Sergeant Devoursney 

did the same with a part of his men, while the 

other portion was sent into the building, that was 

filled with men, women, and children, loading them- 




SECOND DAY. 215 



selves down witli tlie Bimils. The appearance of the 
caps noil clubs iu the rooms created a coastei'nation 
that would have been ludicrous, but for the serious 
work that followed. No defeuco wan made, except by 
a few persoiis singly. One fellow advanced to the 
door with a pistol in his baud, and fired, sending a boll 
through Ofliuer Iliirs thigh. The next instant the lalter 
felled him to the floor with his club, and beforo bo 
could even attempt to rise he was riddled with balls. 
Some of the women fell on their knees, and shrieked 
for mercy; while one strong Irish woman refused to 
yield lier plmider, and fought like a tigress. She seized 
an officer by the thi-oat, and trying to strangle aud bite 
him, would not let go till a blow sobered her into 



Some were loaded with shawls and di-esses, and one 
butly, ferociona-lookiug Irishman carried under his 
arm a huge bundle of select music. As the police 
chased the plimdcrers dnwn-staira, and out into the 
street, in some unaccoimtablc way the troops got bo con- 
fused that tliey fii-ed a volley that swept the police as 
well as the riotei-s. Officer Dippic was so severely 
wounded tbat he died the follomng Sunday, while 
Officers Ilodsdn and Robinson both received flesh 
wounds. 

In the uppei- part of tlio city, few buildings, except 
those too near police aud army hoad-ijuarters, or too 
well defended, offered much spoil except private 
houses, and these had been the chief objects of attack. 
But Crooks and Bi-others' ckithing store iu Catharine 
Street, situated in a part of the city thickly pop- 
ulated with the very class mobs are made of, be- 
came toward eveuiug an object of great attraction 



216 



■ RlirrS OF NEW YORK CITY. 



to gi-onps of hard-looking men and women. As nighl 
settled down, tlic lieaveiis l>eing ovoit-ast, it liet^ame 
very (lark ; for iii all tho uelgliborltig houses the lights 
were cxtiugiiished by tlio inmates, who were terribly 
alarmed at the rapidly increasing crowd in tlie street. 
To deepen and complete the gloom the rioters turned 
o£E the gas. Officer Bryan, of the Fonrth Wai"d, 
telegmiihed tn hea«l-f|iiartera the threatening appear- 
ance of things, and a fiinie of fifty or sixty men 
were at once despatched to the upot. In the mean time 
Sergeant Finney, M'ith Piatt and Kennedy, stood at the 
entrance to defend the building till the police could 



For awhile the three determined police oflicers, 
standing silent in the darkness, overawed the leaders. 
But soon fixim the crowd arose shoate, amid which 
were heard the shrill voices of women, crying, " Break 
open tho store." This was full of choice goods, and 
contained clothing enongh to keep the mob supplied 
for years. As the shouts increased, those behind began 
to push fovwai-d those in front, till the vast multitude 
swung heavily towards the three police ofEcers. See- 
ing this movement, the latter advanced with their 
clubs Ui keep them back. At this, the shouts and yells 
redoubled, and tlio crfiwd rushed forward, crushing 
down the officers by mere weight. They fought gal- 
lantly for a few minutes ; hut, ovei-borae by nnmboi'S, 
they Boon became neai-ly helpless, and were terribly 
beaten and wounded, and with the utmost exertions 
were barely able to escape, and make their way hack 
to the station. The mob nt)w liad it all its own way, 
and rnshing against the doors, burst bolts and bora 
afiuoder, and streamed in. But it was dark as midnight 



r. 917 

and they eonld not distiiigaisb one thing &o<u 
mother ; nnt e^eo the passage-Tare to the upper rooms 
of the baiWii^, which was tive stories high. Thej 
therefore lighted the gas, and broke out the windows 
Iq a few miuutes the ra^ edifice was a Maze of light, 
looking more brilliant from the Diiduight blackness 
that BOTPPunded it. The Dptnn>ed faeee of the esMled, 
Bijualid ihroDg below presented a wild and savage spec- 
tacle in the flicke-ring lighL Men and women kept 
pouring in and ont, the latter loaded with Ixmtv, tnak- 
IBg Iheir way houie into the adjacent streets, and the 
fonner rnshing after their {xirtiou of the Bpoila. Coats 
and pantaloons, and ulotlitng of every deecriptioti, were 
rapidly borne away; and it was evident, give them 
time enongh. the crowd would all disappear, and there 
would be suanrfly emtugh left to finish the work of de- 
etmcdon. Thinking only of the rich prize they had 
gained, tliey seemed to forget that retribntion waa poa- 
ible, when &iiddenly the cry of ''Polioet police!" 
sent a thrill "f terror through them. Sergeant De- 
laney, at the bead of his command, marched swiftly 
down ttie Btrvet, until cli»e upon the mob, when the 
order, " Donble-qnick," was given, and they burst with 
a run upon tliem. For a mt>uieiit,the solid mass, by mere 
weight, bore up against the shock ; but the clubs soon 
made a lane through it broad a& (he street. Just then 
u pistol-shot rung from a bouse, almost over their heads, 
^tlany of the rioters were armed with raustelB, and 
the comparatively small p-ilice force, seeing that fire- 
were lo l»e nsed, now drew their revolvers, and 
poared a deadly volley right into their midst. Several 
fell at the first discharge ; and immediately terror 
that pi)rti<>n of llie multitude nearest the police, 



THE GREAT KIOTS OF NEW YoKK (irrY. 



especially tlie women, and many fell on tbeir knees, , 
crying for mercy. Others forced tlieir way reckieeely 
over tlieir companions, to get ont of reach. As the 
police made their way to the front of the etore, they i 
formed line, while Sergeant Matthew, of the First 
Procinct, with his men, entered tlie huilding. The 
scene here became more frightful than the one witii- 
out. The riotera on the first flo<^>r made but little re- 
sistance, andj tliinldng only of escape, leaped from the 
windows, and ruehed out of doors like mad creatures. 
But as they attempted to flee, those witliont knocfeed 
tliem over with their clubs. Ilaving cleared this story, 
the police mounted to the second, wlicre the rioters, 
being more closely penned, showed fight. Pistol-ebots 
rang out, and some of the polioe ofiicere had ni 
escapes. One powerful bully fought Hlte a tiger, till 
two policemen fell upon him with their clubs, and eooii , 
left him stark and stiff. At laat they drove tlio whole 
crowd into a rear building, and kept them there till 
tliey had time to secme tljcm. 

Just as the store was cleared, Sergeant Carpenter, 
who had boon sent as a reiiifoi-cement in case of need, 
came up with a hundred and fifty men, and charging 
on the crowd, sent them flying down tlie nairow streetH. 
Aft«r quiet had been restored, a military force arrived I 
and took pfjsaeseion of the building. 

Just previous to this, another attempt was made to 
bum the Tribune huilding, but was easily repelled. 
Tlie Times office, near by, warned by the fato of ita ' 
neighbor tlie night before, had establislicd a regular 
garrison inside, while it brilliantly illuminated iho 
open space all around it, in the circle of which the 
rioters did not care to umie. 




BEOOND DAY. 



The invaluable service of the telegrapli was lested 
to-day, not merely in enabling General Brown B.nd ibe 
commission era to despatch raeu quickly to a tiireatened 
point, btit to keep a force moving from one ward to 
another, as meBBages camo in, announcing t!ie incipient 
gathering in different districts. Word sent to the sta- 
tion in the neighborhood where they were acting, 
would instantly cliango their route ; and knots of men, 
which if left alone would soon have swelled into for- 
midable mobs, wore broken up, for they found military 
and police force marching down on tliem before they 
could form a plan of action. Nor was this all. A 
force Bent to a certain pjint, after dispei-aing the mob, 
would be directed to make a lonr through the disaf- 
fected districts — all the time keeping up its commu- 
nication with head -quarters, so that if any serious 
demonstration was made in that section of the city, 
it could be ordered there at onee, thus saving half 
tliB time it would take to march from head-quartere. 
Thus, i<ir instance. Captain Petty was ordered tins 
morning to head-quarters from the City Ilall, where he 
had passed the night, and directed to take two hnndred 
men (including his own precinct force), and go to the 
pi-otection of a soap factory in Sixteenth Street, Eighth 
and Ninth Avenues, lie moved off his command, 
manJiiug rapidly up Broadway and down Sixteenth 
Street. The mob saw it coming two blocks off, and 
immediately scattered in every direction, which awak- 
ened the supreme contempt of the captain, lie now 
inarched backward and forward, and through the 
cross streets, up as far as Nineteenth Street, scattering 
every fragment of the mob that attempted to hold to- 
gether, and finally returned to head-i|uarters. This 



220 



THE GBEAT BIOTS OV KKW VtUlK tlTY. 



was a long m&rok, but the men had ecarccty rested, I 
whcQ the captain waa hurried o£E to aid in the protec- 
tion ftt the wire factory iu Sefoud Avenue. In the 
fierce figlit that followed, he, with ten men at hie bade, I 
charged up the broad stairway, fighting hia way step 
by Btep to the fifth story. Cauglit up hero at the top 
of the building, the rioters were dubbed without I 
mercy. Some, to escape the terrible punishment, 
pluDged down the hatchway ; others attempted to dash j 
past the men, and escape down the stairs. At one I 
time eight bodies lay in the d<xjr-way, blocking it up. ( 
He then marched back to head-quarters. lie had ' 
been marching and fighting all day. Similar exbatut- i 
ing duties were performed by otJier commands, both 
police and military. Inspector Dilks, with his foree 
gatliered frtnu various precincts, passed the entire day 
in marching and figlitiug. The men, weary and hnrt- 
gry, would leach head-quarters or certain points, hop- 
ing to get a little rcHt and refi'oshment, when tlie ' 
hurried order would come to repair Vi a point a mile | 
off, where the mob waa firing and sacking lioiieee, and 
off tliey would start on the double-quick. Uncom- 
plaining and fearless of danger, and never conntiug I 
numbers, lioth police and soldiers were everywhere 
all this day, and proved themselves as reliable, gallant, , 
and noble a sot of men as ever formed or acted as the | 
police ftirce of any city in the world. 

Iu the meantime, Governor Seymour and the Mayor ' 
of the city were not idle. The latter at the City Hall, 
fearing an attack, asked Acton for a guard of protec- 
tion, and fifty men were sent him. Iteport of the mob J 
assembled there, reached Governor S<!ymour, at the J 
5t. Nicholas, and he innuediulcly hastened thither, and 1 



fiKCiNn DAT. 



221 



addre^ed the crowd from the Bte^JB, which allayed ex- 
citement f'lr the time. Tliia speech was variouely com- 
mented upon. Some of the criticisms were frivolous, , 
and revealed the partisan, rather than the honest man. 
If the Govemor had not previously issued a proclamation 
to the whole city, in which he declared without reser- 
vation tliat tlie mobs should he put down at all hazards 
— if this speech had been his only utterance, then 
the bitter denunciations against him would have been 
deserved. It would have been pusillanimous, cowardly, 
and unworthy the G-ovemor of the State. But he spoke 
in hia official capacity, not only firmly, emphatically, 
and in no ambiguous tenns, but lie had hurried up the 
military, and psed every means in his power to accumn- 
^te and concentrate the forces under hia control to 
put down the riot. No faintheartedneee or senti- 
mental qualiniahness marked any of hia official acta. 
Prompt, energetic, and determined, he placed no con- 
ditions on hia subordinates in the manner of putting 
down the mob, and restoring the supremacy of the law. 
But here in this address he was speaking to men who, 
aa a body at least, had as yet committed no overt act ; 
and many doubtless wore assembled expecting soiod 
public declaration from the City Hall, He was not 
addressing the plimderers and rioters that were firing 
hooses and kilhng negroes, but a mixed assembly, the 
excitement of whicli he tlioiight best to allay, if posai- 
bla Some said he began his address with " My 
friends;" others, "Fellow-citizens." Whether he did' 
one, or the other, or neither, is of no consequence and 
meant nothing. To have ciimioenced, " Ye villains 
and cut-throats, dispei'se at onco, or I'll mow yon down 
with grape-shot 1" might have sounded vei^ brave, but 



222 



THK GBKAT EIOTS OF NEW Y'lRK CITT. 



if tJjat wae all lie was going to say, he had better kepj 
Lis room. 

Aprodamafion like tliis address woiild have beei 
iafamoiie. Ilei-e la where the miBtake was made i 
tlie criticisms heaped upon it. Ilia oflicial acta werel 
all audi as Ijecame the Chief Magistrate of New York. J 
The speech, tliercfoi-c, must be judged rather by tlie | 
rules of taete and pro|)riety, than by those which apply i 
to him oftioially. If a man's official acts ai'o all i 
it is unjust to let them go for nothing, and bring intol 
prominence a short address made without premedita- 
tion in the front of an excited, promiscuous assembly,J 
moved by different motivea. That it was open to crit- I 
icisni in some respects, is true. It sliQuld have 
imbued more with the spirit of determination to main- | 
tain order and suppress violence, and less been said of , 
the measures that had or would be taken to test tlie con- 
stitutionality of thedraft, and of his purpose, if it were, 1 
decided in the courts to bo wreng, t<) oppose it. Suck 
talk liad bettei" be deferred till after order is restored, i 
When men begin to bum and plunder dwellings, 
attack station-houses, hang negrees, and ehont dowa . 
policemen, it is too lata to attempt to i-estoro peace by i 
talking about the constitutionality of laws. The up*.] 
holding of laws alwnt the constitutionality of whitA 1 
there is no doubt, is the only thing deserving of coitej 
sideration. The Common Council of the city exhib; 
ited in this respect amost pusillanimous spirit, hy offel 
ing resolutions to have the constitutionality of the taWI 
tested, when the entire constitution and laws of tlial 
State were being subverted I Uuqucstiouably, eoma J 
oharity should Uo cxtouded to men who are pleadiujg* I 
whose votes elevated them to office, Brutnaai ] 



I Are rare nowadays; and politicians do not like toEhoot 
Tidown their own voters— tliey would mneli rather make 
1 more voters out of men no more fit to exercise the 
[ right of snfFrage than horses and mules. 

Governed by a similar spirit, Archbishop Hughes, 

ftlthongh he had yielded to. the pressure made on him 

and issued an address to tlio Irish, calling on them to 

abstain from violence, yet accompanied it with a letter 

to ETorace Grooley, directly calculated to awaken or in- 

L tensify, rather than allay their passions. ITe more than 

L intimated that they liad been abnsed and opprcssod, and 

r thought it high time the war was ended. The procla- 

J mation was short, but the letter was a long one, full of 

I a vindictive spirit, and showing unmistakably with 

1 whom his sympathies were. 

Towards evening a mob assembled over in Ninth 
I Avenue, and went to work with some system and fore- 
I tlioiight. Inatead of wandering round, firing and 
I plundering as the whim seized tliem, they began Ut 
throw up barricades, bishiud which thoy could rally 
when the military and police came to attack them. 
Indeed, the same thing had been done on the east side 
of the city ; while milroada had been tom up, and stage* 
stopped, to keep them from uarrj-ing policemen rap- 
idly from one quarter to another. During the day, 
. Colonel Frothingham had stood in Third Avenuo, and 
r stopped and emptied every car as it approached, and 
I filled it with soldiei^, to be carried to the upper part of 
^ the city. Acton, too, had sent round to collect all the 
stages still running in Broadway and the Bowory, and in 
a short time they came rnmbliiig into Mulberry Ktrccf,, 
I forming a long line in front of iiead-quartere. A telo- 
Ipam from Secoud Avenne demanded immediate help, 



234 



THE ORKA'I' KIHTS nF NTi:\V 



and the police were bundled into flieiii and hurried off. 
One driver refused to stir, saving, mnghlv, he was not 
hired to carry policemen. Acton had no time to ai^e 
the ease, and quieklj' turning to a poUcenmn, he saidia 
" Put that man in cell Nuraher 92." In a twinklingi 
he was jerked from his seat and hnrriod away. Tum-'S 
ing to anotliei' policeman, he said; "Mount that bo^l 
and drive." The nest moment the stage, with a loo^l 
string uf (iliiera, loaded inside and out with the l)lu»^9 
coat«, was whirling through the streets. HehaddoiMrl 
the same with the Sixth Avenue cars. The aon-in-lairfl 
of George Law remonstrated, saying that it would pro-4 
voke the moh Ui tear down the railroad buildio^fl 
There was no time to stand on ceremony; the oaivfl 
were seized, and the company, to save their propertjifl 
paid a large sum to the ringleaders of the rioters. lafl 
fact, a gi'eat many factories and buildings were bought! 
off in tJie same way ; so that the leaders drove quite B I 
thriving business. M 

But, as before i-craarked, tlie commeneeinent of barri-9 
cades to obstruct the movements of t}ie police and mill- 1 
tary, after the Parisian fashion, was a serious thing, I 
and must be nipped in the bud ; and Captain Walling,.] 
of the Twentieth Precinct, who had been busy in thiefl 
part of the city all the afternoon in dispersing the mob|fl 
sent to head-qtmrters for a military force to help ra-B 
move them. lie also sent to General Sandford, «t tb«9 
arsenal, for a company of eoldiers, which was promiaed^ I 
but never sent. At six o'elo<;k a force of regnlars ar-l 
rived from General Brown, and reimired to the Pro*l 
ciuct station-house. Captain Slott, of the Twentieth^ 
Frociiict, took command of the police force detailed tol 
cooperate with the troops, but delayed actiim till thflrfl 



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^M arrival 



SRCONK DAT. 



arrival of the coiiqiany promised from tlie areGiml. 
]^Ieanwhile, fie rioters kept strengthening the barri- 
cades between Tliirty -seventh and Forty-tliird Streets, in 
Kiglith Avenne, by lashiiig carta, wa{ioii8, and tele- 
graph poles together with wire stripped from the lat- 
ter. The crops streets were also barrii^dod. Time 
passed on, and yet the bayonets of the expected rt-in- 
forceraont from the arsenal did not appear. The two 
commanding officers now began to grow anxious ; it 
wonld not do to defer the attack till after dark, for 
Biich work as was before tliem reipiired daylight, 
lengtli, as the aun stooped to the western horizon, it 
was resolved to wait no longer, and the order to move 
forward was given. As tliey approached the first bar- 
rif^a'le. by Thirty-Beventh Street, a volley was poured 
into them from behind it, followed by stones and 
brick-l>at8. 

Tlio police now fell ba<rk to the left, and the regu- 
lars advancing, i-ctnrned the fire. Tiie rioters, how- 
ever, stood their ground, and for a time nothing was 
heard biit the rapid n>\\ of mneketry. Bnt tlie eleady. 
well-directed tire of the troops, at leugtii began ti> tell 
on the mob, and they at last broke, and fied to the 
next barricade. Tht! police then advan(«d, and tore 
down tlie ban-icade, when tlie whole force moved on to 
the next. Here the fight was renewed, but the close 
and rapid volley of the troops soon scattered the 
wretches, when this also was removed. They kept on 
in this way, till the last barricade was abandoned, when 
the nncovered crowd broke and fled in wild disorder. 
The soldiers pressed after, breaking up into squads, 
and chasing and firing into the disjointed fi-agraents aa 
tbcy drifted down the various etreels. 



I 



220 



TIE llREAT RIOTS OF NKIV YORK CTtK 



There was more or lees (Iktiirbance in tbia t 
however, till niiilnighL At nine o'clock, an i 
was luuflc on a gun and hanlirarc sture, in Thill 
seventh Street, between Eighth and Xintli AveiiVM 
but Serfjeant Petty was sent thithei' with a small for 
and scattered them at the first, chai^. At midoi^ 
an attempt was made to destroy the colored church! 
Tliirlieth Street, between Seventh and Eighth A* 
niies; bnt tiefore the rioters had accomplished chfl 
work, Captain Walling, with his entire force and I 
regulars, came up, and though met with a volley, I 
on tliem in such a headlong charge, that they » 
down the street. 

Alt this time tjio arsenal presented the appf 
<if a regular camp ; videttes were kept oat, eenti 
established, howitzers cotiimandei] the stroete, 
everything wore the look of a besieged fortress. 

Sandford, whom Wool wished to take command I 
all the troops, evidently thonght that he had as much a 
he could do to hold that building, without doiuj 
thing to quell the riot in the city. 

One of the lirst companies that came up from i 
forts the day before, and hence belonged to Qcnef 
Brown's force, got, no one could hardly tell how, in 
the arsenal, and were there coo[>ed n]) as useless | 
tlifrtigh in gan'ison— for if seven hundred men i 
cannon sweeping every approach could not hold \ 
seven thousand could not. General Brown nnd A<:t|] 
needed tins company badly, bnt how to get it v 
question. Governor Seymour Iield no direct eommq 
icKtioTi with tlie Police Commissioners ; for they % 
not on friendly terms, tis they were holding I 
uWos in defiance of him, he having removed the) 



SECOND DAT. 



^bome time before. Mr. Ilawley, tlie chief i-Iork, who 

^cfciew tlie Governor pei-eonally, acted, therefore, as the 
channel of communication between them. lie now 
went to him, and asked him how things were at the 
areenal. He replied, he did not know — no report had 
jen Bcnt him. Ilawley then aeked him to send an 
ifiicer and ascertain, and get back the company belong- 
ing to General Brown's command. lie replied lie 
had no one to send. Uawley then offered to go him- 
Bclf, if he would give an order to this company of 
United States troo}>8 to report at once to General 
Brown at police head-quarters. lie did so, and Ilaw- 
ley, reaching the arecnnl in safety, gave the order to 
the adjutant-general, before calling on Sandford, eo aa 
. to bo sure it was obeyed. 

On the northern limits of tlie city, serious disturb- 
ad occurred during the day, esjiecially in York- 
^lle, to wliich Acton was compelled to send a strong 
brce. The mob also attempted to hum Harlem bridge, 
Rlmt the heavy rain of the night before had made it so 
wet that it would not ignite. Down town, likewise, 
mobs liad assembled before tlie Western Hotel and 
other places, but were diapei-eed before they had in- 
flicted any damage. Almofit the last act in the even- 
ing was an attack on the house of Mr. Sinclair, one of 
^ the owners of the Tribune. 

But rioters must eat and sleep like other people, and 
Aiough knots of them could be seen in various parts of 
3ie city, the main portion seemed to have retired soon 
V.ftfter midnight. 

In the police head-quarters, men were lying around 
a the floor in the warm July night, sTiatching, as best 
tbey oonld, a little repose. General Brown and stafi', 



228 



THE OBFAT KlflTS OF XKW YORK cnT.l 



in their chairs or Btretelied on a Bettee, nodded in ti 
lull of tlie storm, though ready at a moment's notice^ 
do their dutr. Cut there was no i-est for Acton. 
had not closed his eyes for neaily forty honre, and I 
wafl not to close tliem for more than forty to come. 

Willi his rier\es strung to their utmost tension, a 
resolved to put down that mob thongh the streets p 
blood, he gave his whole soul to the work before liin. 
ne infused hie determined, fearless spirit into every 
one who approached him. Anonymous letters, telling 
him he had not another day to live, he flung aside wilJi 
a si;(3niful emilo, to attend to the telegraph dispatches 
from the different precincts, 

Troopa and men were stationed at various ]H>ii)t8, 
and gnnljoats were pati-olJing the rivers, and he must 
lie on the alert every moment. The fate of a great 
city lay on his heart, and he could not sleep. 



CHAPTER SVII. 



DEAFT HIOT THIRD DAY. 



f fioenes In tbe City and at Head-qaarteis. — Fight in Eig'btb Ave- 
nne. — Coonon sweep tbe Btroets. ^Narrow BscBpe of Captain 
Howell and Colonel Mott. — Battle for Jackson's Foundry.— 
HowttzeiK clear thu Street, — State of Things ehown by Telegraph 
Despatcbea^ — General Sandlocd sends oat a Foroe agoiotrt: a 
Mob, at Comet of Twenty-ointh Street and Seventh Avenue. — 
Colonel Gardia's Fight with the Mob.— Is Wounded. — Mob Vio- 
— Dead and Wounded Soldiers loft in the Street.— Cap- 
tain Putnam sent to bring them away. — Diaperseti the Hob.^ — 
Terrifio Night. 



Tuesday liad been a day of conatant euccesB to the 

police and military, and mauy thniight that the rioters 

were thoroughly dishearteued, and but little more Lard 

fighting would be done. There Imd been two days o£ 

diauBting work, and both parties were well tired out. 

unmissioiiera, certainly, could not stand this 

srrible strain much longer. Forty-eight hours with- 

Font sleep or rest, and all the time under the intenseBt 

f mental strain, wa3 telling on even the wiry Acton, 

I though he would confess to no fatigue. 

To one who could take in all that was passing in 
9 New York on this moniing, tlie city would have pre- 
inted a strange appearance. 

The magnitude and demonstrations of the mob liad 
aroueed great fear for the Navy Yard and the naval 
property of tlic Groveminent, and the mai-ine company 
,t had Iweii on duty with the jiolice was recalled by 



THE GEEAT KIOTS OF NEW VWBK ( 



Admiral Paulding for tbeir protection; and this moii 
iiig six war-vesaels, carrying in all over ninety ( 
ebotted and traiTiod, could be seen drawii up, so a 
cDiiiiTiaiid every avenue to the yard, while the iro 
clad battery Paasaic aud a gun-boat lay off the Batta 
to protect Fort Columbus during the absence of i 
garrison. Marines armed to the teeth, and howits 
guarded all the entiances to the Navy Yard. Brc 
way was almost deserted — no Btages wei-e nmntDg, 
street-cart? Imd disappeared — only here and there shut- 
ters were takeu down from the stores, and it looked 
like Sat>batli day in the city. Cut at police head- 
quarters all was activity. The African church uearly 
opposite was filled with soldiers stretched on the 
seats and floor of the building. Another house, a few j 
diwre from the police building, was also crowded wid^if 
soldiers. The owner of tliis empty house, having i 
a flat refusal to Acton's i-equest for the use of it, t 
latter quietly told the polic-emen to stave in the doc 
It took but a few minutes to send it from its liutgt 
and now the tixKips were quartered in it also ; for tSm 
tliose in the service of the United States, under Genera 
limwn, lia<i their head- quart era here. 

In the basement of tlie police building waa the tela; 
graph, with the wires running like nerves to ovei 
part of tlie city, over which inquiries and ansv 
continually passing. Rooms all around were flUed witi 
ratitins obtained from a neighboring grocery and i 
market, taken with or mtbont lea\'e. On the inaifl 
floor, on one side, in tbeir office pat tlie weary coinmin 
aioners; on the other, were Inspectors Cai-pentc 
Dilks, and l,«onard, fit, each one to be a general, whilij 
scattered around were police cajitains, detectives, t 



THIED DAY. 



331 



patrolmen. On tlie second storv were the clerks, copy- 
iete, etc. ; wliile the top floor was crowded with colored 
refugees, who had flod thither for protection. Some 
were standing and couvei-eing, others sitting in groups 
on boxes, or walking fi-oin room to riwni; many of 
theso sad and serious, as Uiey thought of miseing reW 
lives and friends, while the coloi-od man placed over 
them, with his shirt sleeves rolled up, was, with his 
assistants, dealing out provisions. 

But soon it was announced that a vast crowd, num- 
bering 6ome five thousand, was assembled near Eighth 
Avenue and Thirty-second Sti'eet, sacking houses and 
hanging negioes. General Dodge and Colonel Mott, 
with Captain Howell, eommaiiding Eighth Kcgiment 
Artillery, were at once despatched thither. As they 
maruhed up the avenue, they eaw three negroes hang- 
ing dead, while the crowd around tilled tlie air with 
fiendish shouts. As the firm, compact head of the 
column moved forward, the mob fell ijack, but did 
not scatter. Colonel Mott dashed foiwai J on horse- 
back and cut down one of the negroes with liia sword. 
This seemed to be the signal for the mob to euniinence 
the attack, and the next moment tliey rushed forward 
on the soldiers with stones, brick-bats, and shmg-shots. 
Colonel Mott then told Captain Howell to bring two 
pieces into battery on tlie corner of Thirty-second 
Street and Seventh Avenue, so as to sweep the Bti'eets; 
but he could not get through the dense crowd to do bo. 
The infantry and cavalry were then ordered up and 
told to clear the way. The former, with level bayonets, 
and the latter with dra\vn sabres, charged on the mass, 
which parted and fell back some distance, and then 
halted. Captain Howell then advanced alone, and 



23a 



THE llllEAT BrOTS OF NIvW 



ordered the rioters to disperae, or lie should fire < 
them. To this they replied iii aiiUon silouuc. ~ 
appai-eut iiuiv ill ingress of the captain to fire embold- 
ened them to believe that he would wot fire at t 
Although they refused tu diaiH^rse, the officers, na lo 
m they made no assault, declined to give the word t 
fire. This delay encouraged the rioters still more ; and I 
either believing the guns, whoso muzzles pointed so I 
threateningly on them, were loaded with blank tiart-a 
ridges, or grown dosi^rate and reckless nHth rage, theyl 
suddenly, as tliough moved by a common impulBO,r 
rushed forward and rained stones and niisgitcs of overy-1 
kind on the soldiers. Seeing that Iheir object waa to I 
eeizo the guns and turn them ou the troops, the word f 
to fire was given. The next moment a puff of smoke i 
rolled out, followed with a report that shook tlie build- j 
inga. Aa the nnudeiiiua shot tore tlirough the ci-owded I 
mass, they sto}iped, and swayed heavily back for ft J 
moment, when tlie pieces were quickly reloaded, and { 
again sent their deadly couteuta into tlicu- midst, I 
strewing the pavements with the dead and dying. I 
Those, liowevor, in the rear, being pi-otected by the | 
mass in front, refused to give way, and it was not till j 
five or six rounds had been fired that they finally I 
broke and fied down the side Blreete. The military! 
then broke into columns and marched up and dowal 
tJie streets, scattering every tiling before them, aiid| 
arresting many of the riotere. 

Ilaviug finished tJieir work, they returned to heod*^ 
quarters. Aa they left tlie district, the mob, or a pop- 1 
tion of it, gathered together again, and strung up / 
afresh the lifeless bodies of the negroes. 

A few honrs later, Captain Browcr, with a poliiw 



THIRD DAT. 



233 



Eorce, waa sont thither, to take down and remove the 
■dies of any negroes tliat might be still Imngiug, lie 
[did eo without molestation. 

Cdptain Ilowell's murderous fire on the mob eame 
tffsry near causing hia death two days after, Ilaving 
the CTiriositj to witne^ the et-ene of Iub struggle with 
ihe mob, he took hia carnage, and druve over to it. 
i. gang of eeveu or eight ruftiaiia, aeeing hia nnifonn, 
Tied out, " Tlieree the man who fired on ub here^let ua 
vliang him." TJieir fihoiits called others to the apot, and 
klmoiit before the captain was aware of his danger, 
■some fifty men wore assembled, and at once made a 
[dash at the driver, and ordered him to stop. Captain 
Howell, quickly drawing hia revolver, pointed it at tlie 
river, and urdeivd him tu turn down Thirty-first Street, 
md give his lioraea the whip, or he would shoot him on 
Bpot. The man obeying, laehcd his horses into a 
. At this moment the crowd was all around the 
JBrriage, and one man was elimhing up behind, when 
) fell and was run over. A shower of stones and 
vick-bats followed, breaking in the panels of the car- 
Mage, and narrowly miasing the captain's head. 

One stone struck an old wound in his side, and for 
a moment paralyzed his ann. The crowd with yells 
and shouts followed after, when he turned and empt- 
_ ied his revolver at them through the back window, 
irhich brought them to a halt. Colonel Mott had a 
umilar escape the day before. Passing down one of 
|Sie avenues in a carriage, he was recognized by some of 
I rioters, who immediately assailed him with atones, 
EDd fired at him. One of the bullets passed tlirough 
e cuahion on which he was sitting. 
Soon after this affair in Seventh Avenue, word wag 



TMIC (iEliAT EIUTO OF NKW 



piloted ^^ 



telegraphed tliat Jatiksoii's foundry, comer of Twpnl 
eigkthStreet, First and Second AvenneB.waethreateued. 
A military force was despatclied forthwitli to it, 
by four policemen. At Twenty-first Street and Firet 
Avenue, tliey were fired on by the mob. TUe attack 
was continned through the street to Second Areune, 
and up this to Twenty-fifth Street, without any tioticd"] 
being taken of it by the troops. Made reckless by this 
forbearance, the rioters began to close iip in more dan- 
gerous proximity, when the howitzer was uTilimbered 
and pointed down the avenue. The mob not liking the 
looks of this, scattered, when the column resumed ils 
march, T!ie mob then rallied, and followed after, with 
ehonta and distant shots, till the foundry on Twenty- 
eighth Street was reached. Here another luob came 
up from First Avenue, and the two made a simiiltan- 
eouB attack. The command was then given to fire, and a 
Tolley was poured into the ci-owd. Rapidly loadingand 
firing, tlie troojifl soon stretched so many on the pave- 
ment, that tlie rest broke and fled. The military then 
entered the building and held it. The mob gatJiered 
aroimd it, threatening to storm it, but <^onId not pluck 
up courage to make the attempt. They seemed esjwc- 
ially exasperated against the policemen, and had the 
effrontery to send a eommittee to the officer in com- 
maud> demanding their surrender. If their request 
was refused, they declared they would storm the build- 
ing at all hazards; but if complied with, lliey would 
disperee. The committee had to shout out their de- 
mands from the street. In reply, the officer told them 
if they did not take themselves off instantly, lie wotildj 
fire upon thera ; upon which they incoutinently took to 
their 



4 



THIRD DAY. 23S 

As the day wore on, things began to wear a Btill 
more threatening aspect. Deapatchoe t^aine in from 
every quarter, !iiinouni:ing the activitj of the mob. To 
a question sent to the Thirteenth Precinct, & little past 
twelve, inquiring how things were going on in Grand 
Street, was retiu'ued the following reply ; " Lively ; 
store-keepere have fired into the mob ; no forue there 
yet" 

"12.20. From Twenty-first BuildingcomerThirty- 
third Street, Second A\-enue, is eet on fire by the mob." 

"12.60. From Fifteenth. Send aeeiBtamje to 
Twenty-firat Preoinct ; they are about attacking it." 

" 12,55, Fi-om Tweuty-sixtli. It is reported that 
Government stores in Greenwich, near Liberty, are on 
fii-e ; tired by mob," 

" 1,10. From Twenty-seventh, Send more men 
aere forthwith," 

" 1.25. Fnim Fourth. Fire comer of Catharine 
Street and East Broadway." 

"1.4G. A man just in from Eleventh Precinct, re- 
poitfl a number of bands of robbers, numbering from 
fifty to one linndred each, breaking into stores in non&- 
toii, near Attorney Street." 

" 1,47 P.M. From Twenty-ninth, Tlie mob have 
cleared Twenty-first Precinct station-house," 

"2 p.m. From Twenty-ninth. A large mob sur- 
rounded Captain Gieen's house. Twenty-eighth Street, 
Third Avenue, He escaped out of the back window; 
they threatened to hang him," 

" 3.10 p,M. To Eleventh. Send to foot of Fonr- 
teenth Street, East Iii\-er, aud if military is there, send 
word here forthwith." 

"3,15. From Twenty-fourth. Mob arc firing the 



23b Tnic uuKAi' liioTs of kuw yukk cut 

building on Second Avpnae, near Twenty-eiglith Street 
Iitiiuediate assistance is required. lIoiiseB occupied by 
negroes, who are fleeing fur their ti\'e9. 

3.25. Fivin Twentieth. Tlie mob are Backing 
honscs at T\renty -seventh Street and Seventh Avenue. 
We liave no fon-c to send. 

3.30. From Twonty-flrst. There is an attack on 
the colored people in Second Avenue, between Twontj- 
eighth and Twenty-nintli Streets. 

3.40. Fi-om Eleventh. Send to 242 Stanton Street, 
and take pofiseesJon of cavalry Bwords forthivith. 

Tliere were five thousand cavalry awords there, and 
the mob were assembling to eaplure them; and the 
telegram announcing tiie fact, and the one ordering a 
force to seize them, were received and answered the 
eame minute, 

3.55. To Twenty-first. How do tilings look J 

Ant. Very bad ; large crowd in Thirty-fifth Street, 
near Tliii-d Avenue, and no assistance from adjoining 
precinct. 

4 o'ulofk. To Twenty-first. WJiat is going on ? 

Ans. Tlie mob have captnred some five or six 
negi-oea, and are preparing to hang them ; be quick 
with reinforcements. 

4.43, From Twentieth. News have jnst come in 
that the mob are about to attack the Twenty-second 
Precinct station-house, 

5,15. From Si.tteenth, Send ua one hundred 
special shields and clubs; tlie citizens are arming up 
well. 

&.15. From Twenty-ninth. Who feeds the special 



Ana. Y'" 



■■'net, far as able. 



THIED DAT. 237 

Itf^y. No money. 

Arm. It makes no difference ; thej must be fed ; we 
are responsible. 

5.20. From Twenty-ninth. Tlie rioters are noiv on 
Seventh Avenue and Twenty-eighth Street They 
have jnst killed a negro ; say they are going to fut off 
the Croton ; they have pickaxes and trowljars ; and also 
say they will cnt off the gas ; so reported by one of onr 
men, who has been in the ci-owd ; they were about to 
fire corner of Twenty-eighth Street and Seventh 
Avenue, when he came away. 

To have cnt off the water and extingnished the gas, 
would have been master-atrokes ; but the military 
arrived in time to prevent it. 

5.25. From First. Riot at Pier 4, North River; 
they have killed negroes there. 

Thus, at the same moment, from the two extreme 
ends of tlie city, oame the news of riota and calls for 
help. From points five milea apart, the wires would 
bring fiimultaneously tidmgs tliat showed the mob 
omnipresent. 

In the midat of all these incessant ejchansting labors, 
the following telegram came from the Twentieth 
Precinct : 

"General Sandford says he has bo many negroes at 
the arsenal, that he muat get rid of them." 

Acton'a answer wna characteristic. He had no time 
for formalities or courteous exchange of views. In an 
instant there flashed back over the wires the curt reply: 

" Tell General Sandford he must do the best he can 
with them there." 

General Sandford had at this time about the same 
nnmber of men under his command at the arsenal 



238 



TtlE GIEKAT RKTrS IIF SEW TOKK Cm", 



that General Brown had at police tiead-qnartere ; yel 
tlie former, up to this nioriiing, had not Bent ont a 
&iagle company to assist Ihe policG to arrest the devas- 
tations of the mob. He apparently did not know what 
was going ou, had hardly kept up any coramunlcation 
with the Police CommiEsiouere or Governor Seymoor, 
bnt now begs the former to relieve him of eome colored 
i-efugees, as if the overworked commissioners had not 
enough on their liands already. This rcqnest ift 
especially noteworthy, when taken in connection 
with Ilia after report, in which he states that on this 
morning the riot was substantially over ; so much 60, at 
least, that the polii-c could do all that was neceessiy 
without the aid of the military. It would seem that if 
he really thought that the rest of the work should be 
left to them, he might have sent off sfime of his troofw, 
and miuii; i-oom for the negriKts in the arsenal. 

At about two o'clock in the afternoon woi-d was re- 
ceived that a largo number of muskets were secreted 
in a store on Bniadway, near Thirty-third Street ; and 
Colonel Meyer was ordered to proceed thither, with 
thirty-three soldiers belonging to Ilawkins' Zouaves, 
and take possession of tbera. Keacliing the place, ha 
found a large mob gathered, which was momentarily 
increasing. He, however, succeeded in entering the 
building, and bronght out the anna. An Irishman 
happening to pass by in his cart, the colonel seized it, 
and pitching in the guns, closed around it, and moved off. 

Citizens offering their services were coming in all 
day, and a company was formed and placed under tlie 
command of Charles A. Lnmont, and did good ser- 
Tice. Others also were enrolled and jilaced on duty. 

Colonel Sherwood's battery of rifled cannon arrived 



in the afternoon, and was i)iit in position in front of 
the arsenal, wliere the firing of pickets all day would 
indicate that an attack was momentarily expected. 
This did not look as if General Sandford thought the 
riot snbstanfially over. 

At about five o'clDck, it «-as ordered by Sandford, with 
infantry force of one hundred and tifty, to corner vl 
Twenty-seventh Street and Seventh Avenue, to qnell a 
mob assembled in large numbers at that point, and 
whicli were gutting, and plundering, and tiring houses. 
As they approached, they sawflamee bursting from win- 
dows, while, to complete the terror of the scene, the 
body of a negi-o hung Buspended from a lami>i>o8t, his 
last struggle juat ended. At the same time that the 
military arrived, firemen, who had come to put out the 
fire.reached thespot inanotherdireetion. One portion 
of the mob immediately took shelter behind the latter, 
BO that the troops dared notifire and elear the streets, 
while another ran np to the house-tops, armed with guns 
and pistols, for the purpose of firing into the ranks 
below. The colonel told his men to keep a sharp look- 
out, and at the first shot fire. Scores of gnna were im- 
mediately pointed towai'ds the roofs of the lioueea. In 
the meantime, from some cause not fully explained, 
Uie imposing force, after this demonBtratiou, marched 
away, leaving the mob in full jxissession of the field. 
It had hardly reached the protection of the areenal 
again, when the plundering and violence recommenced ; 
and in a short time two more negroes were amusing 
the spectators with their death throes, as they hung by 
the neck from lamp-posts. This was the second expe- 
dition sent out by Sandford. the commander-in-chief of 
tlie military, during the riot. 



240 



Towards eveniDfj word waa bronght tti the SeventW 
Regiment armory tltat the muli liml gatliered in gre 
force iu First Avenue, between Eigbteentli and Nmd>B 
teeiitJi Streets. 

Colonel Winston, in command, immediately ordered! 
out a force, composed in part of the military, and ia 
part of enrolled citizens, and with a battery of twos 
howitzers, under command of Colonel Jardine, otT 
Uawkina' Zouaves, marclied rapidly to the i 
disturbance. Passing down Nineteenth Street to the! 
avenue, it halted, and nnlimberiug the pieces, trainedl 
them 80 as to command the avenue, while the in- 
fantry formed in line to support tliem. As soon as the 
rioters saw the guns bearing on them, they dodged 
into basements, and mounted to the windows and roofs 
of the tenement buildings that abounded in that viein- 
ity. A number of them armed with iimskets and , 
pistole, and the rest with stones and brick-bats, I: 
a fierce and determined attack on the troojis. 
howitzera, loaded with grape and canister, at onoi 
swept the street. After the first discharge, hut 1 
ventured to show themselves in the avenue, until aftec^ 
they heard the report, when they would dodge front 
behind comers and fire back. But from the tops 
the houses an incessant fnsillade was kept up. 
soldiers endeavored to pick them off, bnt the ri 
pri^entcd a small mark compared to that which I 
troops, massed in the open street's, furnished; and i 
was soon apparent that the fight was une(pial. If tl 
had only had a iKilico force to enter the buildings, a 
hunt the men from the roofs, the fight would 
t over. But the commander, thinking 
a sufiScient number to do this worl 



THUtD UAV. 841 

tliat tlie Boldiers, cumbered with their tnuskets, which, 
after the flret discharge, would have to be clubbed, 
could make no headway in such a band-to-hand fight, 
no effort to dislodge the wretcbee, who loaded 
and fired with the most imperturbable coolness. One 
'man was seen U^ step round the corner, after the dis- 
charge of the battery, and resting his gun oa the 
sLonlder of a fellow-rioter, take as deliberate aim at 
Colonel Jardine as he would at a squirrel on the limb 
:of a tree, and fire. The ball struck the colonel in the 
thigh, and brought him to the pavement. Other ofH- 
oers shared his fate, while at every discharge, men 
■would dr()p in the rank?. Tlie ho^vitzera rattled their 
ehot on tlie deserted pavements and wiills of the 
iioQses, but did no damage to tlie only portion of the 
enemy they had to fear, while the fight between the 
infantry and the rioters was like that between soldiers 
in the open field and Indians in ambush. Colonel 
Winston soon saw that it was madness to keep his men 
there, to be picked off in detail, and ordered a retreat. 
At the first eif;n of a retrograde movement, a cry rang 
slong the avenue; and from the side streets, and base- 
;, and lioiisea, the mob ttwarmed forth so furiously, 
that it assumed huge pr<^>portions at once, and chased 
the retiring soldiers with yells and taunts, and pressed 
them BO hotly that they conld not bring off all tlieir 
killed and wounded. Among those left behind was 
Colonel Jardine. He toiik refuge in a basement, 
vhere the mob found him, and would have killed liim 
on the spot, had not one of them recognized liini as an 
old acquaintance, and for some reason or other pro- 
jected him from further violence ; and he was eventually 
carried to the honso of a surgeon near by. 



•2i2 



THE URliAT ElOTB OF f 



The mob were left masters of tlie field, and soon 
gaa their depredations. The state of things was at 
letigth i-eported to police Iiead-qimrters, and General 
Brown sent off Captain PntniaB, with Captain Shelby 
and a tiimdred and fifty regulars and two Held-pieees, 
to disperse the nmb and bring away the dead and 
wounded of Winston's force that might remain. Tliey 
reached the s^>ot between ten and eleven o'clock at 
night. The dimly lighted streets were black with men, 
while many, apprised of the approach of the military, 
mounted again to the ro<ifs as before. Putnam immo- 
diately charged on the crowd in the street, ecattermg 
them like a whirlwind. He then turned his guns on 
the buUdings, and opened such a deadly tire on them 
that they were booh cleared. Having restored order, 
he lialted bis command, and remained on the groond 
till half-past twelve. 

At the same time a mob was pulling down the negro 
houses in York Street, which they soon left a heap of 
ruins. Ilouses plundered or set on fire in various parts 
of the city, combined with the ringing of fire-bells, 
thunder of cannon, and marching of troops, made tliis 
night like its predecessor — one of horror. 

There was also a disturbance in Brooklyn, Shaw's 
and Fanclier'a elevators, and Wheeler's store on the 
docks, were ect on fire, and a force ordered to put them 
out. 

The illumination of the windows from the Timet 
bailding thie evening shed a brilliant glow over Priut- 
ing-lionsc Square, and flooded the Park to the City Hall 
with light, while an armed force within was ready to 
firo oo any mob that slioold dare expose itself in 
cirdo of its influence. 



4 



TROD DAY. 



243 



At 12.15 the following telegram was sent: 

" To all Btations. IIow are things in yoar precinct ! " 

A.n»weT. " All quiet." 

Thus the third night of this terrible riot passed away 
Btill unsnfadued, and still Acton sat at his post, awake, 
while others slept, and kept feeling through the tele- 
graph wires the pulse of the huge, fevered city. The 
regiments coming back fi-om Pennsylvania might 
arrive at any time, and he was anxious to know tha 
moment they reached the New York docks. The 
Seventh Kegiment, especially, he knew was expected 
to reach the city that night by special train. Police- 
men were therefore kept on the watch ; but the regi- 
ment did not arrive till after daylight. About half- 
past four in the morning, the steady ranks were seen 
marching along Canal Street towards Broadway, and 
Boon drew up in front of St. Nicholas IIoteL 



CHAPTER rvin. 



ronBTn i 



KoolNiiatioDsby the Governor and Mayor. — City diHtrioted. — Appaar- | 
ance of tlie East Side of the City, — A HmHll Squad ot Soldiers 
chased into a. Foundry by the Mob.— Fierce Figlit batweon tbe 
Mob and MQitarj in Twenty-ninth Street. — Soldiura dri' 
the GroQDd, leaving a dead Sei^eant behind, — Captain Patnam 
Bent to bring the Body away, — Mows down the Rioters witli 
CaoiBter. — Storms the IlouBeB. — Utter Bout of the Mob, — Ci^oced 
Orphans and Nogroua taken by Police to BlouknaU'a Islknd. — 
TOQcbing Scene, — Coming on of Night find a Thnnder-atorm. — 
Retumtug Begiinente.— Increimed Force in the City to put down 
Violence. — Archbishop Hughes offem to addreai the Irish. — Ouii- 
OQH Account of nn Interview of a Lady with him and Qayensat J 
Seymour. — Strange Conduct of the Prelate. 

Only the principal tlistiirbanceH of the third day were I 
given, and of those the aecyiiiita were very Buccinct. 
The movements of the mobs and the conflicts with I 
them were so sitiiilar in character, that a detailed J 
deseriptiun of them wonld be a mere repetition of what 1 
had gone before. After the pohue force, and the troopa I 
under Oeneral Brown had l>ecomo oi^nized so as to 1 
move and act together, each fight with t!ie rioters waa I 
almost a repetition of its predecessor. Having 
a plan of procedure, they seldom deviated from it, and J 
the story of one fight became the story of all — a ehorti 
struggle and a quick victory. 

It was lioped this morning that the rioters woaldl 
conclude that they could not carry out their mad de- 



FOtrHTIl D4Y, 



Bigns; for the enrolment of large bodies of citizens, 
and the announcemeHt of tlie speedy return of several 
regiments, showed that all the force neccBsary to snb- 
due them was, or soon would be, on hand. The daj 
before, the Governor liad issned a proclamation, de- 
claring the city to be in a state of insiirreftion ; but this 
morning appeared a profhiination from Mayor Opdyke, 
announcing that the insurrection was practically ended. 
It is true ho called on tlie citizens to form voluntary 
associations, with competent leaders, to patrol their 
separate districts, to protect themselves fi-om i-oam- 
iog gangs of plunderers, and so spare the exhausted 
police and mihtary. Yet he called on tlie cltizeoB to 
resume their usnal avocations, and directed the railroad 
and stage lines to resume their routes. This opinion of 
the Mayor was strengthened by the positive auuounce- 
ment that the draft had been suspended, and the pas- 
sage of an ordinance by the City Coiiucil, appropriating 
$2,500,000 towards paying $300 exemption money to 
the poor who might bo drafted. It was plain, if the 
draft was the cause of the continued riot, it would now 
cease. But in spite of all this, bad news came from 
Harlem, and Yorkvillo, and other sections. In fact, It 
was evideut that the Police Commissioners did not 
share fully in the pleasant anticipations of the Mayor. 
Having ascertained that the leaders of tlio mob, leani- 
iug from experienw, had organized more intelligently, 
and designed to act in several distinct and separate 
bodies in difEerout sections, they, with General Brown, 
divided tlie city into ffiur districts, iu each one of which 
were to be stationed strong bodies of the police and 
military, so that tlicy could act with more expedition 
and efficiency tlian if they were sent out from the com- 



246 



! TOEK cmr. 



moTi head-quarters in Mulberry Street. It wonld, be- 
side, save tlie fatigue of long niiu-ches. Those separate 
etatioDs were in Ilarlem, Eighteenth, Tweuty-nmth, 
and Twenty-sixth Precincts, A good deal waa also 
expected by an invitation given by Ai-chbishoj) IIiigheB, 
that api)eared in the morning papers, to the Irish to 
meet him next day in front of Ms Iionse, where, though 
crippled from rheumatism, he would address them 
from the balcony. The Eighth Avenue cars bad been 
started, as well as those of the Third ; and many stores 
were opened. Still, on the east side of the city, in the 
neighborhood of First Avenne, most of the shops were 
closed. 

It should be lierc remarked to the credit of the Ger- 
man popnlation, which were very nnmerous in certain 
localities on this side of the city, that they had no sym- 
pathy with the riotere ; on the contrary, sent word to 
the Police Commissioners not to be concerned about 
their locality ; tbey had organized, and would see that 
order was maintained there. No better title to Ameri- 
can wtizenfibip than this could bo shown. 

Though early in the morning, it was comparatively 
quiet on the east side of the city ; yet near First Ave- 
nue knots of men coulJ be seen here and there, en- 
gaged in loud and angry conversatiou. They looked 
exhausted and haggard, but talked defiant as ever, 
swearing terrible vengeance against the military; for, 
though hidden from sight, in the miserable tenement- 
houses near by, lay their dead, dying, and wounded 
friends by scores. Near Kiueteenth Street, the scene 
of tJie conflict the evening previous, tliere were stones, 
brick-bats, shivered awning-posts, and other wrecks of 
the fight. Tlie grog-shops were open, in which men with 



I 



FOCBTH DAT. 247 

bloodj noses, and bruised and battered faties, obtained 
tlie necessary stimuhia to con tinne tliedesperate struggle. 
Dirty, slovenly-dressed women stood iu tbe door-ways 
or on tbe steps, swearing and denouncing both police 
and military in the coareest language. Though the 
immense gatherings of the preeedtng days were not 
witnessed, yet there was a ground-swell of passion 
that showed the lawless epirit was not subdued, though 
overawed. But the Police Commissioners were now 
prepared for whatever might occur. The Seventh 
Kegiment had been stationed on the west aide of the 
city, with a wide district to keep in oi-der, tlius ena- 
bling them to concentrate larger forces iu other direc- 
tions. But, although everything wore tliis favorable 
aspect to the authorities, it was evident towards noon, 
from the steadily iucreasiug size of the groups observed 
in the morning, that they had resolved to try again 
their strength with the military. The state of things 
was telegraphed to police head- quarters, but the re- 
port making the mob not formidable, only a company 
of about twenty-five men were sent out. Finding the 
rioters numbered about two hundred or more, and not 
daring to fire their howitzer, lest, before it could be re- 
loaded, the former would rush forward and seize it, they 
concluded to retire. The mob at once set furiously on 
them, and forced them to take refuge iu Jackson's 
fonudry. The following telegram to head-quarters 
aruionnced the fact: 

" 1.25. Fmm Twenty-first. Tlie mob has charged 
our military, about twenty-five in number, and driven 
them into Jackson's foundry, First Avenue and Twen- 
ty-eighth Street. The mob are armed, and every time 
a regular shows himself they fire. A few good skir- 



248 TUK OEEAT lilOTS rtF NEW YllRK CTIT. 

raisbers would pick off theee riflemen and relieve th 
military." 

This was aooii succeeded by the following : 

" 1.54. From Twenty -first. Send military s 
ance immediately to First Avenue and Twenty-eightl 
Street. The mob increases, and will murder the mlU 
tary force," 

Ans. " They are on their way up." 

They soon arrived, and were at once furionaly a 
tacked by the inob. The soldiers fired into thera, bu) 
they boldly held their ground, and were evidently beni 
on a desperate fight. 

The former now took up their stations at the June 
tion of the streets, and were about to sweep them witi 
canister, when from some cause a delay was ordered. 
This JncreaBed the boldneBs of the mob, and they 
taunted and derided the soldiers. But in a few min- 
utes a reinforcement of regulars arrived on tlie gronndj 
and charged bayonets. The riotere fell back, but raU 
lying, forced the soldiers to retire in turn. The latter,, 
however, returned to the charge, when the mob again 
gave way, but still stubbornly refused to disperse. 

News of the magnitude of the struggle reached tlio 
Seventh Regiment, and they rapidly marched to tlia 
spot. Their steady tramp along the pavement, and 
well-set ranks, discouraged the crowd, and they, 
marched and coimter-marched thi'ough the etroetot 
without molcfitatitm. 

The mob, however, dispersed only to renHsemblfl 
again in Twenty-ninth Street, and began to plutidei 
the etoi-es m the vicinity, and spread devastation o 
every side. 

This being reported to head-quarters, a military foro 



L 



240 

i despatched to disperse them. The rioters, how- 
Bver, instead of retreating, attacked tbem with ilie 
;greBtest fury. Almost eveiy house was filled witli 
ijliem, and they lined the roofs witli muskets and pis- 
tols, from wliifh they poured down a deadly tire. For 
Dearly a half an liour tiie fire was kept np without 
eessation, and many were killed. A Bergcant was 
knocked down by a brick-bat, and then seized and 
beaten to death. The tniopa finding themselves unable 
to dislodge the assailants, retreated, leaving the body 
if the sergeant in the street, where it laj' for three 
I0UT8. General Brown not having a sufficient number 
of ti-oopa on hand, the mob all this time had it 
liieir own way. It was nine o'clock before bo could 
d^pntch Captain Putnam with a strong force to put 
■n end to the disgi-aceful scene. Arriving on the spot, 
&e latter addressed the crowd, saying thu.t he liad come 
to carry away the dead body of the sergeant, and 
ibould do it at all hazards. Gut lie had hardly placed 
; in a wagon, when the crowd began to assail his 
troops. He immediately uniimbered his pieces, when 
tt scattered in every direction. But the rioters carac 
together agaui at the comer of Thirty-lirst Street and 
Becoud Avenue, where they were met by reinforce- 
ments, and made a stand. They filled the houses, and 
monntcd to the roofs, armed with muskets and revolv- 
ers, and as Putnam appeared, commenced a rapid 
£re. Placing bis pieces in position, tliis gallant oSicer 
swept the street witli canister, which soon cleared it. 
Eleven of the ringleaders were shot down, and bodies 
l^y thick on the pavement. But this did not intinii- 
rdate those in the windows,or<)n the roofs, and they kept 
ttp a Bteady fire. Putnam, who showed by his cool 



250 



THE fiEEAT lilOTS OF NEW Yl'ItK CITY. ' 



courage tlmt the fighting stock from which he nam^ 
Iiad not degeaorated, now ordered his men to tuni J 
tlicir lire on tbo baildinga. At eaeli disdiarge, thdJ 
heavy voUoya bronj!;Iit down many of the wretehefl 
Bome pitching headlong from the roof, and daehing'l 
out their braina on the pavement and flagging bclow^ 
But the figlit was very uneq^nal, for the aesaiUnti 
would expose their bodies as little as poseible ; Piituai 
saw that the houses muBt be stormed, and gave the o 
der to do it. The fight waa now transfen-ed to tho ht 
side, and became close and miirderone. In the narrow 
halls and on the Etairways, ii ambers wero of no a 
and the riotei-s fought with a desperation they had nota 
before exhibited. There was no way oi cBcape.arid th^^ 
seemed to prefer death to being taken prisoners, and f 
a half an hour maintained tho confliut in the darkenedV 
rooms and passages with a ferocity that ^Fas appal liDg.'' 
At last, however, with their umnbers sadly thinned, 
they were foi-ccd to yield, and took refuge in flight 
Many, unable to get away, hid under beds and in cloe- 
ets, but the soldiers ferreted them out, and carriec 
them to police head-quarters. 

The arsenal had not been attacked, as Saudfoi 
seemed every day to tliink it would bo. Many colore 
people, as before stated, took refuge in it ; and about J 
noon on this day, a body of police arrived before i 
with ihe ebildron of the Colored Orphan Asylum thai 
had been burned on Monday, in clmrge. They hM 
sinue tiiat time been scattered i-onud in slation-lio 
but were now to be esui>rted to lilackweil's lelaud, f 
better security. It was an impressive spectacle I 
army of cliildren presented, as they drew op in tin 
in front of the arsenal to wait for those within to jin 



FOUBTH DAY. 361 

them. The block was filled with them. The fright- 
ened little fugitives, fleeing from they scarce knew 
vbat, looked bewildered at their iiovel position. It 
seemed irapoeaible that they ever could have bcca the 
objects of any one's vengeance. With a strong body 
of police in front and rear, and a detachment of boI- 
diera on either eide, they toddled slowly down to the 
foot of Thirty-iiftti Street, from whence they were 
taken by boats to the Island. 

The Sixty-fifth New York Regiment an-ived from 
Earrisbiirg in the afterntion, and just before mid- 
night the One Hundred and Fifty-second also reached 
the city, and marched up Broadway to police head- 
qnarters, where they were stowed away to get some 
test. 

A heavy storm that sot in during the evening, helped 
to scatter the crowd that would otherwise have gatli- 
•red on this warm July night, but it at the same time 
gave a sombre aspect to the city. The crescent moon 
vas veiled in lilaek, and thunderous clouds that swept 
heavily over the city, deepened the gloom, and 
aeemcd portentous of greater evil. The closing of all 
■the stores and siuip-wiudowa at nightfall, thi-ough fear, 
left the streets lighted only Uy the scattering lamps. 
This unusual stretch of blank dead walls, emitting no 
ray of light, rendered the darkness made by the over- 
illanging storm still more impenetrable. Flashes of 
lightning would reveal small groups of men bent on 
tlundor, in sections where Ihe miJitai'y and police were 
lot stationed, but no open violence was attempted. In 
ither directions, the bayonets of the soldiers would 
•learn out of the dense sliadnwH, as they silently held 
le pofita assigned tlieni, reitdy tu march at a moment's 



252 



TUK GKEAT KIOTB OF HKW YORK CITT, ' 



notice. This wafl the fourth night, and t]ie canoi 
planted in the Btreets, and the increased military fore 
showed that peace waa not yet fnlly restored. 
Seventli Regi[Qent waa quartered in Thirty-foui 
Street, part of the aoldicre within a building, and 
. crowdingevei^' window to oateh tlie firet sign of dtaturt 
ance, and part stationed below, or marching back a 
forth in the street. Other troops and policejiico wei 
massed at head-quarters, ready to more, at the word n 
command, to any point threatened by tho mob. 

The fourth night was passing away, and still Act 
clung to his post, and refused to take e\en a momenta 
rest. His whole nature had been keyed np U> i 
the grave responsibilities that lay uikju him, 
thi'ough the wires he still watched every threatened 
point in the city, witli sleepless vigilance. In llM 
meantime, over a thousand special policemen had b 
sworn in, and five hundred or more citizens had voloi 
tered their services, while the steady arrival of retnn 
ing regiments swelled the military force into formid: 
able proportions. 

During the day. Senators Connolly and O'Brien hadi 
waited on General Brown, and asked him to remove j 
the military fi-om their ward, as their presence excited 
the people. The General very bluntly refused, saj-ing 
he should not pei-niit his tnxjps to retii'e from before 
an armed mob. lie was asked also to oi-dor the troops.J 
to leave Jackson's foundry for the same reason, and! 
gave an equally emphatic refusal. There whs i 
to be no compromise with the rioters, no agreemeaa 
entered into. TLey had got beyoud the churacteq 
of citizens with rights to be reBjiocted — they ttw 
i and murderers, to whom was submitted I 




FODETH DAY, 



simple question of snlijeetion to law and atitliority, or 
'death. 

The figliting through the day had been severe, but 
tibe disturbance had not boon so wide-spread and gen- 
eral. Outside of the city, there had been threatening 
mmorfi. It wa3 reported that there was danger of an 
Uprising inAVcstehester.wheresiinicloading Democrats 
htid taken open oppoeitioii to the draft, and a gun-boat 
Itsd gone up &b far as Tarrjtown ; but nothing BeriouB 
tJccurred. 

The rifiters being almost exclnaively IrisJi, it wa« 
Uioaght that an address from Arelibishop Jlughee 
would go far to quiet the ringleaders, and he had there- 
fore issued the following call, already referred to: 



To the men of Kew York, who £ 
many of the papers riotera. 



MenI 



I am not able, owing to rheumatism in my limbs, to 
Tisit yon, bnt that is not a reason why yon sbunld not 
pay me a visit in your whole strength. Come, then, to- 
Jmorrow (Friday) at two o'clock, to my re«idcncft, north- 
Weat comer of Madison Avenue andThirty-*ixlh Ktrout. 
■Tliere is abundant sgraee for the meeting, around my 
I can address you from the w^mcrof the balcony. 
^ I should not be able to itaniJ during iu delivery, 
^n will pennit me to a<]drefw ym nitting ; my voice is 
stronger tlisu my limlM. I take npon myself tbe 
NN^ionaibilitj of wMnnngyon, that in paying me thi* 
~ ' or in retirinf^ from it, yoa thall nut h* dt- 




25i 



■ EIOTS OF NEW VOKK CITY. 



any exhibitiou of municipal or military preeence. Ton 

who are Cfttholics, or as many of you ae are, h&ve a rigid 

to visit your bishop without molestation. 

t Jons IlrGHES, 

Archbishop of New York. 
New York, Jvli/ 10, 1883. 



A curious incideut was related subsequently Jn 
of the New York papers, respecting tlie manne 
which an interview was brought about between liim 
and Governor Seymour, and which resulted in the reso- 
lution of the ArchbiaJiop to address the rioters. The 
substance of the account was, that a youug widow of 
high culture, formerly the wife of a well-known lawyer, 
of this city — a woman living in an atinospherc of ary 
and refinement, and spending her time in study, be-j 
came so excited over the violence and bloodshed 
the authorities seemed unable to suppress, and findi 
tliat the Irish were at the bottom of the trouble, deter- 
mined to appeal to Archbishop Hughes personally, to 
use his high authority and influence to bring these ter- 
rible scones to a close. 

Acting on this determination, she set out tbia moni-i 
ing for the Archbishop's residence, but on arriving wa»^ 
toid that he was at the residence of Viear-general 
Starre, in llulberry Street. Hastening thither, she 
asked for an interview. Her request was denied, when 
she repeated it; and though again refused, would not 
be repelled, and sent word that her business was urgenl 
and that she would not detain liiin ten minutes. TI 
Archbishop tinally consented to see her. Ae she ea" 
tered the library, her manner and bearing — both naii 



< 



TOtJBTn DAT. 



be remarkably impressive — arrested the aUention of tbe 
■prelate. Withoat any explaDation or apolc^-, she told 
him at once her erraod— that ii was one of mercy and 
cliarity. She had been educated in a KomaQ Catholic 
oonveot herself, in which her father was a profeseor, 
andehe urged him, in the name of God, to get on horse- 
back, and go forth into the streets and qnell the excite- 
ment of his flock. She told him he must, like Mark 
Antony, address the [leople ; and in rc^uing this 
great metropolis from Vandalism, wonld become a sec- 
ond Constantiue, an immoi-tal hero. It was his duty, she 
boldly declared; and thongh she did not profess to be a 
Joanne d'Arc or Madame Eoland, bnt a plain woman 
of the present day, she would ride fearlessly by his side, 
and if he were threatened, would place her body between 
him and danger, and take the blow aimed at liim. The 
cantious and crafty prelate was almost carried away by 
the impassioned and dramatic force of this woman, bnt 
he told her it wonld be presumption in him to do so ; in 
&ct, impossible, as lie was so crippled with rhemnatism 
and gout, that he could not walk. She then asked hiia 
to call the crowd, and address them fi-om the balcony 
of his house. lie replied tliat he was jnst then busy 
in writing an answer to an attack nn him in the Triit- 
!. She aeetired him that such a controversy was 
worse tlian useless — that auothcr and higher duty rested 
on him. She pressed him with such impfirtnnity and en- 
thusiasm, that he finally coueeuted j bnt as a last effort 
to get rid of her, said he feared the military would 
interfere and attack the mob. She assured him they 
would not, and hurried off to the St. Nicholas to »co 
Governor Seymour about it. She found the ante-rfwm 
£ILed with officials and other pcrBonagee on important 



a56 



IHE UREAT ItHVTS <'F NEW TOEK CnT. 



business, waitiug tlieir turn to be admitted. Bat her 
determined, earnest manner so impressed every one 
with the importauce of her mission, that precedence 
was granted Iter, aad she found herself at onci 
beside tlie astonislied (lovemor. Without any prelim- 
inaries, &)ie told him she had just como from the head 
of the church, and wauted liia excellency to visit hiro 
immediately. No luieiness was of such vital impor- 
tance as this. The self-poaseaeed Governor coolly re- 
plied that he should be glad to See the Archbishop, but 
business was ton pressing to allow him to be absent 
even a half an hour from his duties. She hastened 
back to Archbishop Iluglies, and prevailed on him to 
writfi a note to Governor Seymour, asking him to call 
and see him, as he was unable to get out. Fortified with 
this, she now took a priest with her, aud providiuj; her- 
self with a carriage, returned to lioad-quarters, and aV 
Bolutoly forced, by her energy and determination and 
perBuasive manner, the Governor to leave his businesa, 
and go to the Archbisliop's. The invitation to the Iriah 
to meet him was the result of this interview. 

Why Archbishop Hughes took no more active part 
than ho did in quelling this insurrection, when there 
was scarcely a man in it except membera of his owa 
flock, seema strange. It is true he liad published 
address to them, urging them to keep the peace ; but ifeJ 
was prefaced by a long, undignified, and angry atti 
on Mr. Greeley, of the Tribune, aud showed that bej 
was in aynipatby with tlie rioters, at least iu their cou- 
denmatiou of the draft. The pi-eti'uce that it wouh 
be luisafe for hiin to pass through the streets, is absurd 
for on three different occasions common priesta 
mingled with the moh, not only with impunity, 



i 

r 
s 




Kw 


^i 


. ■? -^■''',-- 




>^^-^^ ^ i 



25T 



[with good effect. lie eould not, tlierefore, have 

I thought himself tn be in any great daDger. One 

[ thiDg, at any rate, is evident : liad an Irieli niol) tlireat- 

I ened to burn down a Roman Catholic church, or a 

Soman CatlioHti orphan asyhim. or threatened any of 

the inBtitntione or property of the Roman Church, he 

would have shown no such backwardness or fear. The 

mob would have been confronted with the most terrible 

anathemas of the church, and those lawless bands 

qnailed before the maledictions of the representative 

of " God's vicegerent on earth," It is unjust to snp- 

^L poee that he wished this plunder and robbery to eon- 

^B tintie, or desired to see Irishmen shot down in the 

^Hstreets; it must, therefore, he left to eonjecture, why 

^H'lie could not be moved to any interference except by 

^K,Outside preeaui'c, and then show so much bdiewannness 

^Bjn bis luannei- — in fact, condemning their oppouent£ 

^^kliaoet as much as themselves. 

^^B The excitement consequent on the draft, exhibited in 
^^wntbreaks in various parts of the country, and in the 
vicinity of New York, was increased by the reiwrta of 
violence and fighting in the latter city. In Troy there 
p-vas a riot, aud the inub, imitating the insane conduct 
' the riotoin in New York, proceeded to attack an 
African church. But a priest, more bold or more 
Kitriotic than Archbishop Hughes, interfered aud 
«ved it. That the latter, armed with nothing but the 
jrucifix, could have effected as much as tlie police and 
military together, there can be but little doubt. This 
n and decided sympathy \vith law and order, and 
sr nnathemas against the vaudals who eonght the 
Edestruution of tiic city, were the more demanded, as 
1i a large pro]>ortion of the police forue were Roman 



THE GREAT ElOTS OF NKW YORK CITV. 



Catholics, and in their noble devotion to duty, even 1 
eiiooting dowu their own countrymen and men of a'l 
eimilar faith, deserved this encouragement from thai 
hoad of the church. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



CLOSINQ SCENES. 

RMiqml HoTnlng-.— Proclamation of the Mayor. — Mob omrvd. — 
PlnndetetH nftniii ot Detection. — Dirty Cellnra crowded with 
nch Apparel, Famituru, and Vitirke of Art.^ Archbishop Hughes' 

Address. — UbcIbsb EffortB Acton's Forty-eig'ht Hours without 

Steep oyer. — Change in Militnry CommanderB in the City. — 
General Brown relinqniBhes his Com maud. —True Wnnja.— Noble 
Character and Behavior of the Troops and Policu.^ — Ueceral 
Brown's invaluable Services. 

Tina week nf liorrora — a week iiii paralleled in the 
history of New York — was drawing to a cloee. It liitd 
been one uf terror and dismay to tlie inhabitants, who 
thought only of the immediate effects on theraBelves of 
the triumph of the mob. A great city laid in ashes, 
given up to robbera and eiit-thi'oats, is at any time a 
terrible spcetaule; but Now York in rains at this time 
waa a republie gone — a nation uncrowned and left deso- 
late ; but the battle, Iwth for the nation and eity, had 
been nobly fought and won ; and Friday, the fifth day 
of this protracted struggle, dawned bright and trauqiiil. 
The Btorm of the night before had passed away, and 
the streets, thorouglily washed by the drenching rain, 
Btretchcd clean and quiet between the long i-owa of 
buildings, embleinatie of the tranqaillity that had re- 
tarned to the city. 

Tlie ears were seen once more speeding down to the 
businesa centres, loaded with passengers. Broadway 



260 



TBR QEKAT RIOTS Of NKW V"KS CnT. 



shook to the rambling of the heavy omnibnBeB; Bhat4 
ters were tahen down, and tho windows again Bhotitf 
with tlieir rich adoroincntg. The anxious look had de- 
parted f i-om the pedestrians, for the heavy olond, 8o fi 
of present woe and future forebodings, liud lifted and^ 
passed away. 

The following proclamation of Mayor Opdyfce will 
show the true state of things on this inorniug, and 
what the people had raust to fear: 



" The riotous assemblages have been dispei-sed. Bu^i'-fl 
ncsa is running in its usual eliannels. The variant 
lines of oranibnses, railway, and tele;rraph have ro' 
fiuined their ordinary operations. Fe\7 symptomM 
of disorder remain, except in a small district in that 
eastern part of the city, comprising a part of 1 
Eighteenth and Twenty-first Wards. Tho police i 
everywhere alei't. A siitficient military force ia now 
here to suppress any illegal movement, however f 
midablo. 

" Let me exhort yon, therefore, to pursue your ordv4^ 
nary business. Avoid especially all crowds. IZcmainfl 
quietly at your homes, except when engaged 
ness, or assisting the authorities in some organize 
force. When the military ajipear in the street, 
nut gather about it, being sure that it is doing ita dn^ 
in obedience to oi-dere from superior authority. Yom 
homes and your places of business' you have a ri^ 
to defend, and it is your duty to defend them, i 
all hazards. Yield to no intimidation, and to i 
demand for money as the price of yonr safety, 
any person warns you to desist from your accustoniM 
business, give no heed to tho warning, but urre«t 1 



CLOBDJO 8CENKS. 



261 



aiid bring liim to the nearest Btat.ion-honse as a con- 
spirator. 

"Be assured tliat the ptiblic authorities have tlie 
ability and the will to protect you from those who have 
conspired alike against your peatse, against the govern- 
ment of your choice, and against the laws whiuh your 
representatives have enadicd. 

"Geoboe Opdtke, Mayor." 



Down-town there was scarcely anything to show 
that New York had for nearly a week been awept by 
one of the moat frightful stflmis that ever desolated 
a city. Even in the disaffected districts, no crowds 
were assembled. In the comer groggeries, email 
groups of men might be seen, discnesing the past, and 
uttering curses and threats ; and ruined houeca and 
battered walls and hanguig blinds here and there arrest^ 
edthe eye, showing what wild work had been wrought; 
but it was evident that the struggle was over. The 
mob was thoroughly subdued, and the law-breakers 
now thought more of escaping ffiture puuishment 
than of fni'thcr acts of violence. Bi-iiised heads and 
battered forms were scattered through the low tene- 
ment-houses in every direction, wliich friends wei-e 
anxious to keep concealed ivom the notice of the 
authorities. In dirty cellars and squalid apartments 
were piled away the richest stuffs — brocaded silks, 
cashmere shawls, elegant chairs, vases, bronzes, and 
articles of virtu, huddled promiscuously together, 
damning evidences of guilt, which were sure not to 
escape, in tlie end, the searching eye of the police, who 
had already begun to gather up the plunder. Thus 



■ YORK CnY. 



the objects mostly coveted but a fow lionre ago i 
awakened the greatest eolicitudc and fear. 

Even if the military under Geueial Brown Wid I 
poliue liad not shown the mob that they were its n 
lei's, the arrival of fio many regiracnte, occupying all thai 
infected districts, was overwhehning evidence tliat thi 
day of lawless triumph was over, aud that of retribiH 
tioii had come. Some acts of individual hostility were 
witnessed, but nothing more. 

Arcbbighop Ilughes had his meeting, and Bome tiv< 
tliousand assembled to liear him. They were Ml iIm 
whole a peaceable -looking crowd, and it was evideiitljfl 
composed chiefly, if not wholly, of those who f 
taken no part iu the riot. None of the bloody he 
and gashed faces, of which there were so many i 
that moment in the city, apjjcared. The addreaa v 
well enough, but it camo too late to be of any service 
It might have saved many lives and much destrncdui 
had it been delivered two days before, bnt now it n 
like the bomltardment of a fortress after it had i 
rendered^a mcre^Bste of ammunition. The fight n 
over, and to use his f^\^^l not very refiued illtisti'atiui 
he "apak" too late." The rept)rts that uame in I 
Acton from all the precincts convinced him of thii^ 
and he began to think of rest. 

The strain was off, and overtasked nature made liet 
demand, and he was compelled to yield to it. The 
trumendoiis work that hud been laid npon liim bad 
lx>i'n right unhly acconipliished. Had be been a woak_ 
and vacillalitig man, tlie rioters would have acquired ■ 
headway that could not have becu stopped, witbont ■ 
more terrible sacrifice of life and |iro|X!rty — perh^ 
even ol half the city. Comprehending intnitively tT 



CLOSING BCENES. 



ass 



gravity of the flituation, and the daugcp of procrastina' 
tion or tem^wrizing, lie sprang at unce fur the euemy's 
throat, and never veased his hold iiutil he had strangled 
liini to death. K ho bad waited to cuusiilt authorities 
about the legality of his action, or listened to the voice 
of pity, or yielded to the clamors of leading [Hiliticians 
or threats of enemies, botli ho and the city, in all 
buinan probability, would have been swept away in the 
hurricane of popular fury. 

On this day a most remarkable announeement was 
published: that a snddcn change had been made in the 
military command of the troops of the city and harbor. 
General Dix superseded General Wool, and Canby, 
General Brown. That Wool slionld have been re- 
moved at any time, might have been expected; not 
from incapai;ity, but on acconnt of his age, and because 
any one could perform the mere nominal duties that 
devolved on him. Bnt why General Brown should 
have been removed at this critical moment, when he 
and the Police CommiBsioners were performing their 
herculean task so faithfully and well, is not so plain; 
unless it was the I'eeult of one of those freaks of pas- 
sion or despotic impulse, for which the SecretJiry of 
War was so ignobly distinguished. But unlike many 
other blunders which the War Department committed 
at this time, it did nut result in any evit couse<^ueuceB, 
for the fight was over. Bnt of this fact the Secretai-y 
of War was ignorant when he made out the order. 

General Brown, in relinquishing his command, spoke 
warmly of the noble behavior of the troops during the 
riots, saying : " Engaged night and day in constant 
eouHict with the mob, they have in eome fifteen or 
twenty severe contests — in most of them outnumbered 



TUE (ilJEAT ttlOTB i)F NEW 1 



inore than ten to oue, many o£ the mob being armed--i 
wliijiped and effectually dispersed thern, and liave been 
imifoi'iiily ^uucessfnl. In not a eiugle inetanco liiu 
Bistance been required by the ]x)]ioe, when it Las no! 
been promptly rendered ; and ail property, public hdA 
private, whiuli lias been under their pruteutiuu, hat 
Ijeen perfectly and efficiently protected ; and witUi 
pride he desires to record, that in tliia city, enrroiiudetil 
by gi-og-sliopB, but one single instance of draukeiuioc 
has fallen nnder his observation. 

"To Lieutenant-colonel Frotliinghara, his able Ai^: 
efiicient adjutant-general, he tei>derB his thanks for hiafl 
untiring assistance. 

" Having during the present insurreef ion been in itikI 
mediate aud constant co-operation with police dej 
ment of this city, he desires tlte privilege of expresahiff 
his unbounded admiration of it. Xever iu ciWl ( 
military life hae he seen such untiring devotion i 
Biich efficient sjrvic'e. 

" To President Acton and Cummiaeioncr Bergett htf 
offers his llmnks for their courtesy to him and tbeirl 
kindneiie to his command. 

" nARVEY Bhown, Jirigadi^r-geTiffrcd^'' 

The praise he bostowa both on the police and eoldiersl 
was richly deserved ; aud he may well say that " witlif 
pride he desires to record that in this city, aurroundw 
with grog-shops, but one single instance of drunken-l 
nesa has fallen under his observation." With all a 6ol-| 
dier's tendency to indulge in spirituous liquor, to 1 
thrown right amid drin king-places, which by harboriiig'J 
rioters had lost all claim to protection — part, of thoJ 
time suffering fi-ora want of food, and often drenched im 



CL06IN0 SCENES, 



^■'to the skiu, and weary from hard fighting and want of 
^t Bleep — not to Btep away oeuasionally in the tonfuBiuii 
and darkness of night, and sulac^c hiniBeif with stimu- 
lating drinks, was sometliing marvellous. After hard 
» jilting, and long marching, atrd short rations, a sol- 
dier feels he has a right to indulge in liquor, if he can 
get it ; aod their ahstiuence from it in Boch lawless 
times, not only speaks well for their diauii>li«e, but 
their character. A single instance shows under what 
perfect control the troops were. One day Colonel La- 
^_ due, seeing that his men were exhausted and Imngry, 
^V'desired U> let them have a little beer to I'efresh them, 
^Vftad the following telegram was sent fn>m the precinct 
^H Irbere they were ou duty : 

^V " 5.45 P.M. FrLim 9th. Colonel Ladne wishes his men 
^m allowed to have beer in Btationlionso." 
^B Ansicer. " Mr. Acton says he is opposed to beer, but 
^V the ratlonel can give his men as much as be pleases." 
^B " Acton is opposed to beer," but the troops are not 
under Iiis command, and he lias no heart to deny the 
poor fellows the Btation-house in which to refresh them- 
Belves after their haixi day's work. This incident also 
r.riiuwB the strict discipline maintained in the police 
feclepartment. 

General Brown had done a noble work. Taking 

Siis place beside the Police Commissioners, he bent all 

nia energies to the single task of carrying out their 

jblans, and save the city fi-om the hands of the rioters. 

He never thought what deference might he dne him 

1 the score of etiquette, or on account of his militai-y 

Esaiik ; he thought only of putting down the mob at all 

■luusBrdB. His refusal, at first, to serve under General 

sBaudford was not merely that it was an inii)roper 



)i{',G 



ider ibfl^^l 
knew it ^o| 



tiling to place a general of tbe regular army under 
orders of a mere militia general,* Imviiig no 
whatever in tlie United States amiy, but ho 
wonld paralyze his intluen<.-e, and in all human prob- 
ability result in the ueeleBa BacriSce of Ins tivxtpe. The 
aliHUrdity of nut moving until he i-eceived orders from 
hia 8ii])erior officer, oo<jped up in the ai«enal, wiiere hft 
remained practioally in a Btate of sioge, was so appar* 
ent that he ref titled to eounlenauce iL lie was willing 
that President Auton should be his superior officer, and 
give his orders, and he would carry them out; for thus 
he could act efficiently and make his disciplined bat- 
talion tell in tlie struggle; but for tlie sake of lus own;| 
reputation and (hat of his troops, be would not consent 
to hold a position that would only bring die^race oti{ 
both. His views are clearly expressed in liis reply ti% 
a highly ctimplimentary letter adiU-essed to him by tbo, 
mayor and a large number of prominent eitizona, for 
the signal aervices he had I'cndcred. He saya: "X 
never for a moment forgot that to the police was coa>j 
fided tbe coiiBcr\ation of tlie jieaee of the city ; aa< 
that only in conjunction with the city authoritii 
and on their requisition, could the United States fi 
be lawfully and properly employed in siippresfriug 
riot, and in restoring that peace and good oi'dur whivli 
hud been so lawlessly br^lcen. Acting in atict)rda)i< 
with this ])rinciple, and as aids to the gallant city [k>-' 
lice, tlie officei-e and soldlera of my command performed 
the most unjilcasant and arduous duty, with that prompt- 
energy and fearless patriotism which may ever " 
pected from tlie soldiers of tlie Republic." 

* BecKiuc be was cBpccinll; aeKi^cd to the comnuiid of tbe ot^ 
by the Secretarj of War. 



I 




Cfotmutd Tnnquillit]'. — Stnnge Aisartment of Plunder gatheiBd 
ia tbe Cellars and Shantiee of the Rioteis. — Search for it ezas- 
peratea the Irish. — Noble Conduct ol the Sanitor? Police. — 
Sergeant Copeland.— PrisonerB tried, — Damagea claimed from 
Uie City.— Nomber of Police lulled, — Twelve bnndrod Riotera 
killed.— -Thu Biot Relief Fund.— List of Cdloied People killed.— 
Generals Wool and Sandford'B Report*. — Theit- TrntUnlneaa 
denied. — Oeneml Brown vindicated. 

On Saturday morning it was annonnced that the 
aiitliorities at Wafihington had reBolved to enforce the 
draft. It had been repeatedly asserted during the 
riot that it was abandoned, and the report received 
very general t-redence. Still, the official denial of it 
jjrodnced no disturbance. The spirit of insurrection 
was effectually laid. 

It is a little singular, that, iu all these tremendoua 
^theringe and niovemeuts, no prominent recognized 
leaders could be fonud. A man by tlie name of Au- 
di-ews had been arrested and iniprisoncd as one, but 
the charge rested wholly on some exciting harangues 
lie had made, not from any active leadership he had 
"aesumed. 

There were, perhaps, in the city this morning not far 
from ten thousand trtjops — quite enough to preserve 
the peace, if tlie riot should break out afresh; and 
orders tliereforc were given to arrest the march of reg- 
imenta hastening from various sections to the city, 
under the requisition of the Governor. Still, the ter- 



THE CHEAT RIOTB tIF NEW YORK CI'l'Y. 



wr ^hat had taken poseeseion of men could nut bo aUfl 
layed in an lioiir, and altliougL the police had resncaed M 
their patvolB, and dared to bo seen alone in the 811*0618^ 
there was conslant diead nf persona! violence amcmg'J 
tlie citizens. Es|>e(;ially was thia true of the ne^ 
population. AUIiongh many etiiight their ruined 1 
homes, jet aware of tlie intenee hatred entertained to^l 
wai-d them by the mob, they felt unsafe, and began to f 
organize in self-defence. But the day wore away I 
without distnrbaiiire, and the Sabbath dawned peace- | 
ably, and order reigned from the Battery to Harlem. I 
The military did nut show themselves in the street, I 
and tliousanda thninged without fear the avenues in I 
which the lighting had taken plai-^, to look at tbo I 
ruins it had loft beliind. On Monday there was more I 
or less rebelliouH feeling exhibited by the rioters, oU' I 
acconnt of the general search of the police fi>r stolen I 
goods, and the ai-i-est of suspected pei-sons. It exbib- I 
ited itself, however, only in tlireata and cui-ses— not i 
policemen waa assaulted. It was amusing, eometimes, 
to see what strange articles the jioor wretchea had 
stowed away in their dirty cellars. There was every- 
thing from bari-els of sugar and starch to tobacco and 
bird-seed. Said a morning paper: " llahogany and i 
rosewood chairs with brocade upholstering, marble- j 
top tallies and stands, costly paintings, and huudi-eds of J 
delicate and valuable mantel ornaments, are daily found^ 
in low hovels up-town. Every peiwon in whose poeae^ I 
sion these articles are discovered disclaims all knowledge i 
of tiie same, except that tliey found them in the etreet, J 
and took them in to provont tbeni being burned. 1118] 
entire city will be searched, and it is expected that ihof 
greatest iii)rti<ni of the piM]>Grty taken from tJiO btli 




hig8 Bached by the mob will be recovered." The 
rivere and outlets to the citj were closely wutched, to 
prevent its being carried off. In the meantime, arrests 
were constantly made. 

It would be invidious to single out any portion of the 
police for Bpeeial commendation, where all did their 
doty 60 nobly ; but it ia not improper to speak of the 
. sanitary police, whose specific duties do not lead them 
to take part in quelling mobs. 

They have to report all nuisances, examine tenementr 
honses and unsafe buildings, look after the public 
schools, but more especially examine eteam-boilers, and 
license persona qiialiticd to run steam-engines. Ilence, 
it is composed of men of considerable scientilic knowl- 
edge. But all such business being suspended during 
the riot, they at onee, witli their Captain, B. Or. Lord, 
'«Bumed the duties of tlie common poUcemen, aud fi-om 
Uouday niglit till order was restored, were on constant 
duty, participating in the fights, and enduring the fa- 
tigues with unflinching firmness, and did not return to 
tfaeir regular dntiea till Monday morning. 

The drill-officer also, Servant T. S. Copelaud, be- 
eame, instead of a drill-officer, a gallant, active leader 
of his men in some of the most desperate fights that oc- 
loarred. His military knowledge enabled him to form 
commands ordered hastily off, witli great despatch. 
Sut not content with this, he led them, when formed, 
-to the charge, and gave such lessons in drill, in the 
midst of the fight, as the police will never forget. 

With the details of what followed we have nothing 
to do. The Grand Jnry indicted many of the prison- 
ers, and in the term of the court that met the 3d of 
Ulagnst, twenty were tried and nineteen convicted, and 



!70 



THE OBKAT RlliTS I'F SEW YOKK CITT, 



me, and "^^^ 



Bentenced to a longer or ftliorter tenii of imprisonraenU 
Of course a large nnmber on preliiiiiuary examinational 
got oflf. ftometimea froiu want of eafficient evidence, 
Bometimes from llie venality of the jiidgee before wboin 
tliey were brought. Claims for damages were brought 
in, theexamiualioD of wliivh was long mid tedious. The J 
details are publislied in two largo vulnniesi, and the entirel 
erj&t to the city was probably three millious of dotlar&'| 
Some of the claims went before the courts, where tbef 
lingered along indefiuitcly. The nnmber of notera 
killed, or died from the effects of their wounda,was pot 
down tiy the Police Commissioners at about tweli^ 
hnndred. Of coiii-ao this estimate is not made up from 
auy detailed repijrts. The dead and wounded wore 
hurried away, even in tlie midst of tiie fight, and hid- 
den in obecm'o streets, or taken out of the city for fear 
of fntnre arrests or complications. Hence there waa 
no direct way of getting at the exact number of thoee 
who foil victims to the Hot, The loss of life, therefore, 
could only be appmximated by taking the regular r^ 
port of the number of deaths in the city fur a fev 
weeks before the riots, and that for the same length of 
time after. As there was iiu epidemic, ur any report of 
iucrcaeed sickness from any disease, the inference nat- 
urally was, that the excess for the period after the rioti 
waa owing to the victims of tliem. Many of theae 
were i-cported as sunstrokes, owing to men exposing 
themselves to the sun with pouuded and l)attered heads. 
The Police Comcnissioncrs took great care to keep all 
the wounded jHilicemen indoore until perfectly cured. 
Only one ventured to neglect their orders, and he died 
' aeun'stroke. 

e difference of mortality in the city for the month 



INKS. 271 

jrevioDB to the riots, and tlie month dnring and bu1»- 
sequeat, was about twelve hundred, which excess 
Mr. Acton thought should he put down to the deatha 
paused directly and indirectly by the riots. Although 

my iKilicenieu were wounded, only three were killed 
or died from the injurieB they received. 

lui mediately after the riot, Mr. Leonard W. Jerome 
and uthere iuterestcd themselves in raising a fund for 
the relief of njemhors of the Police, Militia, and Fire 
Departments who had sustained injuries in the diR- 
eharge of their duty in suppressing the riots. Snb- 
scriptione to the amoimt of $54,980 were paid ia, and 
$22,7^1.53 distributed by the Trustees of the Riot Re- 
lief Fund, in auma from goO to $1,000, each, through 
lesae Bell, Treasurer, to 101 policemen, 16 militiamen, 
and 7 firemen. 

The balance was securely invested, to meet future 
emergencies, a portion of which was paid to eufiererB 
by the Orange Kiot of 1S71. 

The folluwing is tlie list of colored people known to 
be killed by the mob, together with the circumstances 
attending their murder, aa given by David Barnes, in 
hia Metnipolitan record, to wliich reference has hereto- 
fore been made. 

COLORED VICTIMB OF THE RIOT. 

Wu-LiAM IIif.NBT Nichols (colored). Nicliols re- 
sided at No. 147 East Twenty-eighth Street. Mrs. 
Staat, bis mother, was visiting him. On Wednesday, 
July 15th, at 3 o'clock, the house was attacked by 
a mob willi showers of bricks and stones. In one 
of the roorus was a woman with a child but three days 



THK QEEAT RIOTS OF NEW YOKK OITT. 



old. The rioters broke open the door with axes a 
Tiiehed in. Nichols nod his mother fled to the baa 
meut ; in a few moracnte the babe referred to 
dashed by the rioters from the upper window to t 
yard, and inetantly killed. The mob cut the wata 
pipes above, and the hascraent was being debiged ; 
persons, mostly women and children, wore there, a 

they fled to the yard ; in attempting to climb the feu« 

Mrs. Staats fell back from exhaustion ; the rioters were 
instantly n]>nn her ; ber son sprang to her rescue, ex- 
claiming, " Save my nmtlier, if you kill me." Two ruf- 
lians instantly seized him, each tnking hold of an arm, 
while a third, armed with a crowbar, calling upon 
them to hold bis arms apart, deliberately struck him a 
savage blow on the head, felling him like a bitllo< 
He died in the N. Y. Hospital two days after. 

James Costello (colored), — James Coetello, No, 1 
West Thirty-third Street, killed on Tuesday n 
July lith. Costello was a sliocniaker, an active a 
in bis business, industrious and solicr. Ho went otd 
early in the morning upon an errand, was accosted, aiM 
finally was pursued by a powerful man. He ran dow! 
the street ; endeavored to make his escape ; was ii 
overtaken by his pureuer; in self-defence he tnrnH 
and shot the rioter with a revolver. The shtit prow 
to be mortal; be died two days after. Cipstello wat 
immediately set upon by the mob. They first mangled 
bis body, then hanged it. They then r-nt down his 
body aud dragged it through the gutters, smashing 
with stones, and tinally burnt it. The mob tlien i 
tempted to kill Mrs. Costello and her children, but al 
escaped by climbing fences and taking refuge i 
police station-house. 



CLOeiNU SCENES. 



2T3 



Abbahau Frankus (colored). — Tliia young man, 
■who was iniirdcred by the mob on the comer of Twenty- 
seventh Street and Seventh Avenue, was a qniet, inof- 
fensive man, of nnexeeptionable chni-acter. He waa a 
le, but supported himself and hia toother, being 
employed as a coachtnaii. A short time previous to the 
asfiault, he called upon his mother to eee if anything 
conld be done by him for her safety. The old lady 
said she coiisidered herself pei-fectly safe ; but if her 
time to die had (!ome, she was ready to die. Her eon 
then knelt down by her side, and implored the protec- 
tion of Heaven in behalf of his mother. The old lady 
said that it secmod to her that ^od angels were pres- 
ent in the room. Scarcely had the supplicant risen 
from his knees, when the mob broke down the door, 
seized him, beat bim over the head and fa<je witli fists 
and clubs, and then hanged him in the proi«ence of his 
pnreot. While they were thus engaged, the military 
came and drove them away, cutting down the body of 
Franklin, who raised his arm once slightly and gave a 
few signs of life. The mililary then moved on to quell 
other riots, when the mob returned and again suspended 
the now pnibably lifeless body of Franklin, cutting 
out pieces of flesh, and otherwise shockingly mutilat- 
. ing it. 

Adqcstus S'l'CART (colored). — Died at Hospital, 
Blaokwell's Island, July 22, from the effects of a blow 
received at the hands of the mob, on Wednesday even- 
ing of tlie Eiot Week. He had been badly beaten 
previously by a band of rioters, and was frightened and 
inaaDfl from the effects of the blows which he had re- 
ceived. He was ninning toward the arsenal (State), 
I Seventh Avenue and Thirty-seventh Street, fnr safety, 



■274 



■I!K riRKAT RIOTS nK NKW VdHK < 



wlaen lie was overtaken by tlio mob. from whom he 
ceivcd liis death-blow, 

PrrrKR IIecston.— Peter Ileusluii, Bixty-three yi 
of age, u Mohawk IiidiaD, dark complexion, bnt straij 
liair, and for several jeare a resident <i£ New Y 
proved a victim to tbe liota. IleiiBton served with 
New York Volunteei* in tbe Mexican war. He was 
bi-iitally attacked and shockingly beaten, on the IStli 
of July, by a gang of niffianfl, who tbonght him to 
of the African race l»ecaiiee of hia dark complexi< 
He died witliin four days, at Bellevue Iloepital, fi 
hie injurieB. 

Jereuiah JRoBiNBON (colorcd), — He waa killed 
Miidison near Catharine Street. His widow stated 
lier hueband, in order to escape, drefised himself in 
some of her clothes, and, in company with herself and 
one other woman, left their residence and went toward 
one of the Brooklyn ferries. Robineon wore a hi 
which failed to hide his beard. Some boys, eeoing 
beard, lifted np the skirts of his dress, which ox[ 
hia heavy boots. Immediately the mob set upon hii 
and the atrocities they perpetrated are so revolting 
they are unfit for publication. Theyliually killed hii 
and threw his body into the river. Ilie wife and 
(companion ran up Madison Street, and escaped aci 
the Grand Street Ferry to Brooklyn. 

William Jon-es (colored). — A crowd of rioters 
Clarkson Street, in pursuit of a negro, who in self- 
fence bad Hi'cd on some rowdies, met an inoSenei' 
colored man returning from a bakery with a loaf 
l>road underhis arm. Thoy instantly set upon and 
him and, after uearly killing him, hung him to a tai 
poet. His body waa left suspended for Berersl h< 



was 
IStli ,., 

1 





CLOSINO BOEinCB. 



276 



A fire was made underneath him, and he was literally 
roasted as he Loiig, the mub revelling in tlieir demoniao 
act. Recognition of the remains, on their being recov- 
ered, was impossible ; and two women mourned for 
npwards of two weeks, in the case of this man, for the 
lo&a of tlieir husbands. At tlio end of that time, the 
husband of one o£ the monmerB, to her great joy, re- 
turned like one reeovered from the gravo. The princi- 
pal evidence which tlie widow, Mary Jones, had to 
identify the murdered man as her husband, was the 
fact of liis having a loaf of bread under his arm, he 
having left the house to get a loaf of bread a few miu- 
ntes before the attack. 

Joseph Beed (colored).^ This was a lad of seven 
years of age, residing at No. 147 East Twenty-eighth 
Street, with an aged grandmother and widowed mother. 
On Wednesday morning of the fearful week, a crowd 
of rufSans gathered in the neighborhood, determined 
on a week of pliuider and death. Thoy attacked the 
house, stole everything they could carry with them, 
and, after threatening the inmates, set fire to it The 
colored people who had the sole occupancy of the 
building, fled in confusion into the midst of the gather- 
ing crowd. And then the child was separated from 
his guardians. His youth and evident illness, even 
from the devils around him, it would be thought, should 
have insured his safety. But no souner did they see 
his unprotected, defenceless condition, than a gang of 
fiendish men seized hiin, beat him with sticks, and 
bruised him with heavy cobblestones. But one, ten- 
fold more the servant of Satan than the rest, rushed at 
the child, and with tlie stock of a pistol struck him on 
the temple and felled him to the ground, A nobl^ 



THE UKEAT I 



youDg fireman, by the natne of John F. Govern, of No. 
39 Hose CotiipaDj, instantly eanie to tlie rescne, and, 
single-handed, held the crowd at bay. Taking the 
wounded and unconBcious boy in his arms, he carried 
him to a place: of safety. The terrible heating and the 
great fi-iglit the poor lad had undergone was too mm 
for his feeble frame ; be died on the following Ti 
day. 

JnsEptt Jackson (eolored), aged nineteen years, living 
in West Fifty-third Street, near Sixth Avenue, was in 
the indiiHtrioiis pursuit of hie bumble occupation of 
gathering provender for a hei-d of cattle, and when 
near the foot of Thirty-fourth Street, East River, July 
15, was set upon by tlie mob, killed, and his body 
thrown into the river. 

Samcei, Johnson (colored), — On Tuesday night John- 
son was attacked near Fulton Ferry by a gang who 
mercilcBsly beat and left him for dead. A proposi- 
tion was made to throw bim into the river, but for 
Biiuie reason the murderers took fright and fled. ITa 
was taken by some citizens to hie home, and died tli 
next day. 

WiLLLAMs (colored). — He was attacked on thi 

corner of I^ Roy and Washington Streets, on Tuesdi 
morning, July llth, knocked down, a number of mei 
jumped npon, kicked, and stamped upon him mitil 
insensible. One of the murdei-crs knelt on tlie body 
and drove a knife into it ; the blade being too suiall, 
he tlircw it away and resorted to hia fists. Another; 
Kcized a hnge stone, weighing near twenty pounds, am 
deliberately crushed it again and again on to tlie vii 
A force of police, under Captain Dickson, arrived 
Ifepne^ tlfe man, who was conveyed to the New Y* 



i 



Tiea 
the I 

viae ■ 



CLOSING SCENES. 



277 



Hospital. He was only able to articulate "Williams" 
in reeponse to a question as to hie name, and rcmulncd 
insensible thereafter, dying in a few days. 

Ann DEEEicKsoN.^Tiiis was a white woman, the 
wife of a cdlored raan, and lived at No. 11 York 
Street. On Wednesday, July 15th, the riotera seized a 
eon of deceased, a lad of about twelve years, saturated 
his clothes and hair with caniphene, and then pracnr- 
ing a rope, fastened one end to a lamp-post, the other 
aronnd his uetk, and were abont to set him on Jii'e, and 
bang him ; they were interfered with by some citizens 
and by the police of the First Ward, and their diaboli- 
cal attempt at murder frustrated. While Mrs, Dor- 
rickson was attempting to save the life of her son she 
was horribly bi'uised and beaten with a cart-rung. 
The victim, after lingering three or four weeks, died 
from the effects of her injuries. 

Reports from the captains of the several precincts, 
with all the details of their operations, were made out 
— also from the subordinate military officers to their 
immediate snperiors, TJie final reports of Genei-al 
Wool, commanding the Eastern Department, and 
Major-general Sandford, commanding the city troops, 
caused much remark in the city papers, and called 
forth a reply from General Brown, wlio considered 
himself unjustly assailed in them. Explanation of the 
disagreement between him and General Wwl liaving 
been fully given, it is not necessary to repeat it 
here. The same may he said of the statement of Gen- 
eral Wool, regarding his ordere on Monday the IStli, 
respecting the troops in the harbor. But in this report 
of General Wool to Governor Seymour, tliere are 
I other statements which General Brown felt it his duty 




THE ORE^T KIOTS OF NEW YOEK OnT. 

to correct. General Wool says, that finding tliere v 
a want of harmony between GeueraU Sandford and 
BixiwH in tlie dispositiou of troops, lie issued the ioV J 
lowiDg order : 

Brkvet Bbioadiek-Gehxu 



Gentlemen : — It is indispen sable to eollect ^ 
troopg not Btationed, aud liave them divided intol 
Biiitablo parties, with a duo proportion of iJolice to| 
eac;h, and to pjitrol in sncli parte of the city as may beJ 
in the grealcKt danger from tlie rioters. This ought to I 
be done ae Boon as practicable. 

John E. Wool, Major-generdL 

After this had been issued, General Sandford re-l 
porting to me that his ordei-a were not obeyed by Geo-l 
eral Brown, I issued the following order : 

"All the troops called out for the protection cCa 
the city are placed uudor the command of Genei 
Sandford." 

General Brown in his reply says, that he " wver « 
or heard ofthisjirst (rrderP Tiic only ex]ilanation o 
this, consistent with the character of l>oth, is that C 
eral Wool sent this order to General Sandford alone- 
either forgetting to transmit it to General Brown, o 
expecting General Sandford to do it. 

At all events, sent or not, it was a foolish < 
One would infer from it tliat the whole taek of patti 
down the riots belonged to the military, the commai 
era of which were to order out what co-operating foi 
of police they deemed necessary and inarch op I 



CLOBING SCENES. 



279 



down the disaffected districts, trampling out the law- 
leesnesa according to rule. This might be all well 
enougb, but the question was, how were these troops, 
Btraugere to the city, to find out where ^'- suuh parts of 
the city " were in which was " the greatest danger from 
the rioters f" It ^owed a lamentable igiioranee of 
mobs ; they don't stay in one spot and fight it out, nor 
keep in one mass, nor give notice beforehand where 
they will strike next. Such knowledge tonld only bo 
obtained fi-om police head -quarters, the focus of the 
telegraph system, and thera the troo]is should have been 
ordered to concentrate at once, and put tUemaelvea 
nndei- the direction of the Police CommiBsiouers. 
Again, General Wool says be issued the following 
order to General Brown, on Tuesday : 

"Sm: — It is reptirted that the rioters have already 
recommenced their work of destruction. Ttniay there 
must be no child's play. Some of the troops under 
your command should he sent immediately to attack 
and stop those who have commenced their infenml ras- 
cality in Yorkville and Harlem." 

This order, too, General Brown says he never received. 
Thinking it strange, ho addi-ossed a note to General 
TVool's assistant adjiit.int-general, respectiuy both these 
orders, which had thns strangely wandered out of the 
way. The latter. Major Christensen, replied as follows : 

" The ordera of General Wool published in hia re- 
port to Governor Seymour, viz. : ' That patrols of mili- 
tary and police should be sent through the disaffected 
; districts ; ' and the one July 14th, ' To-day there must 
[ be no uhild^B play,' etc., were not issued by rae, and I 



TBB OEEAT RIOTS OF NEW YOHK CTfr. 



cannot therefore aaj whether copies were sent to ; 
OP not. They were certainly ^wi sent by ine. 

" C. F. CUEISTENSBW, 

" Major, AsBifitant AdjiiIaDt-geiiemL" 

We Jiave exjilained Ijow the error may Iiave occurre 
with regard to the first order. Iiuttliero is noexplani 
tioii of ttiis, ext^ept on the ground Iliat General W« 
perliapa sketched out this order, wiflumt sending it, t 
afterwards seeing it amid liis papers, tliought it was t 
copy "f one he had sent, lie was well advanced i 
yeara, and might easily fall into some such error. 

It is not necessary to go into detailed account of i 
the slatemeuts wmtained in General VVool'e 
which General Brown emphatically denies; but the 
following is wortJiy of notice. IIo says that General 
Bixjwn issued orders that General Sandford counter-^ 
mauded, and that General Brown acted through 
riots under his (Wool's) orders; whereas the lal 
says, he never received but three ordere from Woe 
during the whole time, and only one of those referre 
to any action towards the rioters, and that was to britij 
off some killed and wounded men left by a milita 
force sent out either by Sandford or Wool, and whid 
Lad been diaeed fn>ni the field by the mob. 

But tlie statements of General Wool are entire!) 
thrown into the ehade by the following assertion i 
General Sandford, in his report. He says : " With t 
remnant of the [liisj division {left in the city), and t 
first reinforcements fiiim General Wool, dotacbmona 
were sent to alt jiarta of the city, and the rioten evw 
where beaten and dispei-sodon Monday afternoon. Moi 
day night, and Tuesday morning. In a few hoon, b 



2S1 



I 



for the interference of Brigadier-general Brown, who, 
in disobedience of orders," etc. 

The perfect gravity with which thia aBsertion ia made 
is Bomething marvelloUB. One would infer that the i>o- 
lice was of no account, except to maintain order after it 
waa fuUv restored by the military on Tuesday morn i Tig. 
General Sandfurd might well be ignorant of tlio state of 
tilings in the city, for lie was cooped up in tlie arsenal, 
intent only on holding his fortress. So far uh lie was 
concerned, the whole city might have been hiiniod np 
before Tuesday nwn, and he would scarcely have 
known it, except as he saw the smoke and flames from 
the roof of the arsenal. lie never scut out a detri- 
ment until after the Tuesday aftenitxjn, when, as he 
says, but for General Brown's action, the riot would 
have been virtually over. The giinple truth is, those 
reports of Generals Wool and Sandford are both more 
after-thoughts, growing out of the annoyance they felt 
on knowing that tlieir martinetUrn, waa a bftal failure, 
and the whole work liad Ijeen done by General Brown 
and the Police Commii«iuuerB from their head -quarters 
in Mulberry Street. Aoton and Brown had no time lo 
gnmible or dispute about etiquette. They had itomo- 
thing mure seriouH im hand, and thoy Ixsut their ontlre 
energies to their accomplishment. General Handford 
held the arsenal, an important [Kiint, indeed a vital one, 
and let him claim and receive alt tlie credit due that 
achievement ; but to assume any special merit in (juelb 
iug the riots in the streets is simply ridiculous. That 
was tbe work of the polti-e and tlte military under 
the commissioners and General Brown. 

Tho statement of the Police Commiuionen, Aet/iu 
and Bergen, on this point is oonvluftive. "Ww^ vai^ 



A 



282 THE QKKAT EIOT3 OF NICW VnKK CITT. 

tbat General Saudford's error consisted in " not choosing 
to be in close coram nnication with this department, 
■when alone through the poliee telegraph, and other cer- 
tain means, truBtivorthj inforraatitm of the movements 
of the mob could be prompt])' had." 

That single statement is enough to overthrow all of 
General Sandford's assertious about the riot. It was 
hardly necessary for them to declai-o further in tJieir 
letter to General Brown : 

''So far from your action having had the effect aap- 
poaed by General Sandford, we are of the opinitui, al- 
ready expressed in our address t.o the police force, that 
thraugh your prompt, vigorous, and intelligent action, 
the intrepidity and steady valor of the Mnall military 
force undei- you, actiug with the police force, tlie riot- 
ous proceedings were arrested on Thursday night, and 
that witliout such aid mob violence would have con- 
tinned much longer." 

WELL-EAESED PRAISE. 

On the week after tlie riot the IJoard of Police Cttra- 
mieeioners issued the followiug address to the force, i 
which a well-earned tribute is paid to the military : 

To the Metropolitan Police Force. 

On the morning of Monday, the 13lh inst., the peace 1 
and good order of the city were broken by a mob col- J 
lc«!tcd in several quarters of the city, for the avowed 1 
))ur))ose of resisting tiie process of drafting names t 
recruit the armies of the ITiiion. 

Vast crowds of men collected and fired the of&cetl 



I 



^1 whe 
^1 tbe< 

H aticc 



THE METKOFOI.ITAN POLICE. 



283 



where drafting was in progress, beating and driving 
tbe officers from duty. • 

Fiom the beginning, these violent pniceedings were 
awjonipanied by arson, robbery, and murder. 

Private property, iinoSioial pei-sous of all agea, sexes, 
and conditions, were iudiecriminately aesailed — none 
■were spared, except those who were supposed by the 
inob Ui sympathize with their proceedings. 

Early in the day the Superintendent waa assaulted, 
craeily beaten, robbed, and disabled by tlie mob which 
was engaged iu burning the provost marehare office in 
Third Avenue, thus in a manner disarranging tlie or- 
ganization at the Central Depart men t, tlirowing new, 
unwonted, and responsible duties upon the Board. 

At this juncture the telegraph wii-es of the depart- 
ment were cut, and the movement of the railroads and 
stages \'iolcutly inteiTupted, interfering seriously with 
our accustomed means of transmitting orders and COB- 
eenti-ating forces. 

The militia of the city were absent at the seat of war, 
fighting the battles of tlie nation against treason and 
secession, and thei'e ^vas no adequate force in the city 
for the first twelve hours to resist at all points the vast 
and infuriated mob. The police force was not strong 
enough in any precinct to make head, unaided, against 
the overwhelming force. No course was left but to 
concentrate the whole force at tlie Central Depart- 
ment, and thence send detachments able to encounter 
and conquer tho rioters. This course waa pnimptly 
adopted ou Monday moniiiig. The military were 
called n[wn to act in aid of the civil force to subdue 
Uic treasonable mob, protect life and property, and re- 
store public order. 



TIIE OHKAT KIOTS OF SEW YQItK CITY. 



Under Buch adverse circumstances yon were calledl 
upun t(> cncountera mob of encli etrength as have neverfl 
before been seen in thia conulry. The force of inililial 
under General Sandford.wbo were called into eervioftl 
by the authority of this Board, were concentrated by S 
him at and held the arsenal in Seventh Avenu^l 
thninghoiit tlie contest. The military forces in ( 
mand of Brevet Brigadier-general Harvey Bn*wu re- J 
ported at the Central Department, and there General I 
Brown estahliehed his head-quarters, and from there 1 
expeditions, combined of police and military foroe, I 
were sent out that in all cases conquered, defeated, or I 
dispersed the mob force, and subjected them to eevere I 
chastisement. In no instance did those detachments 1 
from the Central Department, whether of pulice alone 
or jxtlice and military eonibiuod, meet wilb defeat or 
eerions check. 

In all cases they achie%'ed prompt and decirive vio- J 
turies. The contest continued through Monday, Tues- I 
day, Wednesday, Thureday, and till 11 o'clock onj 
Thursday ni;;ht,like acontinuous battle, when itendedl 
by a total and sanguinary rout of the insurgonto. 

During tiie whole of those anxiune days and nights, 1 
Brigadier-general Brotvn remained at the Central De- J 
partmont, ordering the movements of the military i 
carefully considered combinations with the police force, I 
and throughout the struggle, and until its close, cum-j^ 
manded the admiration and gratitude of the PoIimI 
Department and all who witncased his firm intclligonoeM 
and soldierly conduct. 

It is uiidorstood that he had at no timu nodHr faiafl 
immediiitc command more than three Innidred troo|w,1 
but they were of the highest order, and were t 



^1 man 

■ the 

■ ' oddf 



THE METKOPOLITAN POLICE. 



manded by ofSeers of courage and ability. They cor- 
dially acted with, eiipportsd, and were Bupported by, 
the police, and victory in every contest against fearful 
odds, was the roault of brave fighting and intelligent 
ccunmaiid. 

In the judgment of this Board, the escape of the city 
from the power of an infuriated mob is dne to the e 
furnished the poliue by Brigadier-general Brown and 
the small military force under his commaud. No o 
can doubt, who saw him, as we did, that during thoee 
anxious and eventful days and nights Brigadier-general 
HatA'ey Brown was equal to the situation, and wa£ the ^ 
right man in the right place. 

We avail ourselves of this occasion to tender to him, 
in the most earnest and public manner, the thanka of 
the department a;id our own. 

To the Boluiei-s under his commaud we are grateful 
as to brave men who perilled all to save the city from 
a reign of terror. To Captains Putnam, Franklin, and 
bhelley. Lieutenant Ryer, and Lieutenant-colonel Be- 
rena, officers of corps under tiie command of Bi-igadier- 
general Brown, we are especially indebted, and we only 
discharge a duty when we commend them to their su- 
periors in rank and to the War Department for their 
courageous and effective service. 

Of tiic luppectora, Captains, and Sergeants of poliue 
wlio led parties iii the fearful contest, we are proud to 
sa}' that none faltered or failed. Each was equal to the 
hour and the emergency. Not one failed to overcome 
the danger, howevei' imminent, or to defeat the enemy, 
however numerous. Especial commendation is due to 
Drill-sergeant Copeland for his most valuable aid in 



2S6 TnE ORKAT EIOTS OV fftrw YORK CITT. 

coTnTtiaiidiiig the movements of larger detachments of 
tho police. 

The patn>Uncn wlto were on duty fought tlirotigh 
the numerous and fierce confliota with the steady cour- 
age of veteran aoldiera, and have won^ as they deserve, 
the highest commendations from the public and from 
this Boai'd, In their ranlvs there was neitlier faltering 
nor straggling. Devotion to duty and courage in the 
performance of it were imiversal. 

The public and the department owe a debt of grati- 
tude to the citizens who voluntarily became special 
patrolmen, some three tlionsand of whom, for eeveml 
days aud nights, did regular patrolmen's duty vitb 
great effect. 

In the name of the public, and of the department in 
which they were volunteers, we thank them. 

Mr. Crowley, the superintendent of the police tele- 
graph, and tlie attaches of his department, by untiring 
and sleepless vigilance in transmitting information hj 
telegraph unceasingly through more than ten days and 
nights, have more than unstained the high reputation 
they Iiave always poasesscd, 

Througli all these bloody contests, through all the 
wearing fatigue and wasting labor, yon liave demeaned 
yourselves like worthy members of the Metrojtolitau 
Police. 

The public judgment will commend and reward yoa. 
A kind Providence has permitted you to escape with 
loss casualties than could have l>een ex]>octed. Too 
have lost one comrade, whom you have buried with 
honor. Your wnundod will, it is hoped, all recover, to 
join yon and share honor. It is hoped that the acvere 
bnt just chastisement which has Iteen inflicted 



^M those 

■ of P 
^H temp 



THE METTROPOI-ITAN 



287 



those gnilty of riot, pillage, arson, and njnrder,will deter 
further attempts of that character, Bwt if, arising out 
of political or other cauees, there shonld be another at- 
tempt to interrupt public order, we eliall call on yon 
again to cmBh ita authoi-s, confident that jou will re- 
spond like brave men, as yon ever have, to the calls of 
duty; and in future, whenever the attempt may be 
made, you will have to aid yon large forces of military, 
ably commanded, and thus be enabled tj} crush in the 
bud any attempted riot or revolution. 

To General Canby, who, on the morning of Friday, 
tha 17th inst., took command of the militai-y, relieving 
Brigadier-genei-al Brown, and to Gen. Dix, who sno- 
liceded General Wool, the public are indebted for 
prompt, vigorous, and willing aid to the police force in 
all the expeditions which have been called for since 
they assumed their commands. Chai'ged particnlarly 
with the protection of the immense amount of Federal 
property and interests in the Metropolitan district, and 
the police force charged with the maintenance of pub- 
lic order, the duties of the two forces are always coin- 
cident. 

Whatever menaces or disturbs one equally menaces 
and distnrbs the other. 

We are happy to know that at all times the several 
authorities have co-operated with that concert and har- 
mony which is necessary to secure vigor and eEBciency 
in action. 

Sergeant T"oung, of the detective force, aided by Mr. 
Newcomb aud other special patrolmen, rendered must 
effective service in arranging the commissai-y supplies 
for the targe numbei" of police, military, special patrol- 
men, and destitute colored ref ugees, whose stibsistencfl 



288 



THE UKKAT RIOTS OF NKW VOBK CXTY. 



was thrown unexpectedly on the department. Th^ 
duty was arduous and responsihle, and was )>erformedfl 
witli vigor and fidelity. All the clerks of the depar 
incut, eacli in his epherc, performed a manly share of ■ 
the heavy duties growing out of these extraordinaryj 
circumstances. The Central Department became al 
home of refnge for large nnmbere of poor, persecuted! 
colored men, women, and children, many of n-homf 
wei-e wounded and sick, and all of whom were Iiolplesa, I 
exposed, and pixir. Mr. John II. Keyser, with bitM 
accnstoined philanthropy, voliniteered, and was ap-M 
pointed to superintend these wretched victims of vi»'fl 
len™ and prejudice!, and has devoted unwearied dayaf 
to the duty. The pitiable condition of these jwor peo-^ 
pie appeals in the strongest terms to the Christian char- 
ity of the benevtilent and humane. The members of 
the force will do an acceptable service by calling the 
attention to tlieir condition of those who are able and J 
Tilling to contribute tn charity to their relief. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



OEANtlK RIi)T8 OF ]3M AND Iffll. 



BalJgiotu TolemtioB.— IrUh Fend*.— Bottle of Boyne Water.— Oi- 
angemen. — Oripin and Objet't of the Society.— A Pionio at Elm 
Park. — Attacked by the Ribbonmen,— The Fight.— After SceasB. 
— Biotof 18Tl,~0aiiBpiracy of tJie Irish Catholics to prerent B 
Parade of Orangeroen.— Forbidden hy the City AutiioritieH. — 
IndignatitiD of tho People, — Hocting^ in the Produce Exchange. 
— Governor HotTroaQ's Proclaniatiou — ;Monm)g of the 18th. — 
The Omagemcn at Lamartine Hail. — Attack on the ArmorieH.— 
The UorperH threatened. — Exoldag Scenes aronud Lamortine 
Ball and at Police Hcad-qaart«rB.~Bibeniia Hall cleared. ^At- 
tank onun Armory. — Forinution uf the ProcesEiou.— Its March, — 
Attacked,— Firing of the Military without Ordera.— Terrific 
Scene. — The Uospitala and Morgne.^ — Sight SceiijeB. — Number 
of killed and wounded. — The Lessou. 

Is a free country like ours, where toleration of all 
religiotis alike is one tjf the fundamental principles of 
the Crovernineut, oui; would naturally think that open 
persecution of any sect or body of religionists was 
impossible. Bnt the Irish, uiifijrtuuately, liave bi-ought 
with them to this country uot merely many of their 
old custorns and national fetes, but tlieir old religious 
fcuda. 

Nearly two hundred years ago, William of Nassau, 
Prince of Orange, or William the Third, a Protestant, 
met the Catholic King, James the Second, of England, 
in deadly battle, in the vales of Meath, through which 
theBoyno River flows, and utterly ronfedliim, and com- 



290 



THE GREAT I 



? OF SEW voEK cmr. 



polled him to fieo to the CJoiitineut for siifety, J 
irig to old style, this was on the firet day of <! 
the old ballad says : 

'* 'Twne bright irolj's Gist moming' olear, 
Of nnfoi^tten glory, 
That maile thin ittrcuuii, tbnnigh ages Aeax, 
a Boag and iitoi;." 



According to new style, however, this has 1 
the twelfth of the month. The Olsler Protestant So- 
ciety, known aa Orangemen, was founded in 1795. It 
was a secret political organization, founded, it is e 
to coniiteract the Ribbonnien, or Pi-otectors, i 
were called. Its object in this country, it is ai 
is entirely different, and more in harmony with oth 
aoi'ieties that have their annual celebratio 
York City and other places. 

It is not neceesary to go over tlie bitter fends ) 
tween tltese and the CatJiulic Irish in the old cunntr 
The hates they engcnilcred were brought here, but k^ 
from any great outward manifestation, because the C 
augemcn indulged in no public displays. We bdie 
that there had been only one pracession prerione 1 
this. In this year, however, an imjHising display i 
resolved upon, but no trouble was anticipated, a 
precaiiti'ins taken by the police. It was not propc 
to parade tbo streets, but to form, and mai-ch in p 
coBsion up Eighth Avenue, to Ebn Park, cornvr < 
Ninetieth Street and Eighth Avenue, and have a p 
nic, and wind up with a dance. As tlie ] 
passed Fourth Street, in full Orange regalia, and abt 
twenty-five hundred strong (uien, women, aud i 
dren), playing "Boyne Water," " Derry," and i 



I 



I 



OBANOE RIOTS OF 19W AND IBH. 291 

tones obnoxionB to tlie Catliolica, some two hnndred 
Iiiehmen followed it with eiireea and threats. 

Violence was, however, not feared, and tlie proces- 
sion continued on, and at length i-eached the new Boule- 
vard road, where a large body of Irishraen were at 
work. Beyond, however, tlie interchange of EOrae 
words, nothing transi)ired, and it entered the park, and 
began the fetitivities uf tlie day. 

In the nieanwiiile, howe\'er, the rabble that had fol- 
lowed tliem came npou the Ribbonmeii at work op the 
Boolovard road, and perBimdod them to throW up 
work and join tliera, and the whole cn)wd, nnmberiug 
probably alx)ut five hnndred, started for the park. The 
foreman of the gang of three hundred workracti saw at 
once the danger, and hurried to the Thirty-fii^at Precinct 
station, comer of One Hundredth Street and Ninth 
jlvenne, and told Captain Helme of the state of 
r*tliing8. 

The latter immediately thought of the picnic, and, 
Miticipating trouble, telegraphed to Jourdan for i-ein- 
foreementB. In the meanwliile, the mob, loaded with 
stones, advanced tumultuonsly towards the park, wicliin 
which the unsuspecting Orangemen were giving them- 
selves up to enjoyment. Suddenly a shower of stones 
fell among thcTU, knocking over women and children, 
and sending consternation through the crowd. Shouts 
and cnrses followed, and the Orangemen, rallying, 
mshed out and fell furionsly on their assailants. 
Shovels, clubs, and stones were freely used, and a scene 
of terrific confusion followed. The fight was close and 
bloody, and continued for nearly half an hour, when 
John Kelly, with a force of sixteen men, ar- 
•)ived, and rushing in between the combatants, sei^a.- 




•292 



THE OKEAT RIOTS OF NEW TURK CJ-n". 



rated tLera, and drove the Orangemen biick into t 
park. The mob then divided into two [jortione, of 
tween two and three hmidi'ed each. One party v 
by way of Ninth Avenue, and, breaking down the 
fence on that eide, entered the park, and fell witli 
bratal fury on men, women, and diildron alike. AJ 
terrible fight followed, and amid the Ehouts and oatfai 
of the men and screaras of the women and childrei^l 
occasional pistol-shots were heard, ehowing that miiF; 
der was being done. The enraged, nnarmed Onuigi 
men, wrenched hand rails from the fence, tore ' 
eniatl trees, and seized anything and everything that 
would serve for a weapon, and maintained the fight fof 
a half an Iiour, before the police arrived. The seooud 
portion went by Eighth Avenue, and intercepted i 
large body of Orangemen that had reti«ated from t 
woods, and a desperate battle followed. There weri 
only two policemen here, and of course could do noth- 
ing but stand and look on the murderous conflict. la 
the meantime, tlie force telegraphed for by Captain 
Uelme arrived. It consisted of twenty men, to whi<j 
Captain Ilelme added the reserve force, with & e 
geaiit fn>m the Eiglith, Ninth, Fifteenth, SL^teeutl 
and Nineteenth Precincts, making in all some fifty 
men. These he divided into two portions, one ofl 
which ho sent over to Eightli Avenue to protect tiiBl 
cars, into which the fugitives were crowding, while the 
other dashed furiously into the park, and fell on the 
combatants with their chii)s. They stKm cleared i 
lane l>etweeu them, when turning on tlie nibbonin 
they drove them out of llio park. They then foi 
tlie Orangemen hiUt a pnweasion, ami oawrted I 
down the cily. A portion, however, had fled for 1 



with 

latb^l 
irei^H 
muFj^H 

i op's 
that 
tfor 
cxmd ■ 

ed i^fl 

^4 
loth- 1 




r 



Eighth Avenae cars ; but a party of Ribbonraen were 
lying in wnit here, and another fight followed. Ilnge 
Btonea were thrown through the windows nf the ears, 
the sides broken in, over tlie wreck of which the mob 
rushed, knocking down men, women, and children 
alike, whose sh(jiit8, and oaths, and screams conld be 
heard blocks off. Tlie scene was terrific, nntil the ar- 
rival of the police put an end to it, and bore the dead 
and wounded away. 

About seven o'clock, Superintendent Jourdan arrived 
in the precinct, accompanied by Inspecturs Dilks and 
"Walling, and Detectives Farley and Avery. In the 
basement of the Thirty-first Precinct station, on a low 
trestle bed, tlireo bloody corpses were stretclied, while 
the neighboring precincta were filled with the wounded. 
Two more died before morning. The street near each 
Btation was crowded with Orangemen inquiring after 
friends. 

Although no more outbreaks occnrred, the most in- 
tense excitement prevailed among the Irish population 
of the city, and it was evident that it needed only a 
Boitable occasion to bring on another conflict. 

THE aiOT OF 1871. 

When the next anniversary of the Orangemen came 
ronnd, it was discovered that a conspiracy had been 
formed by a large body of the Catholic population to 
prevent its public celebration. The air was fnll of ru- 
mors, while the city authorities were in possession of 
the fullest evidence that if the Orangemen paraded, 
they would be attacked, and probably many lives be lost. 
They were in great dilemma as to what course to viic 



204 



' NEW YUltK CITY. 



eue. If tliey alluwed the procesaioo to take place, tlieyfl 
\*oiiId he compelled to protect it, and shoot down the J 
men wliuse votes helj^ied largely to plauc them ia power. I 
If they forbade it, they feared tho public indignationl 
that would be aroused agaiust siieh a truckling, mijutit I 
course. As the day drew near, however, and tlie ex-f 
tensive preparations of the Irish Catliolicit became moral 
apparent, they tinally determined to ricik the latterJ 
oonrse, and it was decided that Superintendent Kel&ol 
should issue an order forbidding tiie Orangemen to] 
parade. This ludicrous attempt on the part of thai 
Mayor to shift the responsibility from his own should- ^ 
ers, awakened only scorn, and the appearance of the J 
order was followed by a storm of indignation that was j 
appalling The leading papers, without regard to poli- 
tics, opened on Iiim aud hie advisers, with such atorrent 
of denunciati<»nB that they quailed before it. Ppoces- 
sioDB of all kinds and nationalities were allowed on the J 
streets, and to forbid only one, and that )>ecause it was I 
Protestant, was an insult to every American dtUeii. I 
Even Wall Street forgot its usual excitement, and lead- 1 
ing men were heard violently denouncing this coward- T 
ly surrender of Mayor Hall to the flireats of a mob.|^ 
An impromptu meeting was called in the Prodiical 
Exchange, and a petition drawn up, askiug the preel-fl 
dent to i;all a foi-mal meeting, and excited men ato 
in line two hours, waitiug their tura to sign it. Thl 
building was thronged, and the vice-president called 
the meeting to order, and informed it that the rale 
reipiirod twenty-fom" hours' notiw! for such a tneetii)jf.f 
The members, however, would listen to no delft^ 
aud with an unanimous and thuudering vote, declu 
tho rules auspunded. The ootionof the city autlioritii 



OBANOE BlO-rS OK IffiO i 



295 



A denounced in withering terms, and a coiiiinittee of 
leading men appointed to wait on tliera, and reraon- 
Btrate witlt the Mayor, One wiuld Bcaicely liavo 
dreamed that tins order would stir New York so pro- 
foundly. But the people, peculiarly sensitive to any 
attack on religions freedom, were the more fiercely 
aroused, that in tliia case it was a Catholic mob using 
the city aotburity to strike down Protestantism. The 
Mayor and his subordinates were appalled at the tem- 
pest they had raised, and calling a council, resolved to 
revoke the order. In the meantime, Governor Hoff- 
man was telegraphed to from Albany. Ilaetening to 
the city, he, after a eonsultation with Mayor Ilatl, de- 
. cided to issue the following proclamation : 

"Ilaving been only this day apprised, while at the 
capital, of the actual coudition of things here, with 
reference to proposed processions to-morrow, and 
having, in the belief that my presence was needed, 
repaired hither immediately, I do make this proula- 
matiou : 

" The order heretofore issued by the police authori- 
ties, in reference to said processions, being duly re- 
voked, I hereby give notice tliat any and all bodit* of 
men desiring to assemble in peaceable procession to- 
morrow, the 12th Inst,, will be permitted to do so. 
They will be protected to the fullest extent possible by 
the military and police authorities. A police and 
military escort will be furnished to any body of men 
desiring it, on application to me at my head-quarters 
(which will be at police head-quartei-s in this city) at 
any time during the day. I warn all ^lersons toabstain 
from interference with any such assembly or procession, 



296 



THB OKEAT EIOT8 OF NEW YORK CITY. 



except by authority from me ; and I give notice tlial 
all the powers of uiy command, civil and luilitarj-, will 
be need to pi-eaerve the public peace, and put down i 
all hazards, every attempt at diettirbances ; and 1 call 
upon all citizens, of every race and religion, tu tmiM 
with me and the local anthoritieB in this determinRtiia 
to presene the peace and lionor of the city and StatO 
Dated at New York, this eleventh day of July, A. T 
1871. Jous T, Hoffman. 

It waa tlionght by many that this would connteraot 
the effects of the cowardly order of the police e 
intendent. But whatever its effect might have bcei 
had it been isnued earlier, it now came too late to i 
any good.' Tlic preparations of the E'unan Oatholiif 
were all made. A eecret drcular had fallen into tlta 
hands of the i>o!ice, showing that the organization rt 
the rioters was complete — the watchwords and signal 
all arranged, and oveu the points designated where t] 
attacks on tJic procession were to be made. Arms h 
been collected aud transported to certain localities, ft 
everything betokened a stormy morrow, Coiiaetjueutln 
General Shaler lesued orders to thecommanders of tlfl 
several regiments of militia, directing them lo bav^ 
their men in readiness at their reepcetive armories ■ 
7 o'clock next morning, prepared to march at a m0J 
ment's warning. His head- quarters, like those < 
General Brown in tlie draft riots, were at the polio! 
head-quarters, so as to have the use of tlie police I 
graph, in conveying orders to different seclioDS of tl 
city. Meanwhile, detaubroenta were placed on guard ■ 
the different armories, la fruetrate any attempt on € 
part of the mob to seize anns. 




BAI.TIMOBE 




The night, however, wore quietly away, and iu the 
'mominfr the Governor's proclamation appeared in tlit) 
morning papers, showing the riotera the nature of tbo 
Work before them, if tliey undertook to carry out their 
{nfaiDons plans. It seemed to have no effect, however. 
Early in the morning BuUen groups of Irishmen gath- 
ered oo tlio eomera of tlie streets, where the Irish re- 
sided in greatest numbers, among which were women, 
gestioulating and talking violently, apparently wholly 
unaware that tlie authorities had any power, or, at least, 
tliouglit they dared not use it. Other groups traversed 
tha streets, while at the several rendezvous of the 
Hibemianfl, many carried muskets or rifles without any 
attempt at concealment. In the upper part of the city, 
t body of rioters began to move southward, compell- 
ing all the workmen on their way to leave work and 
ioin them. One or two armories were attacked, but 
Ifao rioterB were easily repulsed. The demonstrations 
; length became so threatening, that by ten o'clock 
9ie police seized Hibemia Ilall. 

About the same time, the Omngeraen — who on the 
Bene of Kelso's order had determined not to parade 
but on the appearance of the (Jovemor'a proclamation 
dianged their mind — began to assemble at Lamartine 
Sail, on the corner of Eighth Avenue and Twenty- 
binth Street. Their room was in the fourth story, and 
&e delegates from the various lodges brought with 
Aem their badges and banners, which they displayed 
from the windows. This brought a crowd in front of 
3ie building, curious to know what was going on in the 
lodge room. Soon five hundi-ed policemen, ten or fif- 
I of them on horeeback, appeared under the com- 
1 of Inspectors Walhng and Jamieeoo, and oouu.- 



298 



THE OKEAT KIOTS OP NEW YORK CITT. 



pied I>otIi sides of Twenty- ninth Street, between Eigbl 
and Nintli Avcnuea. Several poUceraeii also stood d 
Eightli Avenue, while tbo door of the hall was guardei 
by others. Inside the liall tliere were probably eoiiic 
seventy-five or a hundred Orangemen, disumwing the 
parade. Some stated that a great many, concluding 
there would be none, had gone to their usual work, 
while others, alarmed at the threats of the Hibemiana, 
would not join it. But after some discussion, it wsa 
resolved, that although the number would be small, 
they would parade at all hazards; and at eleven o'dovk 
tlie door waa thrown open, and the Orangenie 
ing orange colors, were admitted, amid the wildq 
cheering. An invitation was sent to the lodges ( 
Jersey City to join tiieni, but they declined, prefenii^ 
to celebrate the day at home. 

Two o'clock was tlie hour fixed upon for the pai 
to begin, and the authorities at police head-qnai 
were so advised, In the meantime a banner had I 
prepai'ed on wliicli was inscribed in large letters, 

"ameeicansI fokemicn!! fall inIII" 



in order to got acccasiong from outsiders, but v 
success. 

The line of march finally resolved upon was dm 
Eighth Avenne to Twenty-third Street, and up it t 
FiftJi Avenue, down Fifth Avenue to FonrtoeQ^ 
Street, along it to Union Square, saluting the Lincc 
and Washington statues as they paseed, and then dovr, 
Fourth Avenue to Cooper Institute, where the | 
n would break np. 

About one o'clock, a paily of men came rtubin 



URAHGE KIUTS I. 



down Eighth Avenue, opposite Lainartine Ilall, cheer- 
ing and shouting, led by a man waving a eword cane. 
Ab he swung it above hia head it parted, diseloaiug a 
long dirk. The poHco immediately advanced and 
swept the street. Eighth Avenue was cleared fi-om 
Thirtieth Street to Twenty-eighth Street, and the police 
formed several deep, leaving only i-oum enough for the 
vara to paee. 

In the meantime, around police head- quarters, in 
Mott Street, things wore a serious aspect. From six 
o'clock in the morning, the various detachments of 
police kept arriving until Bleecker, Houston, Mul- 
berry, and Mott Streets were dark with the massed 
battalions, ready to move at a moment's notice. Ra- 
tions were served out to them standing. Early in the 
day, Governor Hoffman and staff arnved, and were 
quartered in the Superintendent's room, while General 
Shaler and staff were quartered in the tire marshal's 
office. Oommissitmers Manierre, Smith, and Barr were 
in their own rooms, receiving reports from the variona 
precincts over the wires. A little after nine a dis- 
patch came, stating that the qiiarryinen near Central 
Park had quitted work, and were gatheriug in excited 
groups, swearing that tlie Orangemen should not pa- 
rade. Immediately Inspector Jamieson, with two 
hundred and fifty policemen, was despatched in stages 
to Forty -seven til Street and Eighth Avenue, to watch 
the course of events. Another dispatch stated that an 
attack was thi-eatened on Ilarper's building, in Franklin 
Square, and Captain Allaire, of the Seventh Precinct, 
was hurried off with fifty men to pi-otect it, A little 
later came the news that the Orangemen had deter- 
mined to parade at two o'clock, and a police forca 



300 



AT RIOTB OP NEW VO 



of five hundred, as we have alreaJy Btnted, ' 
massed in Eighth Avenue, wppiisite LamartiDo Ha! 
About noon, a Ijody of noUsre made an attack od I 
armory. No. 19 Avenue A, in which were a Iiundi 
and thirty-eight Btands of anna. Fortuuately, the j 
itor of the building saw them iu time to fasten tlic do( 
before they reauliod it, and then ran to the nearest p 
Etatiou for helii, from which a dispatch was sent to liei 
quarters. Captain Mount, with a hundred poUcemon, 
■was hurried off to tlic threatened point, lie arrived 
before the doora were broken iu, and falling on the 
rioters with clubs, dntve them in all directions, Dnsl 
ing the forenoon, Drill-captain Copelaud was gJTBJB 
five companies, and told to seize Ilihemia Ilall, whdflH 
arms were being distributed. As he approached, 1^1 
ordered the mob to disperse, but was answered wit^| 
taunts and curses, while the women hurled stones at hlH 
face. Ho then gave the onler to charge, when tlJB 
men fell on the crowd with such fury, that they brofafl 
and fled in wild confusion. Meanwhile, the dctectiv^| 
had been busy, and secured eigiitecu of tho ringH 
loaders, whom they marched to police liead-qiiurtcre. ■ 
As the hour for the procession to form drew near, tbS^ 
most intensecxcitementprevailcd at police hcad-quartenH 
and the telegraph was watched with anxious soIicitDcUfl 
The terrible punishment inflicted on the rioters in IS^H 
seemed to have been forgotten by the mob, and it hl^| 
evidently resolved to try once more its strength wjtfl 
the city authorities. Around the Orange head-quarta^| 
a still deeper excitement prevailed. The hum of tl^| 
vast multitude Bocmed tike the first murmurings of U^| 
coming storm, and many a face turned pale aa t^H 
Orangemen, with their bannera and badges, only ninq^H 



OBANOE RtOTB OF ISTO AKD ISn. 3U1 

all, p^aed out of tlie door into tlie street. John 
Joluistun, their roarehai, mounted on a spirited liorse, 
placed himself at their head. In a few minutes, the 
bayonets of the military force designed to act as an es- 
cort could be Been flashing in the snn, m the troops 
with measured tread moved steadily forward. Crowds 
followed tliem on the sidewalks, or hung f ram windows 
and lioiisc-tojffl, while low curses could be heard on 
every side, especially when the Twenty.6econd Regi- 
ment deliberately loaded their pieces with hall and 
cartridge. The little band of Orangemen looked seri- 
ous but firm, white the niilitaiyufticers showed by their 
preparations and order that they expected bloody work. 
The Orangemen formed line in Twenty-ninth Street, 
close to the Eighth Avcinie, and flung their banners to 
the breeze. A half an hoiu' later, they were ready to 
march, and at the order wheeled into Eighth Avenue. 
At that instant a single shot rang out but a few rods 
distant. Ileads were turned anxiously to see who was 
hit. More was expected aa the procession moved on. 
A strong body of police marched in advance. Next 
came the Ninth Regiment, follo*ed at a short interval 
by the Sixth, Then came moi-e police, followed by tlie 
little band of Orangemen, flanked on either side, so as 
rf ully to protect them, by the Twenty-second and Eighty- 
fourth Regiments. To these succeeded more police. 
The imposing column was closed up by the Seventh 
Begiment, arresting all eyes by its even tread and mar- 
tial bearing. Tlie sidewalks, doorsteps, windovvs, and 
yoofs were black with people. The band struck up a 
martial air, and the procession moved on towards 
Twenty-eighth Sti-eet. Just before they reached it, 
Another shot rang clear and sharp above the music. 



302 



THK GREAT BI0T8 OF NEW T'lliR rTTT, 



No ODe was seen to fall, and tlio marc-b continued. At.l 
the corner of Twenty-eeventh Street, a group of desper I 
ate-looking fellowa were aseembled on a wooden elied I 
that itrojected over tlic sidewalk. Warned to get doivn I 
and go away, tJiey beaitated, wlien a company of boI- 
diere levelled tbeir pieees at tbem. Unering defi- 
ant threats, they hurried down and disappeared. As | 
tlie next corner was reached, another shot was drod, 
followed by a shower of stones. A scene of eonfuBion \ 
now ensued. The police fell on the bystanders occn- 
pying tbo sidewalks, and clubbed tbeui right and left j 
withont distinction, and the order rolled down the lina | 
to the inmates of tlic boiises to slmt tbeir windows, .1 
Terror now t.iok the place of cnriosity; heads disap--! 
peared, and tbe quick, Hcite slamming of blinds was I 
heard aliove tbe uproar blocks away. The proceseion I 
kept on till it reached Twenty-fonrth Street, when I 
halt was ordei-ed. The next moment a shot was fired I 
from the second story windows of a house on the north- I 
eaat comer. It strnck the Eighty -fourth Kogiment, and I 
in an instant a line of nmskets was pointed at the spot, 
ae tbongb the order to fire was e.\pected. One gnnJ 
went ofF, when, without orders, a sudden, unexpeeted I 
volley rolled down tlie line of the Sixlb, Ninth, and i 
Eighty-fourth Regiments. Tlie officers were wholly 1 
taken by anrprise at this unprecedented conduct; but, J 
recovering themselves, rushed among tlic ranks and J 
Bbouted out their orders to cease tiring. But tbe work I 
was done ; and as the smoke slowly lifted in the bo^l 
atmosphere, a scene of indescribable confusion 
sectcd Itself. Men, women, and children, scrcatn 
in wild terror, were fleeing in e^-ery direction ; tibq 
strong trampling down the weak, while elevei 



ORANQE RIOTS >W 1H70 AND ICT. 303 

lay strotched on the sidewalk, some piled acroaa eaoh 
otber. A pause of a few miniTtes now followed, wliile 
the tnx>p8 reloaded their guna. A new attack was 
momcntai'ily exi>eeted, and no one moved fram the 
ranks to Biiocor the wounded or lift up the dead. 
Here a dead woman lay across a dead man ; there a 
streaming with blood was creeping painfully tip 
a doorstep, while (.'rniiching, bleeding forms appeared 
■ery direction. Women from the windows looked 
down on the ghastly spectacle, gesticulating wildly. 
The police now cleared tlio avenue and side strecjts, 
■when the dead and wounded were attended to, and the 
order to move on was given. General Varian, indig- 
nant at the conduct of the Eiglitj'-fumth in Sriug fii«t 
without orders, sent it to the I'ear, and replaced it on tlie 
flank of the Orangemen with a portion of the NintJi. 
The procession, as it now reeumcd its marcli and 
moved through Twenty-fourth Street, was a sad and 
mournfal one. The windows were filled with spec- 
tators, and crowds lined the sidewalks, but all were 
silent and serions. Not till it reached Fifth Avenue 
Hotel were there any greetings of welcome. Here 
some three thousand people were assembled, who rent 
the air with cheers. No more attacks were made, and 
lit reached Cooper Institute and disbanded without any 
further incident. 

In the meantime, the scene at tho Bellevne Ilospi- 
tal was a sad and painful one. The ambulances kept 
discharging their bloody loads at the door, and groans 
of distress and shrieks of pain filled tho air. Long 
rows of cots, filled with mangled forms, were stretciied 
no every side, whilo tho tables were covered with bodies, 
down, as the surgeons dressed their wonnds. Tha 



304 



THE GRRAT Ell ITS «F NEW TORK flTT. 



dead were can-icd t>> tlie Morgiie, around which, 
night eamt! on, a clamoroiia crowd was gathered, set 
JDg admiBBioiijto look aftertlieir dead friends, A sii 
ilar civjwd gathered at the dfwr of the Momit Sinw 
Iloapital, tilling the air with cries and lainectatii 
Ab darkness settled over the city, wild, rungh-lookii 
men from the lowest ranks of society gathered in 
street where the eiaiigliter took place, among whi 
were seen haro-lieaded women roaming about, maki] 
night hideous with their curees. 

A pile of dead men's hats stood on the corner 
Eighth Avenue and Twenty-fiftli Street nnt^mched,' 
and pale faces sUxiped over pools of blood on the pave- 
ment. The stores were all shut, and everything wore a 
gloomy aspect. Tlie police stood neai", revealed Jti the 
lampligiit, hut made no effort to clear (he street. It 
seemed at one time tliat a serious outbreak would take 
place, but the niglit piiflsed off quietly, and the riot 
ended, and the muh once more taught the terrible 
son it is &i> apt to forget. 

Two of Iho police and militarj' were killed, 
twenty-four wounded ; while of tlie riotei-s thirty-one 
were killed, and sixty-seven wounded — making in all 
one hundred and twenty-eight victims. 

There was much indignation c^iressed at the ti 
for firing without orders, and firing so wildly i 
shoot some of their own men, It was, of coiirae, 
serving the deepest condemnation, yet it uifty 
saved gi-eatur bloodshed. Tlie figlit evidently did 
occur at the expected point, and doubtless the resi 
here, prevented one where the mob was hotter orj^ 
ized, and would have made a more stubborn reBiiituii 



1 

ana 



; OF 1810 AND IBTL 



That innocent pereons were killed ie trne; bnt if tbey 
will mingle in with a mob, they must expect to share 
ita fate, and alone must bear the blame. Troops are 
called out to fire on the people if they pereist in viola- 
tion of the peace and rights of tlie community. Of 
this all are fully aware, and henco take the risk of 
being shot. Soldiers cannot be expected to diecrimi- 
nate in a mob. If the military are not to Are on a 
crowd of rioters until no women and children can be 
eeen in it, they had better etay at home. 

To a casual observer, this calling out of seven hun- 
dred policemen and several regiments of soldiers, in 
order to let ninety men take a foolish promenade 
through a few streett?, would seem a very absurd and 
useless display of tiie power of the city ; and the kill- 
ing of sixty or seventy men a heavy price to pay for 
such an amusement. But it was not ninety Orange- 
men only tliat those policemen and soldiei-s enclosed 
and shielded. They had in their keeping the laws and 
authority of the city, set at defiance by a mob, and 
also the principle of religious toleration and of equal 
rights, whieli were of more consequence than tlie lives 
of ten thousand men. The day when New York City 
allon^ itself to be dictated to by a moh, and Protestants 
not be permitted to march as such quielly through the 
streets, her prosperity and greatncBB will come to an 
end. The taking of life is a serions thing, but it is not 
to weigh a moment against the preservation of author- 
ity and the supremacy of the law. 

One thing should not be overlooked — the almost uni- 
versal faitJif ulness of the Eoman Catholic Irisli police to 
their duty. In this, as well as in the draft riots, they 



306 



AT RIOTB OF NEW YORK CTTT. 



I have left a record of ivhich any city might be prond, 

1 To ^L'fend Pmtc-staiit Ii-i.-iliiiiPii against lioman Catho- 
I lif; frieiLcl" ami pci'liapai-elatives, isasevcre test of fidel- 
; but tJic Irish police havo stood it nobly, and won 
regard of all gr>od c 



OPTICIAX REPOUTS ON TOE DRAFT RIOTS. 



REPOKT OF CAPTAIN PrTNAM. 

FoBT Hamilton, Jii!j31, 18fi3. 

Sih: — I have the honor herewith to make the follow- 
ing reijort of the operations of my uommand, during 
the late riots in New York City. 

At tlie commencement of the riot I was in command 
of the fort at Sandy Hook, New York Harbor. On 
the niffht of the ISth of July, I received orders from 
General Brown, to proceed with my company to New 
York City. In thirty minutes my command was ready, 
with twenty rounds of ammunition. On my arrival in 
the city, I proceeded to the St. Nidiolas Hotel, and re- 
mained in tliat vicinity about two hours. I was then 
ordered to report to the Mayor, at the City Hall. I 
marched ray company down Broadway to the City Hall, 
ftB directed, and was immediately ordered back to the 
St. Nicholas by General Wool, and from there General 
Wool ordered me to proceed to General Brown's head- 
quarters, No. 300 Mulberry Street, On my importing 
to General Drown, I was ordered to proceed with my 
company to Ft»rty-sixtli Street, where tlie mob was 
burning buildings. 

We were accompanied by a force of sixty policemen, 
under Captain Walling. On our arrival there, we 
found the mob in strong force, burning and destroying 
property. We immediately charged on the rititers with 
our whole force, both military and police. The mob 
fought desperately for about five miimtes, when tliey 
broke in all directions, leaving a number of dead and 
wounded in the street. Their loss in killed and wounded 
would not fall short of forty. One of my comp'"- 



308 TnE GREAT KI0T8 OF SEW TORK CITT. 

wasbadly wounded, and waaeent to the Jewisli hospii 
Sevei-al others were more or leas iujured l>y ston» 
thrown by the mob. My company nuiiihered eighty 
two enlisted men. Lieutenant Stacey, Twelfth Infantry, 
was the only company officer beeido myself with "' ' 
company. 

After dispersing the mob, we returned about 5 p,m. 
to head-quarters — the men having marched during the 
day not leBs than twelve miles. 

Operations on Tuesday night. 

10.30 P.M. My company, togetlier with a police force 
of one hundred men, were ordered out and marched 
throngh a large portion of tlie city. Found evcrythine 
quiet. DiBtaucc marched about seven miles. lictomea 
to head-quarters at 1.30 a.u. 

Operaiions on We/Inesday, JiiJy 15. 

About one o'clock p.m., received orders to march up 
the Bowery and Third Avenue, and disperse the mob 
wherever found. After getting into Tnird Avenue t 
short distance, we met a regiment or part of aregimenfl 
of militia, commanded by a major. I lliiiik lie had foiUT 
compimies. Tiio rioters were uolleoted in great forcfi 
and were tiring on tlie militia with both muskets aw_ 
revolvers. The troops were retiring before tJie moh 
who had completely niled the avenue for Bome distanof 
also the cross streets in the vicinity. 

yfc immediately marched by the militia, when tlu 
mob commenced tiring on us, f ordered mybkirmiahc 
to tire on tliem,whi^ they did with effect. "Wo a 
vanced steadily, the fight bemg between the skirmislieid 
and the mob, which soon gave way, and rau in all du 
rections. 

We then marched up to Fourth Avenue, but f 
no disturbance there. 

At this time I was informed by a special police 



i 



I 



OFFICIAL REPOKTB. 80Q 

that the mob had again collected in gi-e&ter niiraberB 

than ever, on Third Avenue, and were determined not 
to let nie march back on that Btreet. I immediately 
marched down the nearest cross street to Tliird Avenue 
again ; when the mob saw us, they scattered without 
firing a shot. 

I then returned to head-quarters with my command, 
which consisted of my own compam- and one field piece 
of artillery, under command of Captain Rawolle, of 
General Brown's staff. The men of my command be- 
haved like veterans. 

Operations on Wednesday night. 

Abont nine o'clock I was informed by General 
Brown, tliat a force of militia, under Colonel Jardine, 
had been driven from Nineteenth Street by the mob, 
leaving a number killed and wounded, inclnding their 
commanding officer, in tiie hands of the mob. 

The general oi-dered rae to take my own company 
(the permanent guard from Foit Hamilton being for 
the time under the command of Captain Shelley, aide- 
de-camp,) and Captain Eawone,witli one gun from his 
battery, and proceed to Niueteentli Street, disperse the 
mob, and bring Colonel Jardine and the woimded offl- 
cera and men o£ his command to liead-quartere. We 
marched down Nineteenth Street, and met the mob near 
l-'irst Avenue. I immediately ordered Sergeant Roclie, 
with the skirmishers, to attack tliem, wiiich he did, 
Lieutenant Stacey, Twelftli Infantry, supporting him 
with the first platoon of company F (my own). The 
mob were driven back, but continued to fire on us. At 
this time I left Lieutenant Stacey to take care of the 
mob, and commenced a search for Colonel Jardine and 
others of his command. We found the colonel in 
a honae, the family having hiil him, Ue was very 
badly wounded in the tlu'gii. We also found another 
wounded officer, whoso name I did not learn. They 
were placed in a carriage. In then)e£ki)tiiue,tlt@!;U)l^l)^ i 



THK GREAT RinXS OF SEW 1 



gathered on Second Avenue, and commeTiced firing onj 
Captuiu SliellevB coinpany, wliieli I Iiad posted nciirl 
tliere ; a few bIioIb fraru tlic ekirmishers drove thein J 
away, and the mob beina; entirely dispersed, and overy- I 
thing qniet, wo retunieu to head-qiiarters, bringing the I 
wouiidod ofliuera with ns, also a number of ladies, to 1 
a place of saftty, I forgot to meiitiim a detachment of I 
tlie Thirtieth Militia, miich was ordered by Colonel | 
Winston to accompany my eonimand ; tlioy behaved 
well. Colonel Winston waa with me during tliis affair, 1 
and aUhoup;h having no command, cunduoted hlinBclf I 
ae only a soldier can. I did not lose a man killed, aad [ 
only a few slightly injured, during the evening. 

Operations on Thursday. 

At nine o'clock a.m., went np Tliird Avenne. In- I 
epector Carpentci-, depnty superintendent of police, »c- 
companiod me. Marched through several streets for s 
distance of abont iive miles, found everything quiet, 
and returned to head-i^uartcrs. 

OjiGi'iitiona on Thurmlay evening. 

About six o'clock p.m., General Dodge and Colonel j 
Mott informed General Brown, tliat the troops at \ 
Grammcrey Park had raai-ched do^vn Twenty -second I 
Street, and been attacked by an armed mob; that tlioy I 
had been driven back, leaving their dead in the street I 
The general oi-dered me to take my company, and V 
jKH'tioi] of the Twentieth and Twenty -eighth New York I 
volunteer batteries, about eighty nien, armed as infan* I 
try, commanded by Lieutenant B. V. Uycr. Licutoauit J 
Ryor had witli him Lieutenant liobcrt F. Joyee and I 
Lieutenant F, M. Chase, Twenty-eighlJi New York 1 
battery. My whole command amuimted to one hnudred I 
and sixty men. I 

'With iblB force I marched to tiie flrammorcy TToteL I 
*""' -•■^— ■" taaco from the hotv^l, 1 saw sonio of tha I 



TORTS. Sll 

rioterB fire from a house on some of Colonel Mott'a 
command. I immediately eeiit Lieutenant Joyce with 
a few men to search the Ijoubg. The eearch was fniit- 
leB8, thejnen having escaped to the rear. I then told 
the women in the house that the artillery would open 
on the house, if any more eliots were tired fnJiii it. Wo 
then iiiai-ched down Twenty-second Street, between 
Second and Third Avenues, found tiie body of a ser- 

feaut of Davis' Cavalry, who had been killed two hours 
efore. I ordered a liverj'-stable keeper to put his 
hoi-Bes to a can'iage, and accompany me, for the purpose 
of carrying the dead and wounded. lie replied that 
the moo would kill him if he did, and that he dare not 
do it. lie was informed that he would be protected if 
he went, but if be refused be would be instantly shot. 
The hoi-ses were speedily bameaaed, and the body put 
into the carriage. The mob at this time coinnieuced 
firing on us from the houses. We at once commenced 
Beai-cliing the houses, while my ekirmisbera drove the 
j-ioters back from every window and from tlia rotifs. 
The houses were searched from cellar to the roof. The 
mob made a desperate fight, and evidently seemed to 
think they could wlilp us. Every house that was used 
to conceal these rioters was cleared. A large number 
was killed, and several prisoners taken. We then 
marched to Second Avenue, where we found the mob 
in great force and concealed in bouses. They fired on 
lis from house-tops, and from windows, and also fi-om 
cross streetH. We soon cleared the streets, and then 
commenced searching the houses. We searched thir- 
teen houses, killed those within that resisted, and took 
the remainder prisoners. Some of them fought like 
incarnate fiends, and would not surrender. All sueli 
were shot on the spot. The soldiers captured a large 
number of revolvers of largesize, which I allowed iheiri 
to keep. The mob at this place were well armed ; nearly 
every one had some kind of fire-arms, and iiad one 
blunderbuBB which they fired on us. 

If llicy hiid been cool and steady, they niiglit have 



I 

I 

I 



THE GKEAT I 



done UB great barm. As it was, they fired wildly, 
ning tji ft window and tiring, and then retreating hi 
ont of danger. 

When ray suldicrs once got into a house they mi 
sliort w'lrk of it. The fight lasted about foi'ty minni 
and Avmt more sevei-e than all the rest in which my co 
maud was engaged. There were nono of my men killed, 
Sergeant Cadru, of ('ompany P, Twelfth Intantiy (niy 
own), was slightly wounded in the hand ; private Knmse 
was also Biightly wounded. 

The mob huing entirely dispersed, we retamed 
head-cinart4;rR. 

I remaint'd at liead-qunrtcrB till Saturday, when 
was ordered by fieneral Canby to Port Ilainilton. I 
have eince been informed by Mr. Acton, President of 
the Board of Police Connnissioners, that our light 
(that of Tlinreday night) had tlie effect of cmahing th 
rioters in the city, and that tliere has tteeu no troubl 
eince. 

I would respectfully call tlie attention of the genei 
to the noble conduct of the officers who served with i 
on different occasions, during the riot, and beg leave 
mention their names, together with some of the ni 
conjmissioncd oflicers. 

First Lieutenant'M. 11, Stacey, Twelfth Infantry, 

Captain Rawolle, aide-de-camp, commanding Arti 
leiT. 

Captain Shelley, aide-de-camp, commanding Pi 
Hamilton jrermancnt guard. 

Lieutenant B. F. Ryer, Twentieth New York A: 
lory. 

Lientcnaut R. F, Joyce, Twenty-eighth New Yorl 
bftttfry. 

Lieutenant F. M, Chase, Twenty-eighth New Yoi 
buttery. 

First Sergeant J, E. Pntnam, company F, Twel 
Infantry. 

Sergeant R. W. Tompson, company F, Twelfth 
fantry. 



iiy 



OrFIOIAL BEPOKTB. 313 

Sergeant Frank Weatcott, company F, Twelfth In- 
fantrj". 

Sergeant Patrick Roach, company F, Twelfth In- 
fantry, had charge of the skirmishers, and behaved 
nobly. 

Sergeant Peter Cadro, company F, Twelfth Infantry, 
who was slightly wounded on Thursday night. 

Sergeant Kimball, of the permanent guard. I do uot 
know the names of the sergeantB of the other com- 
panies, but all, as well as privates, witliont exception, 
acted like veterans. 

I &in, sir, very respectfully yonr ol«dicnt servant, 

JLILPUTKAM, 

Capi. Twdftk U. S. Infantry Com. <Mmpany ^^ 
Second Battery. 
First Lieutenant J. P. McFlbatu, 

Mfth a. 8. Art. A. A. A. 6. 



BEPOET OK CAPTAIN FKANKLIS. 

FoBT BtcmioXD, TSsw ToRK Habbob, July 23, IfgH. 
Sm :— I have the honor to make the following report 
L ill regard to the part taken by " II " company, second 
[ faattflOjon, Twclftli United States Infantry, and the 
b troops attached to it, in quelhug the late distui'baucos 
[in New York City. 

f Monday, July 14, about three o'clock p.m., I re- 
[ ceived an order for one platoon to report to Lieutenant 
I Wood. Fifteen minutes after the order was received, 
[ thirty-five men were on the boat, with thirty rounds of 
r ammonition in their boxes. I accompanied the men 
' over to Fort Lafayette, and there received an order 
from General Brown, to take cliarge of Lieutenant 
"Wood's men, numbering fifty-four, aud proceed to 
Leonard Street, Xew York, and report to Colonel Nu- 
gent, assistant provost mai-shal general. On my arrival 




314 



TIIK GREAT RIOTS OF NEW YORK CnT. 



at tlie comer of Leonard Street and Broadway, I r 
ceived an order frciui f'olonc! Nugent, to report i _ 
Iiiin at tlie arsenal, corner of Tliirtj' -fifth Street anffi 
Seventh Avenne. 

Tlio txjinmand proceeded np EightJi Avenne 
Thirty-fiflJi Street to tlie arsenal, aiicT reported to CoU 
onel Nngent as ordered. The comjiany remained •f 
the arsenal till eleven o'clock that niglit, when it wm 
ordered to report to Greneral Brown, at the police liei *' 
qaarters, No. 300 Mulberry Street 

Finding that General Bi-own had been reb'eved <. 
his command, I reported in person to General WooU 
who directed ino to remain at the police liead-qnartera 
at the same time detacliinj; Lieutenant ^7oud, and ( 
dering him to command the Fort Hamilton pcrmane 
guard. Tuesday morning, about nine o'clock, 1 i 
ceived an order from Oenei-al Brown, to proceed 1 _ 
Thirty-fourth Street and Second A\-enite, to quell a 
dtBturbance which ivas raging there. I iniineuiately 
took possession of the Fourrh Avenue (;ars, and pro- 
ceeded as directed at a rapid rate. On appi-oaching 
near the scene of the liot, I hcai-d firing, and forming i 
my company by platoons, niarelied up Fourth Avenue j 
to Thirty- foiu-tli Street, down Thirty-fourth Street to mm 
point where two field-pieees were in poeitiou. I waf 
followed and surrounded by a threatening mol) fro 
the time I left the cars. The crowd soon commend 
throwing sfones and brick-bats, at the same time bra 
dishing clubs, and beckoning to their comrades to c 
on ; but on facing the rear platoon about, and comitifl 
to a " ready," they suddenly disappearod, and gave nil 
no further tronble till I reported to Colonel OTJrien. 

The colonel seemed to have the mob jin-tly well EcaH 
tcred before we reached them, but there was firioB 
Ptill going on bv his men, who were deployed an ak 
mighers. I held my company as a reserve, near I 
field-pieces, and contiuued to do so till we retnnied tl 
jwlice head-<piartcr8. I was joined before going c 
this expediiiou. by 8ij men or company " II," eo tin 



815 



I 



tlie total number I Imd, leaving behind the number of 
eicb, was about 1 15, After being at the police liead- 

anartens about tliirty minutes, my comiiany was or- 
ercd to go with a party of police to Grand Street. 
Lieutenant Penny, tJie only commiasioned officer I had 
iwlth me, was taken &ick at this time, and was not able 
to join me till Wednesday. We marehed down Grand 
Sti-eet to East River, and bat^k, but did not find any 
mob. 

About two o'clock, my eompany, with about 150 po- 
licemen, wa.1 oi-dered to pi'oceed to Twcntj'-second 
Street and First and Second Avenues. On reaching 
Second Avenue, we foimd a large crowd collected, 
which soon retreated to First Avenue, firing with 
Etones and muskets continually. The police making 
way for me, the eompany was marched in three Beetions 
down Twenty-second Street to First Avenue, and down 
Fir&t Avenue to Twenty-first Street. The crowd grew 
more insolent, and increased the firing as we advanced. 
In Twenty-second Street the police took possesBJon of 
between 200 and 300 carbines, which the mob was in 
the act of taking when we arrived ; they wore all 
brought safely to the statiou-hoiise. At the corner of 
Tweuty-firet Street and First Avenue I halted the 
company, and fired by soctions, allowing each section 
to fall to tlie rear to loud as fast as it had fired. The 
crowd soon retired to the houses and roofs, from which 
they kept up a tire for some minutes, bnt soon ceased 
alu^lher, as a number of them had been killed, and 
it became rather dangerous for them to show a head 
anywhere. I then withdrew my companv by the i 
rontec' and in the same manner I had advanced. Go- 
ing down Second Avenue, the crowd seemed to in- 
crease very rapidly, and became more and more threat- 
ening. Tliey were allowed to "et quite close to ua, 
when I faced the rear section about, and fired one or 
two volleys, which must have been very eft'ective, aa 
they diBi>crscd, and did not give us any further troubla, 
till we reached jiolice head -quarters. Some of mj 



THE GREAT RIOTS OF NKW 1 



men received blows from stones, but none wei-e sc 
ously hurt 

After reatiug an hour or two, my men were [lut 
stages, and ordered to go to Twenty-first Sti-eat 
Eiglith Avenue. I marched the company up 
down the aveniiea, and through several of the str. 
but did not find a crowd that ofEered any reaistanue. 

We took tlie stJ^iies again, and pmi-eeded to Twent 
ninth Street and Eighth avennc, and found there tbl 
a house liad been just sacked, and some of the plundi 
ers being found in it, were instantly killed. My c 
pany charged wlierever there was a crowd, and it 
instantly scattered. 

Marching np to Fifth Avenue, and not finding 
mob, we took the stages to polica Iiead-qiiarters. TI 
company was not called on again during the night. 

Wednesday morning, about twelve o'clock, it wi 
ordered with 50 policemen to proceed to Ilarleni. On' 
arriving there, we fonnd that tne mob had disappeared' 
as soon as they heard of our coming. They had' 
burned one or two buildings, hut did not give ns 
the citizens of Ilarlom any trouble during our el 
there. I was relieved by a company of the N, 
Seven ly-fii-st, and ordei-ed to proceed to Fort Rii 
mond on Monday morning, July Slst. In complianoe' 
with your request, that I should mention any ufficen,, 
non-commissioned officers, or privates who had partic- 
ularly distinguished tlieniselvce, I have to maKe the 
following statement. Lieutenant Penny, the only com- 
missiouea ofliccr I had with mc, was taken eiuk uD 
Monday evening, and was only able to march with 
to Thirty -fourth Street ; lie joined me again wbea 
moved to llarleni. 

Among non-commissioned ofHcera and privatee, 
of wliom acted so exceedingly well, it is very liard 
make any distinction. First hergeant Eggemeyer, w! 
at the battle of Gaines' Mill, m Virginia, bad " 
cliai^ uf a company, and fought it all fhi-ongh 
day till wounded and taken priKinvr, did equally well 



-■OOJ- 

I 




OFFICIAL EEPOKTS. 



on this occasion. Sergeant* Livingstone, Corea, Euby, 
Burke.and Jackson, and CorporalB Williams, Bothweil, 
Tanker's, Bi-andon, aud Raymond were very cool, and 
did excellent service. The men, amid tlie numerous 
teraptationa tbey had to drink, and the fatigue they 
endured in marching over stone pavomeiits, kept per- 
fectly sober, and bore the threats and insults of the 
mob with perfect coolness. 

Corporal Raymoud and eight of my men were de- 
tailed to guar^ the house of Mayor Opdyke, which 
duty they performed till they were relieved on Mon- 
day. 

My company at no time numbered more than 120 
men, and generally abont 105. 

Your obedient servant, 

Waltek S, Fkanklin, 
Captain Twelfth Infantry. 
Brev, Erig.-gon. Haevet BnowN, Fort Hamilton, N. Y. 



BEPOET OF CAPTAIN WILKINS. 

FoHT CoLDMBCs, New York Harbor, July 21, 1868. 

Sir : — -I have the honor to report, that, in obedience 
,to orders from Major-general Wool, I pi-oceeded ou 
3fonday the 13th iust., at half-past one o clock p.m., in 
command of 89 non-commissioned officers and privates 
E the pei-maneut party, with directions " to report to 
lOolonel Robert Nugent, A. A,, provost- marshal general, 
106 Leonard Street, for special service." 

Arrived there, I found ordci-s to report to Colonel 
Nngeut, at the ai-scnal on Thirty-fiith Street, and 
parched to that point. On my arrival there 1 re- 
ported, and was directed to hold myself nnder the 
'M'dera of Major-general Saudford, who was pi'csent 
^t about four o'clock i-.u., I was ordered to take the 



318 



THE GRKiT KlOXa OF NEW YORK CITT. 



adTance of a eoramaTid, consisting of my own men, L 
. miirines, and a detachment of tne Invalid Corj}*, t 
luidet" llie command of Genera! Sandfurd. Aft* 
inarching in various directions abont tlie citj — m^ 
knowledge of the streots being limited — without eii< 
conutei'ing the mob I received ordcra to march Hm 
entire command back tu the arsemd. On the i 
ing of the litii, 1 was ordered to Mayor Opd^'Wd 
bouse. On my arrival, I found the mot> had left, T 
the neighborhood threatened. Ilcraained about t 
honrs, and reported with eommaiid at head-qnartorfi 
Shortly after received ordem to prwccd to a polio* 
station, in tlie Twentietli Ward, eituared on Thirty^ 
iiflh Street, between Eighth and Ninth Avenues, 
uiy poad to this point, I ronnd a jmrtion nt the Hotcra 
sacking a houee on a street loadin" into Ninth Avenue. 
They retired on my approach. Finding the house hada 
Ijcen set fii-o to, I remamcd long eitougii to have it or" 
tinguished, and followed the rioters into Ninth Av( 
nue. I had moved but a ehort distance, wlien 
attack was made on the commaml f mm the rear. I ii 
mediately ojicned fire, which was kept nn at intervi 
until we reached Thirty-fifth Street and Ninth AvoittH 
wiien I halted till tlie police force at ihat sUtim 
(about 20) joined nie. In fi-ont of me, o[i the Nititli 
Avenue, I observed what apjwared to be a formidably 
barricade, guarded by a stn>ng force of rioters. Aft 
waitingaelidrt time, endeavoring to procure alieM-piet 
I concluded to etorm the harricude with the smalt fore _ 
I lind, and wheeled into the avenue, advancing mpidU 
to the first barricade, which I found coinpoacd i 
empty wagons, carta, telegraph poles and wires. "" 
rioters retreated, and under tiie pnHectiim of the ts 
jiany, the i>olicQ removed the ohHtnictiLins; 
task, as tbcy had to roll tlio wagons away, untwist I 
wiros, lift polcH ; which <>f course occupiod time. ■ 
expoved them to the missiles of tiie mob. On nriuti*^ 
ilig tlie barricade, I emnnntcivd a acccud, and tlitn f 
foax the saino process was gone through. During t 




OFFICIAL RETORTS. 



I 



time, neitlier the mob nor ray men were idle, but were 
couBtaiilly exchaiipiiig civilities in the shape of ettmea 
and shot. After removing the bai-ritades, and getting 
a olear street, I proceeded Btill farther up, when I wfB 
Biiddculy assailed with a terrific shower of hrict-lmts, 
tLrown by unseen handa from the houses under which 
we were paBBing. After engaging this latter party, I 
conchided to take post at the station-house, as it was 
almost too dark to operate with any success, I re- 
turned without any molestation to the station-house, 
and remained there that night. On the moniiug of the 
15tli, Lieutenant Porter, of the First Artillery, joined 
me, bringing orders for tJie company to rejwrt at head- 
qnarters. On reporting, I was ordered to the works 
of the Manhattan Gas Company, on the East River, foot 
of Fourteenth Street. On my arri\-ing there, I found 
the works at a stand-still, on account of the workmen 
Laving been driven off by the rioters ; and unless 
sometJiing was done, the city would soon be in dark- 
ness. Under the protection of the company, and the 
exertions of the engineer in charge, labor was resumed, 
and continued during my stay, which was up to Satur- 
day night, the I9th, at which time I was relieved, and 
ordered to report at this point. 

Lieutenant Porter, during the time he was with me, 
was efficient and «S great service. During the time 
he was absent, I understand he was very active in the 
discharge of the various duties imposed ujion him. 

Being the only oflicer with the company in the en- 
gagement of the lith, I relied upon and received 
great assistance from Sergeant McGrath (acting first 
eergeant), Sergeants Sutler, Foster. Finn, and Delaiicey; 
also Lance Sei^ants Smith and Steward. The entire 
command beha\ed well in the trying position in which 
^ey were placed, 

n, very res[x;ett'ul!y, your obetlient servant, 
John D. Wilkins, 
Captain 3d Infamtry comrrumding P. P. 
8. F. MoElkatu, Acting A<^. Itfih Arti' 



TOE GBE4T 1 



f NHw vuEK crrv. 



List of wonnded : 

Sergeant Edwakd McGka 

Sorf!;eaiit Smith, eontueeJ. 
Corporal Lewis, contused. 
Hdgh CAttKT, contused. 



Fort Wood, July 2!, 18(13. 

SiE : — In obedience to your order dated July 20tli, I 
have tlio honor to make the following report : 

That upon July 13th, while 1 was absent from this 
post, an oi'der arrived, directing me to report, with my 
command, to the Mayor of New York immediately for 
duty. My first sergeant, immediately npon tho arri- 
val of the order, assembled the men, and in ten min- 
ntes was aboard the steamer, en route to New York. 
Upon his arrival he reported to the Mayor, who gave 
him an order to report to tlio officer commanding the 
arsenal, corner of Seventh Avenue and Thirty-fifth 
Street It was a few minutes subsequent to this that 
I met my company, commanded by the Sergeant, 
marching rapidly up Bmadway, in obedience to the 
last order. I immediately took commaud. and mart^hcd 
direct to the arsenal, via Broadway, to Twenly-eighth 
Street, and Seventh Avenue, and reported to General 
Sandford, who ordered me to march my men into tlie , 
arsenal, and await further orders. Shortly after, I J 
received conflicting orders from various parties wliowJ 
authority was not sufficiently evident to permit their I 
beinij; obeyed. And as night was coming on, and thel 
ci-owd around the building was increasing, and therft:! 
was nothing to prevent a delciinined mob from carry-l 
ing the first flottr, and firing tlie building. I moved myl 
men down from the fourth story, and took poBsti6&ioiX'>a 
of the first floor, aud put it in such a state of defence 1 
as the means at my command pcnnitf«d. I preferred! 
defending the building from tlie inside of tlic first fi<x>r J 
because my command was too small to permit of m/l 



OFFICIAL REPOBTS, 



. holding all of the approaches from Uio outside. Dur- 
[ iiig the night I was relieved by Captain Wilkins, Third 
r tJ. S. Infantry, commandiug tlie permanent party f ram 
Fort CoInmbuB, and ordered to report t« No, 300 Mul- 
berry Street, which I did. Tuesday raoming, July 
14th, I received an order in person from General 
Wool, to report to Erigadier-gcnei'al Brown for duty. 
and was by him ordered to report with my command 
to Captain Putnam, Twelfth U. S. Infantry, at the 
City Ilall. Upon arriving at the City Hall, I received 
an order from General Wool to report to Mr. Barney, 
of the Custom House, to guard Bome stores to be trans- 
ported to Fort Colmnbus, andto remain at Fort Colum- 
bna for tlie protection of the ordnance storee at that 
post. This order was not obeyed, because my services 
were not required by the Custom IIouBe officers. Dur- 
ing the day Captain Putnam was ordered elsewhere, 
and I was left with a section of artillery belonging to 
the Fifteenth New York. In compliance wifli your 
instmet ions, the command was so disposed as to protect 
the immediate vicinity as completely as |X]ssible. The 
artillery was posted, supported bv my own men, att as 
to sweep all tlie points to be defended. In this posi- 
tion I remained till July 18th, when, by order of Gen- 
eral Cauby, 1 was relieved and ordered to return with 
my company to this post. 

The behavior of my men during tlie time we were 
on duty was soldierly and prompt to the highest degree. 
Upon Saturday, after &ve days and nights of imremit- 
ting service, constantly exposed, my whole original de- 
tachment was on duty, witliont exception, and all doing 
their duty cheerfully and willingly, although some or 
them were suffering severely from old wounds, which 
had become irritable from the severe duty they had 
been performing. The strength of this command dur- 
' the period we were on duty in New York waa 
fty-three men. Joseph L. Swrrn, 

Amlstaiit Surgeon (J. H. A.. 
Sgn^^l Bhown, LI. S. A. 




TBR OHKAT RIOTS OF NEW TOBX 4 



EEPOBT OF Ln:PTK!<.V!fT WOODu 

Fort LAFAtETTK, N. T. H.. JnlT-IOL £ 
SiE : — ^I have tlie honor to rej^ort that my L-anunai 
86 ordered by jori, came in wiiitart. with the riotoni 1 
the first time alioiit ten o'clock on tho niMmii)}; of ( 
Hth iiLst., in Pitt Street. My commini'l consisted ^ 
delnchmenta from Forts Lafayette, namiluin, 
Kii^hmoud, and nnmberod one hundred and tliiif 
men. 

Previons to ray order U) fire, I (commanded tbe i 
ers, whicih were abont five tliousand etroiig, to dte 
which they refnscd to do, and cotmiieiR-ed an i 
with cliibe, stones, and other missiles. I (hen g 
order to fire, witli the following resnlt: fonrteen t 
and eevcutceii wouiidt'd. After reloading, I c' 
bayonets, and the rioters tied in evtrry directioiL^^ 
then proceeded to the comer of Division and ( 
Streets, where another lai^ liody of rioters we 
Ecmbled. I lialted my comniiind aUmt tblr^ \ 
from them, and ordered tliein f^i disperse, telling t 
if they did not, I would tire upon them. " 
wavered. I charged upon them, and dispoi'sed 1 
at the point of the bayonet. I tlion cleared tlie n 
boring streeta of all rioters ; and when overything 
quiet, returned to tlio liead-qnartcre in Mulberry Sb 
hofnre reaching which ul ace, I imfortuniitely fel],a 
Bpniined my lei; bo baaiy aa to incapacitate me f 
any further active eervice during the riot, 

I cannot speak too praise wo rtliily of my men. 

all acted bravelv; but partiiMilar ment)on should 1 
made of Lanco Sergeant L<uiis Uluff, general i 
acting first senjeant of tlic ilelHchment, for hiu ( 
iifss and bmvery ; there l>cing no cominiiuianed otR 
with me, hia position beini; one of great reeponsibij^l 
also Private James McCarthy, of the ]icnnHD»nt g 
of Fort Iliimilf^in, The Utter. afU'r the volhjy i 
fii«d into the rioteru in Pitt Street, rcuiliod from I 



OFFrCIAL EKPORTH. 323 

ranks into their midst, bujoiieteil one of tliciii who 
carried a flag, captured the flag, and returned with 
it to the command. The number of men from tliis 
comtnaDd on duty in New York dnring the riot waa 

very reeiiectfully, your obedient aervaat, 

TiKiMAS O. Wood, 
Fint Lloitenaiit N'mt!,. U, H. Infantry. 



EEPOET OF LIE DTE N ANT RYEK, 

OffTOE OB- Tim SnpBRINTKNDGNT OP roLICK, 
300 McLBERBY Street, New York. July 20tli, 1803. 
Sm :— I Lave the honor to transmit herewith, a report 
of tlie operations iif my command during the period 
I of the late riots in New York City. 

Pursuant to ui-ders from General Brown, I rejxjrted 

I to him witli my command, which comprised parta of 

V the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-eighth batteries (niimber- 

[ ine one hundred men, well armed and equipped, with 

[ rifles), on Tuesday, the 14t!i inst., at al»out 6 p.m. 

I Immediately on reporting, I received ordei-s to march 

to Thirty-eixth Street and Second and Third Ave- 

naea, to recover the body of Colonel O'Brien, wlio 

had been killed in tliat neighborliood. On arriving 

there we found that the body had been removed, ana 

no sign of the mob remaining. I immediately marched 

back to head-quartcra in Mulberry Sti'eet, and reported 

the fact about twelve o'clock. I men marched my men 

through Grand Street, nearly to the ferry, and t!ien 

backward and forward, through the various narrow 

I Btreets in that part of the city, without being able to 

I discover any disorderly persons. In this way I marched 

for four hours, aud returned again to head-quai'ters, at 

four o'clock A.M., the IStli inet. 

About seven o'clock, I again received orders to pro- 
1 to Tturty-eecond Street and Seventh Avenua.,«s^ 



324 



THE OEKAT RIOTS OF NEW TOHK OITT. 



quell the dtsturbaDce there at all liazards. I moi 
liiere tlii-ongli a heavy raiu, aud found a crowd of si 
two hundred or throe hundred rioters, ivho had t 
engaged in hanging a nngro. They imraediateJy i 
pelted, without my having to tire a ehut; I then i 
paired to the ai-senal, Seventh Avenue, to obtain inft 
mation where I could next meet tlie uiuh. I mir ' 
dered by General Sandfiu-d to niai-ch my oomm 
inside the lines of his "vidoltes" aud outer pickets, 
was then ordered to march to Thirty -second Street 9M 
Seventh Avenue, and quell the disturbanue, which bd 
broken out anew — the mob tn-ing to break into a boof 
in which a number of negro families had taken ref*** 
I dispei'Bcd the mob, and brought tlie nejjroee, e 
fourteen in number, iutw the arsenal- I Uien plat 
one half of my conimand acn^s Seventh Avenue ■ 
Thirty-Bscond Street, aud while in this position, tlie a 
made a rush up the avenue, but were promptly met 
two volleys of musketry from my command, when tl 

retired with considerable loss. Soon aftflr one of t 

rioters endeavored to wrest the musket fi-om the luinds 
of one of ray sentries, but received the contents instead. 
During the time I wafl engfced with the riutera in 
Seventh Avenue, Lieutenant Robert F. Joyce, in com- 
mand of the second platoon, received information tJiat 
a large number of muskets were concealed in a hoiisa 
on Thirty-second Street, near Broadway, and taking 
fifteen men from his command, proceeded to the hoooi 
and overcoming all the obstacles that were thrown | 
his way, succeeded in taking seventy-three Entield n'""' 
with accoutrements; and placing them on s i 
brought them to the arsenal, ailliougli he was Uirc 
ened by 600 men in the streets. About four o'clw 
information reached me that a larve mob had coIIm 
in Forty-Bocond Street, between Tenth and I^lcvenfl 
Avenues, and were endeavoring to bnrn buildrngs v 
that neighlwrhood, I immtHliately marched iny atd 
mond, numbering about fifty men (tlio remainder beldj 
on guard near the arsenal), to the scene of the dteta 



OFFICIAL REPORTS. 



•nco; on arriving in Forty-aecond Street, between 
Ninth and Tentli Avenues, wo were saluted with 

f roans, hisses, etc, and when at tlie corner of Tentli 
.venae, reeeived a stonn of bricks, aTid missiles of 
' every description, and shuts from the roofs and win- 
Mows of tho bnildings. 

I Wheeling the platoons right and left, I formed them 
r 80 as to sweep the streets and avenue in all directions. 
I advised the mob to disperse in one minute, or I 
would fire, there being 2,000 men at least. A few of 
them moved away, but the greater part remained, when 
I ordered my troops to lire, aTid had to fire at least five 
volleys before I eould disperse the mob ; when they 
again commenced firing on us from the windows, and 
house-tops; one shot nred on us from the windows 
eame near depriving us of a man, as the bail grazed his 
head, but terminated in nothing serious. I then or- 
dered Lieutenant F. M. Chase to take ten men, and 
search the houses from top to bottom, which he im- 
mediately did, and captured two prisoners. I suc- 
ceeded flually in clearing the streets and closing tho 
bouses, and I remained on tlie ground as long aa there 
raa any necessity for a force there. I tlien started 
ler the arsenal, but had not progressed more than half 
It block, when tlie mob, who bad been joined by an- 
ptber crowd of rioters, made a rush up the sti'eet, as if 
to overpower ray force. I allowed them to a]>proach 
l^ery close, with the impression tliat I was falling back, 
(rhen I suddenly halted my command, and faced the 
iei:ond platoon to the rear, and tired two more volleys 
into ithem. They immediately dispersed, and I was in- 
formed it was their last gathering in that locality. 
Tliere were at least fifty killed, and a large number 
wounded, and I marched off with my command, with- 
out hardly a scratch. Kaving delivered our prisoners 
over to tlie authoi-ities at the Twentieth Pi-ecinct sta- 
tion-house, I again returned to the arsenal, and after 
a slight disturbance there, in which I arrested two of 
the rioters, I had the privilege of a few minutes rest, 



326 THE OEEAT EIOTS OF NEW YORK CITT. 

■when we were placed on guard, and kept there witf| 
out ft relief, until ordered back tu these hcHd-qiiartoi 
by General Bi-owni. I was then oidered to pruce 
with Captain Putnam, Twelfth U, S. Infantpj-, to t 
Second Avenue and Twenty-eiglith Street. This repo* 
will inform you of tlie nature of onr duties at that )>o)qJ 

I now most respectfully beg leave to call your attat 
tion to the officers of my command. Lienteiiant R, I 
Joyce and Lieutenant ¥. M. Cliase, who have noblj 
seconded every movotnent that was contemplated aQ 
executed. My eineere thanks are due cijuimifieionoj 
and membere of the police force, for tlie prompt I 
eflicieDt eorvice they have rendered us, as well as t' 
excellent management in providing rations for my u 
when BO many otliers called their attentions away, 

I am very reapectf uUy your obedient servant, 

E. FUANKLIN RyER, 

First Lieut. Corn^gTwenti^h Battenj, N. Y.V.I 
Lieut.-col. B. Fkothinoham, A. A. Ge>i»ral. 



REPORT OF CVPTAIS FKASKLIS. 

Fonr BiCQMOND, New Yokk Hasbor, JdIj dO, 1M8L J 
Sit; — In reply to your recjuest of the 2Cth itisti 
I hare the honor to make the following; statement: 

On tiic aftenioou of the I.'Sih, I received an orO 
fi-om General Bniwu for one i)latiHiu of my ot«npi_^ 
to report to Lieutenant Wood, at Fort Ijafayette. 
scGompanied it, and finding Goneml Brown at tl. 
wharf, reported to him, with the request tliut I migflj 
go with my own men. lie granted my i-eipicst, and o 
derid Lieutenant Wood to report to me. and al tl 
xanic time gave me an order to re|Mirt with my wlray 
command tu Colonel Nugent, in Leonard iSlrtft. Av 
riving at that point, I wat* met hv General Brown, wid 
ordered mu to reiMjrt to Colonel Niigtint, at the « 



3a- 



«)mer of Thirty-fifth Street and Seventh Avenue, On 
. Brriving at tlie areeiial. I ffiiiiid everything in a |:^at 
, Btate 01 cnnfiieion. No one eeeined to know who was 
I in command ; sotne said Colonel Nugent, and others, 
! iMilonel whose name I do not rewillect. There 
was no officer of the day on gnard, and no guard sta- 
tioned, exi-ept one at the arsenal door. 

The Btreet, during the eveninj;, became filled with a 
noisy crowd, and 1 sngeested to Colonel Nngent tliat 
tlie streets be cleai'ed,and that a gnard be posted at all 
the four streets appiMaehing the ai»ena!. This was 
eoou done by the marines, and the guard posted as I 
enggested. My company relieved the marines, and re- 
mained on guard till it was ordered to repi^rt to Gen- 
eral Brown, at 300 Mulberry Street. I marched the 
company down, almnt 11.30 p.m., through the rain, ac- 
companied by the marines. I found on my arrival 
thai. General Crown had been relieved. I then went 
to the hotel and reported to General Wool. A section 
of battery had jiiat arrived from Fort Hamilton, with 
no one but n volunteer quartermaster in charge. The 
general did not seem to know what to do with it. I 
enggesled to a member of his staff, that Lieutenant 
Wo^kI be ordeied to relieve Lienteuant McElrath, then 
I commanding an infantry company, and that Lieuten- 
ant MfElrath be ordered to take command of the sec- 
lion. 

The room at this time was filled with gentlemen, 
and tlic general seemed to be very much confused : 
it was a hmg time before the attempts made by several 
of his staff to make him understand this were success- 
ful.^ 

Finally he issued the order, and Lieutenant Wood 
started up with the section to relieve Lieutenant 
McElrath. General Wool seemed, during all the time 
I was there, very much confused and worn out, and I 
^ould judge unable to ]ierform any duty. Sixtn after 
, that, he gave orders to Colonel Nugent to take coni- 
1 mand of the regular troops, who ordered me to remain 



• NEW YORK cnr. 



^1 

■e- ^ 
id 



at police head-qnartera, all niglit. Almnt 13 o'clock- j 
I thiuk it was, all the gentlemen and tlie general's Btw ^ 
left him for the night, I think only one orderly re- 
mained with him, and he on the onteide of the door, 

The next moniinjf General Browii was in cnminand 
again, and I received orders from him. np to tlio time 
he was relieved by General Canby. From tliia timc^ " 
everything aeeraed fo work well. Every time there ¥ 
any notice of any disturbance, in any part of the cityj 
east or west, tn>i>p9 were sent witli great promptiieen, 
and up to t)ie time I ]eft, with snccess. The statement 
of General Sandford. tliat General Bi-own w>nfln6d his 
labors to the east side of the city, is a mistake. Hjr 
company was ordoi'ed to Twentieth Street, Eighth i 
Nintii Avenues, on TucBday evening, and dispersed tl 
mob timt had jnet finished sacking trie bonsc on Twenty 
ninth Street, between Seventh and Eighth Avennei 
on tlie same evening, 

I obeyed no orders dnring Uie riot except those r 
ceived from General Bn>WTi, General Canby, at _ 
Colonel Nugent. Evetytbing eeemed to be workine I 
with perfect harmony and succ^b, up to the time I ] 
left (Wednesday noon, July IJth) fcir llarlem. 

Kespectfully your obedient servant, 

Walteb S. Franklin, 
Capi. Oofn/Tg Company IT, TioelffA Infantry. 
First Lient. McElratr, Actijig Adjt hth ArtiUery. 



HEPOKT OP LIEDTENANT MCELKATH, 

Fort Hamilton, K. T. H,, July SS, 18tt. | 
General : — In responee to ynur letter of the '. 
inat., requesting a statement of all fact« in my t 
Bion oonneetea with the service of the rroupe of jroiiJj 
command, during the riot in New T<)rk, on and ^ft 
the ir ' ' *L, I respectfully state: On the 18th < 




3 



OFFICIAl, HEFOHT3. 



July I was actinp; a^istant adjutant -general of tlie city 
and liarbur of Ke\i' York. On the afternumi of the 
13th inat., I received an order fi-ora General Wool, to 
send immediately to New York a portion of the troopa 
fi'om Fort Lafayette, and half the company then gar- 
I'iaoning Fort Richmond. The whole force thus de- 
tached did not exceed eighty men. Upon reporting to 
yon the terms of the order, you expressed year sur- 
prise at the small number of men ordered to the city, 
and directed me to immediately have all the troops at 
Fort Hamilton, Fort Lafayette, Fort Richmond, got in 
readiness to move at a moment's notice. 

In the meanwhile, you hastened to New York to en- 
deavor to have them ordered to the city. Wiile wait- 
ing your orders, I occupied myself, l»y your direction, 
in organizing a section of artillery, using for the pur- 
pose the guns nsed for the instruction of the men of 
the Fifth Artillery, and the horses of the quarter- 
inaeter department of this post I filled the limbers 
with canister, and giving the command of one of the 
pieces to Drum-major George S. Browning, Fifth Ar- 
tillery, and tliat of the other to Com, Sergeant 11. S. 
Hctherino;ton, I directed the officers in charge to pro- 
ceed to New York, and report to yon at St. Nicholas 
Hotel. 

About 8 p.sr., two boats arrived. I sent one to 
Sandy Hook by your order, to carry Captain Putman'a 
company to your city, replacing it with a company of 
volunteer artillery, and in the other I proceeded my- 
self, with the remainder of the troops above-mentioned. 
These ooiisisted of tha iwrraanent guard of Fort 
Hamilton and the balance of the garrisons of Forts 
Lafayette and Illchmond. in all about 140 effective 
Boldiers, excellently disciplined and trained to fight. 
Arriving at the St. Nicholas. I found that you liad 
been relieved of command, and I reported to General 
"Wool, who sent me to the arsenal in Seventh Avenue. 
I re]>orted there to General Sandford for orders. He 
gave my men (quarters in an upper room. About 11.30 



33(1 



THE OKEAT RIOTS OF NEW ^ 



P.M., or 13, threats having been made of an early at*l 
lack on the arsenal by the mob, General infaiiiit'urd^J 
who for eonie reasfm did not wear his uniform at auy I 
time during the riot, put on his hat, and bidding u»l 
good-evening, took hia departure for his piimte i-esi-i 
ueni:e, lE^avitig two of hie staff to act during liis abseuee. I 
There apjieared t<> be constant nneertaluty throuchoiitJ^ 
tiie night, as to whiuli of thijse officers was really i 
command. 

About a A.M., Lieutenant C O. Wood. Ninth Uiii-J 
ted States Infantry, reported at the arseiml, havinj 
brought with hiui the section of artillery organized ' 
me. With the consent of Major Hamilton, of Geuei 
Saiidford'fi staff, who had just at that moment a])pearedl 
to be in cliarge, Lieutenant Wood and I made a tran&> fl 
fer of our commaudB — betaking my company of infan-l 
try and I assuming wmmaiid of the artillery. Hajocfl 
Hamilton directed me to bring my two guns imm«li>r 
ately inside. I proceeded to the street and examined: 
tlie building, and diseavcred there were no embraanreal 
in tlie work. I returned and reijuesled permission tttj 
place my gims in position in the street, wliere tliejrl 
ooaJd he put to some iiee. I Ijelieve 1 remarked toj 
Major ITainilton, that he had already too much ord- 1 
nance hidden in the bnilding. My application " 

granted, and I put my guns in battery in the Seve 

Avenue, at the corners of Thirty-fifth and Thiity-J 
sixth Stroots, pointing up and dowii the avomie. One 
hundred infantry and lliost! two guns eoiikl have de- 
fended the arsenal ai^ainst any mob that was couoc 
trntcd in the city during tlie riot. In the morning t 
battery was ordered, by a Colonel Mt>ore. claiiaine to J 
Iw in oomnmnd.toYorkville, in company with the Llev-I 
enth New York Volunteers, nnder a volunteer officer^ 
whom I hud detailed (o acwmipany the battery I 
Foit IlaTnilton. I Liit«tcned to i-cport to General ^ 
tlie fact of my command being taken away from i 
but met you at the 8t. Nicholas, and was ordered I 

r i>ei-sotial utafF. It was during this inter- ] 



331 



Tal that, I tliiiik in Second Avenue, three rounds 
were tired from the Battery over the /wada of the mob, 
"Who is responsible for this iiijndiuious proceeding I 
do not know ; but had another cotii'se been adopted at 
the time, the ten-ible mnrder of Uolonol O'Brien would. 
I tliink, have been avoided. On Tiiesdiiy afternoon, 
the battery having been reported to yon for duty, I 
was sent in eomniand of it, supported by the perma- 
nent gnard, under Lieutenant Porter, First United 
States Artillery, to dispei-se a mob in the neighborhood 
of the arsenal, comer of Thirty-fifth Street and Sev- 
enth Aveuiio. I went into battery on the corner of 
Tbirty-eisth Street and Seventh Avenue, but the 
crowd scattei-ing with haste, as the guna approached, it 
was unnecessary to fire. By the order of General 
Sandford, I remainetl where I was until Wednesday 
morning." On the morning of the 15th, my feet giv- 
ing rae gi-eat pain, I was obliged to apply to he tem- 
porarily relieved of the command, and returned that 
day to Ftirt llatnilton, whence on Thursday I was 
about to return to New York with a suiall detaehinent, 
unavoidably left behind on Monday, wlien I received 
orders from you to remain at the fort. The battery 
returned to this post the uext day, liaviiig been in the 
meantime under the command of Captain RawoUe, of 
General Wool's staff. 
I am, General, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

T. P. McEl-EATH, 

Krat Lieut, and Adj. Fifth U. S. Art. 
Brevetr general Bhown, 
Colons Fifth United States Artillery. 



HEPOET OF CAPTAIN SHELLEY. 

FoBT Hamilton, N. T. H., Wednesday, .Tuly 20, 1903. 
Brevet Bkigadiek-gehekal Kakvey Beown. 

General:^! Iiave the honor to submit the following 



333 



TIIE UBEAT Blivra OK SEW YORK CITY 



report of the part taken by tlie " permanent gnard" otl 
Fort Hamilton, X. V. II., m oiielliiit; tlio i-ot-ent riots in I 
the city of New York. On Tuesday night, July 14th, I 
at 11 o'chxik P.M., I received your order to proceed ta I 
the Htate arsenal, Thirty-lifth Street and Seventh A«*- I 
niie, and assume the command of the "permanent 4 
guai-d " of Fort ilamilton. then tempcirarily commanded I 
W Captain Dole, Lieutenant McElrath having charge I 
oi the artillery. f 

In obedience to your orders, I marched my commaad J 
to the head-qnarters, Mulberry Street, to act ae a r»- 
Bcrve ; all the tmops then stationed there being aot> 
ively engaged in different parts of the eity in puttii^l 
down the riot. 



Operations on Wednatdai/, July \5th. 

At 7 oV'lock A.M. ret-eived orders to proceed to J 
Thirty -second Street and Seventh Avenue, and'disperse 
the mob wherever found. On arriving at Thirty- 
second Street, I fc>niid a force of al>ont 300 militia 
dmwn up in colunm of [iliifoon, with two pietx^s of 
artillery from the arsenal at Thirty-fifth Street, niider 
the eumniand of a bri^dier-general, whose name I do J 
not know. I also learned that the mob had, in this I 
vicinity, hnng and brutally mntilated a colored citixen.! 

The militia force was resting on Thirty-seconJStreeL 1 
near Seventh Aveune, with their artillery niiliinl>prQa 1 
and jilaced in battery to sweep Seventh Avenue, where 1 
the rioters were then in force, eonce»led in the boiuee. J 
Alwut this time the rain fell in torrents, and iiijtu 
the ammunition of the artillery, so that it could nM b . 
UBod with oSect. After consulting with the command-1 
ing officer of the militia force, I determined to pma* 
my command by their Hank to the from, and march 
down Seventh Avenue, which I accordingly did, die- j 
perein" the mob wherever found, and then retunuog J 
to hea(l-<iuarters to await further orders. 




OperatioM on Wednesday night. 



Alioiit 9 o'clock P.M. I was ordered to proceed to 
Nineteenth Street, with a detachment of the Twelfth 
Uiiiled States lufantry, with one piece of artillery 
commanded by Captain Rawolle, the whole to be 
commanded by Captain 11. It. Putnam, Twelfth Un- 
ited States Infantry, who displayed the command bo 
that my company on the march to Nineteenth Street 
protected the reai". On arriving at Nineteenth Street 
and First Avcnne, the head of the column became eu- 
giured with tlie riotere, and shortly afterwards they 
collected in force on our rear in Second Avenue, and 
commenced firing at lis. By direction of Captain Put- 
nam, I oi'dcred my skirmishera, who were prwted about 
fifty yards in rear of my column of platoons, to attack 
them, which they did effectually, ana after a few shots 
they were driven off, llaving recovered two woimded 
officers, left to the mercy of the mob by some of the 
militia force en{*iiged during the day, and having dis- 
pei-sed the mob, we returned to head-quarters, about 12 
o'clock A.M. 

Oj>era'.tai)s on Thurnday morning. 

About one o'clock in tlie morning, I was ordered to 
proceed with ray command to Grammercy Park, for tlie 
purpose of protecting the property in that vicinity, as 
tlie mob were then collecting there in force, and had 
made threats to bum and rob the houses of certaiu 
paities residing in the immediate vicinity. 

The scouts employed by the mob warned them of 
my approach, so tliat when 1 arrived there 1 found 
everythina quiet. I immediately jjosted pickets on the 
corners or the different streets, and made the necessary 
disposition of my command for the protection of the 
place. About four o'clock in the morning my pickets 
gave the alarm, the mob had collected in Foiirtli Ave- 



THE GREAT EIuTfl OF NEW TOKK C 



nue and commciicod plundering a store. I iiiiinedi- I 
ately inartrbed to the place indicated and attacked I 
tliein, when tbej- scattered and fled in all dirQctii'iia, J 
I returned to Grammercy Park, and reraainod till 3 J 
o'clock A.M., when I received j'oiir orders to retnm to 1 
Lead- qua iters, which I accordingly did. 



TllH 



•71/ >' 



Waa informed that the mob was iu force near Fifty- , 
aecnnd Street and Eleventh Avenue, with artillery. I i 
received yonr ordere to move my conmiand to that 
place and di6i«ji«e tlie mob and capture their artillery, i 
On arriving at Forty-seventh Street, I learned that tlio 
mob had broken into a bullet factory on Fifty -second 
Street, and had taken a largo qnantity of bullets. I 
immediately marched throufrfi Eighth Avenue to Fifty- 
tiecond Street, and dispersed the mob and tfiok jK>esea- ' 
eion of the piece of artillery, returning to the station- 
house on Forty-second Street, where I remained that 
night to protect the depot and stables of the Eighth 
and Ninth Avenue railroads, wliich the mob uad 
threatened to barn. 

On Friday morning I received an olEciiil nutificatiou, \ 
that General Canby had assumed command of the I 
United States troops in the city and harbor of New ] 
York, togetJier with an order to remove my cotnmaad [ 
to the station-Iiouse on Tliirty-fifth Sti-eet, hetvreea , 
Eightli and Ninth Avenues, where I remained till 
Monday moniing, when I was I'elievcd hy two eoni- 
panics of militia, and ordered to report to Fort Il&mU- 
ton with ray command. 

Befoi-e closing this report, I would resiicctfidly call j 
attention to the gallant conduct of Sergeants &. A. 1 
Kimball and S. E. Tiffany and other non-commiasiooed ] 
ofliccrs of tlie company. Being the only officers with I 
tlie command I relied on, received very efficient aid I 
and assistance from them. The men of the command \ 
acted like veterans, and are entitled to the hi 



uFFICIAL UEFOBTS. 



praise. Although worn out with fatigue trom inceft- 
Bant marchiD" night and day, they performed the ardu- 
ous duties with aTaerity and ■willinguess. 

Diifiiig the different engagements, I had three meo 
hadly wounded, and five or six slightly injured from 
various missiles thrown at us by t!ie mob. 

Very respectfully your obedient servant, 



Ca^t. Com. Pe 



Richard L. Shelley, 
unU Gwird, Fort ffatiUlton, 



f- 



CHAPTER XXn. 



THE 

BjAbot Orgonuatioiia. — Their Object, — ^Their Cotutie of Action. — 
Rise of Labor Organizatioiu. — List, of those in England.— Their 
Object. — LnwB i^uinat them. — List of American OrgamifttionB. 
—Their Failure an mere Strikea.— A Step Forward. — Bacome 
Blote.— Strikers ManopoliBta, — Must be pat doim. —Comma- 
nlBts.— A Difficult Problem to Solve.— PI imderer».—A]] Violeni* 

^k Hart be Put Dowii. — MnuDcr In whioh it abould be doiiu. — Na- 

^H poleou'e mode. 

Babe 
Khpi 



Teadijs Unions, "Co-operative" Sitcietiefi, and all 
lose varioiia societies and organizations among the 
tboring classes foj- their own protection or benefit, are 
part of the spirit of tlie Age. The great material re- 
Bults which are coiistaiitly being ucuompUehed are se- 
cared bjthe concentration and organization of capital. 
It is Biiiiply carrying oat the old proverb, " In union 
ia strength." That lahor, as it hciiomes JnteUi- 
shontd take advantage of tliis well-established 
principle, is natnral and right. Although there liavn 
been some failures, there have been succesaes enough to 
prove that those organizations wliicli have refei-ence tu 
Biipplying the necessaries of life can cheapen very much 
the cost of living. Those organizations or unions which 
are desij^ned solely to affect the price of wages, whether 
.^tnong niaufactnrersor railroad nien, or iiiij cUs^ iii 
urers, look for eiicccss only in their ability at any 
it to "fiti-ike," or iii othec words, auddaDl; 



-Jt ii 
HAtor 



THE OEE^T BAILBOAD UIOTB OF I 



refii&c to lu'mr. At first these met wit]i more or 
Buctiess, for the losaes cutailcd on large coni]iaiiiee bj 
the sudden anspension of work would cun{>el them 
aoeede to the (citas of their eiiiploycs, iis the 
evil iif the twu. 

The hi&ti»rv c>£ sti-ikes pj-ovea this. The fomuUt 
of workingtiien's societies for their owii jirotectii 
began with fho present century. Wool-carders, eot( 
Bpinnors, Guissore-griiiders, tailoi's, men of nil trndes in 
England, formed organizations at first to keep ont ex- 
ceptional men from their own peenliar occupaiioni, 
afterwards to eoiitrol wages. Severe laws were " 

against tlicni. These were at length abolished, sud' 
Bystem adopted allowhijf these ooinhinationa to exii 
and men to lea^'e work when they elioBis, Imt dfiicniiicnng 
all attempts to prevent othe" men fi'oiu taking lUisir 
places. Believing that shtijily striking wnulil hniig 
the employora to termd, .t was at once started 
great trouble oecurred in the niaiiiifactnring diatri 
of Great Britain. The following is a list of the pr 
cipal strikes that have taken place in England ein 
the repeal of the laws referrevl to : 

Manchester cotton-spinners in 1S20 ; uiimber of idl 
10, UW; duration six months. 

Adhtoii ami Scaleybridge eotton-apinnera in '. 
number of idle, SO.OOO; duration ton weeks. 

LivL'r^K^i' building trades in ltJ33; durutiuu 
months. 

Preston uotton-spinner^ in 1S54; number of itj 
17.000; duration nine nioiitha, 

London building trades in 1S59; number of i 
8, 01 to. 

General lockout in tlie irou trade in 1S€5; Dumbl 
of idle, 2UU,UiJ0 ; dmntiun Bi](teeD weuks. 



I 

I 



TRASR OEOANIZATION8. 839 

Clyde ehip-building trade in 1867; number of idle, 
18,000; dnratioii nine weeks. 

North of England iron trade in lSy(>; number of 
idle, 12,000 ; dui'ation five montlis. 

In 1S71, there was & general strike about harvest 
time among the laborers, becanso the fanners cut down 
their wages, but tlio former ivero the chief Bufferei's, 
The last great strike oeuuri-od in Wales ia 1875, and 
embraced 120,000 persona, whose aggregate loss dnring 
its continuance amounted to $15,000,000. 

In Ameriea, no attempt has been made to prevent 
tiie organization of societies among laboring men for 
the proteetiou of their own interests. The following 
Is a list of them, witli branches in different States : 



Intematioiis] TTpograpbical Udiod 18.18 ITS 10.1>50 

UachmiBU ODd blackxmiths ltS9 ltI4 O.OUU 

Iron Monldors' AMooiution IWD lfi3 T.IOO 

Brotherhood nf LocomotiTe Engineera 1B(UI Wi U.OOO 

Jonmejmeii Tailora' Nntionol Trade Union. WBH 40 3,Mt)U 

Ooopora' Interontioiiai Union. 1870 68 O.OiW 

Cigar-Makers' Union 1871 lOa fi.OOO 

HiseTH' NutioDol Union IS73 347 SQ.SlIi 

United Sonji or ValoM 1874 — 4,000 

The Miners' Dnion comprises organizations which 
exifited for years in different States— Pen usvl van ia, 
Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Missouri, 
Kansas, Tennessee, and West Virginia. The Society of 
the United Sons of Vulcan comprises iron puddlera 
and other workers in metals. Tiie locml unions are 
ealled "forges." In addition to the above tliere are 
the Ericklavers' National Union, the United Order of 
American Plasterers, the House Paintei-s' Union, the 
Hat Finishers' Association, the Knights of St. Crispin 

S shoemakers), tlie Order of Morocco Diesgefs, the 
Fonmeyman Horeeshoers' Union, UlQ Society of Luuh 



THE ORKAT KAILnOAD I 



motive Firemen, and the Mnle-Spiiiiier8 of Cotton Fao- ] 
tories. 

Now all these organ izatioiis proposed to eecnre t 
results they desired by Rtopping work, tlins conipolUnrf 
the great industries of the country to accede t** llmi 
demundH or lie idle. This course wtta to some exteul 
suceesftf ul, as it was in England, and compmmisea we™ 
Tiiado. They may etill succeed in tlioee branc^hes < 
industry where skilled labor is employed, but in t 
vaet majority of cases, companies of nearly all Icindfl 
soon learned to be prepared for such emergencies, and 
replaced the " stt-iker» " with new men. This at once 
rendered those vaet organ izutions hamilees. That 
laborers bad a right ttiiis to organize and act in 
unison, when tbey thought they were nut sufficiently 
compensated for their work, no one will question, how 
mnchs<jevcr men may differ as to the wisdom of such a 
course. Strikes, therefore, as meaning simply to i 
to labor because the pay is not satisfactory, are, e 
in isolated coaee, things of Uie past. These orgaiiizi 
tions saw that to be of any avail they muet 
another step ftu'ward, and not only refuse to < 
themselves, but prevent any one else from workiDg i 
their places. They thiiB passed frvm legitimate oif 
zations into riotous pi-oceedings, and at ouca lo«t I 
sympathy and countenance of the gi'cat iria-« of t 
people, and laid themselves iiytan to the peuaUies < 
law, which guarantees, first of all, tlie right of even 
man to labor for any wages Jie may agree to receive 
They lost sympathy, because, instead of waging < 
against monop<^>1i6t<), they tbemj^lves at once bvci 
the most tyraimical, outi-ageoue monopolists- jn 
pflimtr^'— indeed, the woret ihut cm c\Iil— thi; n 



TKADK INIONS. 341 

Kata of labor. Large capitaliste may, with boihc show 
of justice, claim the right to keep and CdnCrol for their 
own benefit the wealth thej have accmnulated by lahur, 
intelligenee, or Biiccessful ventures, but no nmn can 
take from anotlier the riglit to work. It is God given, 
and the man or the meu who seek to deprive their t'el- 
lowB of it are gm'Ity of one of the gi-eatt-st wrongs that 
he can commit. Here, for instance, are 10,000 men em- 
ployed as labtn-ei-s on a sin^^le line of raih-oad. Tiiey 
baud together, and aimnttanconsly refuse t*) lalH)r with- 
out an advance of wages. Ten thousand other men, 
with needy familiea, who are anxious to work, Bl«p 
iorward, thankful for the opportunity to do this work 
for the wages given. The iirat 10,000 men say, " No! 
Ko matter how needy your families may bo, you shall 
not do this work. Nobody shall do it but ourselves, 
uid we will not do it except on our own terms." This 
je a monopoly and despotism of the most oppreseive 
bind. It ia the mei-e^t sophistry to say that they are 
acting for the general ^kkI of the lalwring class, to 
protect their rights, and elevate the standard of labor. 
These 10,000 men are scattered workiugmcn, and if 
they are allowed no phtec on tills raili-oad nmst piuk 
lip work where they can iind it, and get sucli reinunei-a- 
tion for it as they can. 

So that we see that strikes havQ ne<!eseui'ily run into 
riots. Violence must be used and willing laborere must 
be clubbed from the places they are eager to occupy, 
and which their straitened circumstances urgently 
demand, and fheir employers, if they attempt to defend 
them, must be shot down and their buildings and pivp- 
erty destroyed. This is not striking for just wages — it 
JB etriking at the very foundation of society, and abro 



342 



■ BM1.H0AI) HIOTS OF ISTT, 



gating law itself. Henc6 the qiioBtiou of striked 1 
])U£Scd fiijin the domain of art^iiiiieiit iuti) one of forcS I 
— n figlit between lawless des2><)tisiL and giiaranteedjl 
riglils— betM'een self-interest and law — between aniir^ 
cliy and gotwl gctvenimcat. Tliei'e can be but one e 
to tliis Btriijrgle — the putting down of eiich luwlesB, vi* 
lent eonduet at whatever coet of life, or tlie utter abufl 
donmentofgoveiTiment. Wiat the rcBntl will be admit 
of no doubt. How long we shall be in reaching it, d* 
pends ou the prouiptnees, energy, and fcarlcssnesB c 
tliose in power. 

Diit tliei'e is another class of men, who at onee j<Hd 
hande with strikors, of a still more JangeroiiB tjp 
eoinmnnists and phinderers. The iiret believes then 
is an irracoucilabte war between lalxirand oapital, a 
that the latter must be put downi at all hamrds, am 
hence are glad of any opportunity to destroy proport 
wliidi has liuon awiiitinlatud hy capital. 



romniuiiism aesuniee different phaaos in diffpreiiH 
eoniitries, as well as arming different classes of inonp 
but the pnnejples that lie at tlie bottom are tJie satai 
The fundamental principles ai-e : — First, that the eart 
was made for men to enjoy equally ; that it produtM 
enough to satisfy the wante of all, and hence its pro-fl 
dnets belong to all alike. Acenmnlation, therefore, ii 
one place causes distress in another, In sliui-t, froit 
accumulation, whether Iji individuals or corporatio 
Bjn-ings all the panjMjritiin of the earth, and uonseqnei 
ly most of its misery and crimes. In the eoimnd pla 
C^immunisls believe that all eluea distinotioiia i 
I'^Mt men were nuidc !<■ lie equal, and no < 



COMMTTNISM. 



Us 



should have any special rights and privileges, snch as 
nobloB or aristocrats, of whatever kind. 

Under this bead come also all ehnrches, clerjtyinen, 
and religious institutioTis, etc. Now while these ai-e in 
brief tlieir principles, the manner in whit-h tliey iit- 
teiiipt to give tbein Biicceas varies. Quakers, Fourier- 
itSB, and various kindred comninnities repudiate vio- 
lence of all kinds, and believe in the law of example, 
the advociacy of truth, and the spread of light. The 
OonimiiniBtB of France and Germany, on the other hand, 
believe that all accumulation of wealth in palaces, 
monopolies, atructiires, and institutions of extrava- 
gance, to be wrong, and should be destroyed forthwith 
— indeed, that it ought to be the first move in the work 
of reform. 

There is a difference also in tlieir religions and social 
belief. Tlioeo like the Oneida Community believe that 
all marriage exclusiveness should be done away with, 
and woman, like property, be held in common, and 
hence are often called socialists. 

Others require a strict morality, whether they pnus- 
tice it or not. Some have a form of religi<iu8 belief 
peculiar to themselves ; othere, like the Fi-ench and 
Cierraan, for the main part have none at all, but are 
open infidels. 

These are some of the various forms in which Com- 
, munisin develops itself; but the underlying principle 
remains the same, and is what it£ name implies, " com- 
mune," " common," all things in common. 

The Communism that prevailed after the overthrow 
of the late Napoleon had soma featnres that do not 
naturally belong to it. The Communists hoped to 
, control France — iu fact, make it one great Commuuist 



344 



THE GREAT RAILROAD BlO'lS OF I 



society, but thej coitM not ignore their exteniftt rela- 
tioiiB to oiIkt nations. CHjligatTons wei'e tn be met, 
debt^ to be paidr et(.\, etc. which tbey mtiet reuo^iiizo, 
and heiiirc ueitain political articles hitd tu he insei'ti-d J 
iuto thuir creed which htu] iiuthiiig to do with their | 
piinciiiles, and hence need not be noticed hei-e. 

It in Biid, but true, that tliis antagonism hetnreen the | 
poor and ridi increases with the advance of repnbli(M 
principles. The masecs can read the declaratioa that I 
" all men are born free and equal '' in only one way — 
if their equality is a fact and not a delusion, then they 
have an equal right to the good things of this world. 
It is a worthless doctrine to theui if it means aimply 
equal rights to vo/e with the rich or to walk aliout, free 
Ki consult their own pleasui'c where they can find it. 
They must have the food, clothing, nay, a sliure of the 
luxuries of the rich, or tlieir equality is a lie. They 
all have some f^njund for this belief, for the doctrine 
took i-oot in rlie vtry first deve]»)pinent of Christianity, I 
when the early diseiples had "all things in common." ' 
It does seem that the wealth and good things of thiB j 
world, like snow after a heavy, dis»strt^)us storm, 
lieaped up in one place where it is a curse, and swept 
clean from the ground where it is needed, and r 
over, what is woi-se, its accunmlation in one place iie- 
ueeeitates its scarcity in another. But how to right tliia I 
is one of the diflicult pmblenis connected with tha j 
history of our race that time alone can solve. Tliere i 
is one tiling that is true, and abi>nt whi<--ri there can be J 
but one opiuion among all enlightened and good men, 
and that iii, the pmlilam cannot be solved by violence, and J 
plnnder, and murder. However much we may urr inj 
our methods of reaching the political luid e<icinl millott- 



C0MM0KI8M. 



345 



niiim towards whieli the race seems ever eameetly and 
Jongiiigly looking, we caiinut err in putting down at 
' cost the violent methods of these uommnnisls. 
Here our diitv is plain. To destroy pi-operty is not to 
. distrilmle it equally. Kobbei-s, and piiinderere, and 
I mnrderers never bring about a happy state of society. 
The milleiiuiuui, which men are lo<)kiiig after, will 
never come in that fashion. 

As these fanatical men join the regular strikers, so 
that vast mass of wretched outlaws that throng our 
cities, and are only too thankful for any occasion in 
which they i;an safely give way to their savage and 
demoDiacal spirit and gratify their love of blood and 
rapine, join them also. They thus make commoQ 
I cause against society and good government, and must 
I share tlie same fate. 

The personal character of the individuals forming 

[ these three separate classes may be very different, but 

the character of their actions is the same. They are 

'all I'iotei's, law-breakers, and must be treated exactly 

iRlike. It is idle to draw a line of distinction in favor 

of the Btrikei'9 as a class, because their cause is just, 

and that their wages are inadequate for their sup^xTt, 

KuJ their employers are oppressive. Infraction of 

! law must have the same penalty, no matter what the 

' motive or character of the man may be who is guilty 

I of it. No matter whether a man steals fram a stranger 

. or from one who has ovorreached him in a bargain, the 

penalty is the same. No matter whether he murders 

an innocent man or one steeped in crime, he nmst 

mount the scalfold all the Bame. The guilt or innocence 

of the party assailed has nothing to do with the crime 

of the abbailant or his punishment iu the sight of the 

I 1&* 



S46 



I GREAT BAILE04D BIOTS VF ISiT. 



l»w. The principle is fixed and nnassailable thnt v 
man or set of men can be allowed to nndicate tliem 
selves or enforce tlieir rights outside of the forms of Ii 
If one niau can be allowed to do it, then all ean, Miq 
law and f;overnineut become a nnllity, and sotiety di« 
organized. The riotere who resort to violence luaj I 
perfectly just in their demands, and yet the way tl 
take to obtain them be tlio greatest crime they i 
eiimmit. A laige company may be opprcssife and UD 
jnpt, bnt murder is worse than oppression. They m 
cnt down the price of wages, but that is not so eriinii 
as to tear don'D houses and make wreck of luiman 
property. One crime cannot justify another and 
gi-cator one. The world U full of oppression and suf- 
fering ; bnt who is to right it ! It is astonishing li 
the fact that becanee wrong is done to the lalK>rinj;^ 
man, men will say he is therefore jiistifiod in takii 
law into his own hands. Uod's physical laws do c 
pity nor discriminate as to the character of the tnai 
wiio viiiiates thoni. All who Invak them siifEor a 

The laws that n|ih('lil govei'nment and pi-olect souid 
are //w laws also, given for the benelit of umn, and i 
preventing their infraction ofiicei^ and governmcuta 
only as His agents. Tlie man whu is simt down ' 
committing rapine and murder falls as really by I 
hand of Uod as though stiiick by lightntiig. ~ 
right of revolntion — the right of a j)e<)]ile to chai 
govonimcnt from one hosed on injnslice to one b 
III) principles of trntb and right no one deiiifis, bnt a 
nrhor violence leads to iiu governrneul at all. 
fliii iiiiterable sentimentality that revolts at stem inn 
iH'tM to jnit it down becomes a crime. The man i 
indnlKM it i» more compttsaionutv than (iod, whi 




napoleon's 

pitiless to him who violates Ilis physical Iftws, Suffering 
and death follow their iufraetinn with remoi-selcss tmr- 
taiiitv, alid they imist, or God would cease to froverii 
the world, and they mnst equally follow the violation 
of the laws of giH)d government or government will 
cease to exist. Men often eoiigratulato theinsclves on 
quieting a iiuib by kind woi-ds, and thus they say save 
life. On the contrary, they have deeti-oyed it. One 
life ia perha]is gaved to-day to render the destruution of 
forty lives on some future day inevitable. Blank cart- 
ridges at the outset of a riot multiplies the death-roll 
tenfuld in the end. It is a fearful thing to shout down 
fellow-citizens, hut that is not the question involved — 
it is, will you slioot down five to-day and thus save fifty 
hereafter, or save one now and make the death of fifty 
in the future certaiu ? Unless we wish to see raobs in- 
crease and become more daiigcRius and dcstructivo, 
there must cease n,ll false sympathy for them, and they 
be looked u]x>n not as American citizens, but as felons 
and murderers. The order to lay down their anus and 
disperse, if di8*)beyed, nnist be followed by such de- 
cisive action that no doubt can remain of what the issue 
will be. If mobs knew that the first salutation after 
the order to disperse was given would be giape-shtit 
and canister, we should see the end of them. Tlie first 
Napoleon understood this when called before tlie Con- 
vention to receive the command of the tRiops to put 
down the mobs that threatened to overturn Paris. 
Stung by his haughty sarcasm, uttered in reply to their 
careful advice, Itewbell said, " IJut do you know that 

this may be a very serious affair — that the sections " 

"Very well," fiercely interrupted the young Lieutenant, 
" I will make a serious affair of it, and the sections will 



348 THE GREAT EAIUtOAD BI0T9 OF 19". 

be tranquil." He had seen Louis XVI. pnt on the red 
cap and show himself fi-om the palace of the Tuillcrieti, 
to appease the mob, with disf^uet and indignation, and' 
exclaimed, "^Vliatinadness! Heshonld have blown fonr 
or five hundred of them into the air, and the rest would 
have taken to their heets." Aiid wheu on the mighty 
populace, backed by the National Guard, his artillery, 
loaded to the muzzle with grape-shut, thundered, he 
aunouDced the manner in wliich he would treat with a 
mob, and ae he promieed, the Beutions became traiiqiuL 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



THE KAILROAD WOTS — WEST VIBGISIA. 

OommencenK^Dt of the Riots. — -Extent of the Striken. — Their Grum. 
^Eiot ill MftrtitiBbiirg.— Triina Stoppail.— A MoQ Shot. — Dii- 
gracetnl Candact o( the Militia. — Never Reliable.^The Aid of 
the Oeaeral trovemmetit Asked. — Oautioa of the Preudent. — 
He Send8 Aid.— Hu Pioclamtttion.— End of the Strike.— Mia- 
chief of not atriliing Promptly at First. 

The recent railroad strike has been unprecedented in 
its extent tbnjughont the country. Beginning at Mar- 
tinsburg, on the Baltimore and Ohio Hailroad, its in- 
fluence reac^thed all the great lines in the central and 
western part of the Union. So rapidly did one strike 
and riot follow anothei', that at firat siirht there seemed 
to have been a general concert of action, but such was 
evidently not the ease. One followed another just as 
tinder and combustible matter take Are at the tir^t spark 
that touches them, and the 3arnea run rapidly into each 
otlier. This is evident from the fact that, althongb it 
was a raili'oad strike, tbo riotous element in every 
place was equally on tlie alert and ready for action 
with the railroad men. The truth is, the whole coun- 
try has for some time been ready for an explosion of 
some kind. Every man accustomed to watch public 
feeling has been aware of this, and more or less appre- 
hension has been felt. The hard times have pressed 
lieavily on cvci'vluiiiy, iiiiil wuiil iilwajB breeds discon- 



350 



THE QRKAT EAILEOAD BIOTS HF IWIT, 



tent and mstlcBsiiees. The rlcli man may sec liia ftn 
tniio onimble at his feet — there is nothing for hira i 
strike for. The man of moderalc tneaiie may be c 
pelled to give np one Inxnry after another — he cat 
strike U' bave tliem restored to him. The tradesm 
may ece his custom diminish, and the mechanic the d 
mand for uoutracts grow less and less — he (;aunot s 
— he must i^lt etill and sufler. But the laboring tium b 
somebody to look to wlieii his turn comes to r 
As long an a man ia insolvent, or a company can ] 
tlie intci-tist on iti^ debt, tliem seems to be no i 
why his wages slioiitd be redii<:ed. As long as money 
is paid out be thinks it should l>e paid to him, aiid if it 
is not he demands it witii threats. Tlie tnith is. lab<w_ 
has been in snch demand for yeai-s, and so extravi 
gantly rewai-ded, that the laboring class have been e 
to indulge in luxuries they never dreamed of befoi 
and it is tlic lust> of these they deplore mure than I 
want of the necessaries of life. This is seen espnt 
in domestic service. There no reduction of wages m 
be tolui-ated, eimply because it wonld necessitate r 
plainness and economy in dress. There is no di 
that rich men and nch companies, on the other h 
have in some cases taken advantage of the hard li 
for llie sole and wicked purpose of making inoi 
money by reducing the wages of their employes beyotM 
what was necessary or ju?t, and hence natnndly cam 
u great deal of complaint and bitter feeling, 
whatever the particular causes may have been, the d 
satisfaction existed, and it needed but a spark to { 
it outward expression, and tlus was funnshcd at ] 
tittsburg when a strike U>o\c place among the rallpt 
in nccnntit of a i-cdnctimi In ihcir whjos. On |fl 



TEE BAILBOAD BIOTS — WEST VmOINIA. 



351 



night of the 16th of July the firemen thei-o Htniuk, and 
when other Tneu offereil to take iheir jilaix's, dj'ove tlieiii 
from the eiigiuee. Tlie Vi«e-Presiiieiit oF the roail im- 
mediately telegraphed to Govenior JUattliewe the btate 
of tliiiigB, aayiiig that the trains both ways were in the 
hand? uf the I'ioters, and that tlie town authorities were 
pnwfrlcas to euppress the riot, and asked for aid. The 
Governor telegraplied back tliat he had sent woi-d to 
Colonel Fanlkner to aid the anthorities with the two 
military companies of Martinabnrg. Colonel Faulk- 
ner arrived that morning with seveuty-fivo men of the 
Berkeley Light Infantry (iuard, and took <:liarge of 
one of the west-bound freight trains that had beea 
stopped, and endeavored to move it on its way. As the 
train reached the switch one of tlie strikers seized the 
lever which moved it and endeavored to turn it o£E on 
a side-track. A member of the militia company, 
Qamed Poisal, jnmped from the pilot of llie engine 
and endeavored to prevent him. The striker then tired 
at him, slightly wounding him in the head. Poisal 
Jired back, shooting the former thnnigh the hip. Sev- 
eral allots followed, tired by the soldiere, wounding the 
rioter still farther. The firing brought a civwd to- 
gether, and great excitement followed, amid wbieh tlie 
volunteer engineer and fireman that had taken charge 
of the train i-au away. At this Faulkner staled that 
he had done his duty, and if the train men deserted 
their poets he conid do nothing more, and marchnig 
his company to the armory disbanded them, and the 
rioters were left in possession of the field. The nest 
mo.niing the western train bi-oiight in a new eoinpany 
of militia, sent by Governor Matthews, and a confer- 
oaiiB was held between the officore and some of the 



352 



' RAIi.KOAll RIOTS OF ISIT. 



tbS 



citizens, bnt notljinp vrm done. The rioters, 
eiied by their euccess, went at noon to the works 
of the company ami endeavoi'ecl to make the men 
work, hilt they refneed to do so, and the former re- 
tii-ed. The aspect of affairs in the place at tliie time 
may be gathered from tlie following dispatch, dat«d 
12.30 p.iL : 

" The rioters are still firm and determined, and 
preaenue of the military only seems to further exaspe- 
rate »hem. The town la wild with excitement, and the 
strikers and their friends, numberinp at thia time ftdly 
1,000 men, are marching ahont, bidding dctianec to the 
military and the authoritiBS. Some seventy-five or 
eighty engines are congrejiateii liere, and none are 
allowed to depart. A committee from the strikiiu 
fii'emen have noticed the engineers that incase anyejS 
giueer ehttll attempt to take a train fint of town he w; 
be immediately shot. At nfion a cattle train bonnd f _ 
Baltimui-e attempted to start, wbei'ciipon the riotera 
flocked on l)oard,and with drawn revolvers, placed at the 
head of the engineer and tireman, compelled them to 
run the train into the stock-yards, where the cattle werr """ 
unloaded. The passenger trains are not interfered wil£ 
as the strike is entirety confined to ttie tranaportatm 
men. So far the strikers have everytliing tneir om 
way, and the military are passive, awaiting fnrlhd 
orders fi-om the Governor, which up to this time ha^ 
not come." 

The passenger trains were allowed to come and ( 
part unmolested, but all freight trains wero Btop^ted.! 

It B<xin became very evident that no reliance oould t 
placed un the local militia. Indeed, there never vao I] 
in case o£ a riot, embracing not rowdies or vaj^rantB, b 
ordiimrT_l aborini? men. In the first place, thu ~ 
^in part vt thtac very men, while q 



THE RAILBOAD RIOTS WKST VniQINIA. 353 

the friends, compatiions, and relatives of those they are 
ordered to fire. into. Tliey may be opjmsed to the 
riot — lieliaie it to be (xnitmiy to law, and should be 
Buppreseed by some means — but lo shoot down their 
friends and coinpatiioiis cngagod in it is quite another 
thing. The rioters know this, and hence are emboldened 
in their course. Regiments from distant cities or 
States are better than home troops, because less likely 
to be governed by local aympatlty, yet still they are, 
in a great measure, composed of workingmen, who do 
and will sympathize with workingmen whom they hon- 
estly believe to be wronged and oppressed — at least to 
that extent that they will not kilt them at the order 
of their oftiuere. Hence United Status ti-oops must 
always, in the last resort, he looked to for protection. 
It is not because they are braver or less sympathetic, 
tilt tliey have been trained t*i do iheir duty regai'dless 
of eoneeqnenceB, Tlie veterans that stand nnmoved in 
'trout of a deadly battery are not more courageous 
the raw volimteei-s that turn and fiy. Bnt they 
have been drilled and trained to do simply their duty. 
This power of thorough discipline was seen a few 
years ago in New York in the famous Orange riots. 
Keligioua hatred and fanaticism yielded to this seuso 
of duty that had been drilled into the police, so that 
lloman Catholics shot down Roman CntholicB without 
mercy in defence of Protestant Irishmen. Among all 
tlie Roman Catholics that cotn|io6ed the police force of 
the city, only one was foimd recreant to his duty. 
For yeai-s they had been taught to regard themselves 
as defenders of the city — the gnardians of its peace 
and citizens. This had been and was their duty, into 
which they had been so thoronghly trained that they 



354 TUG ORBAT KAILKOAD KIOT8 OF IW 

■would do it reekleBB of coneeqwences to individnalfcfl 
It IB 80 with regular troops — tliey have nothing to doT 
with individual wronjjs — they aie only to obey i 
orders of their goveniment. Governor Matthews^ 
saw that lie could not rely on his home troops, and tel-1 
egraphed to the President for aid. The latter, reluc- 
tant — aa the Presideut always ehonld be — to interfere 
with the infernal affairs of any State, ordei-ed the Sec- 
retary of War to telefjraph for more Bpecific informa- 
tioii. On its reception he no Icmger hesitated, and t 
Secretary of War ordered United States troope 
MartioBhurg, and a dispatch was received, dated 11 
o'clock P.M. : 

" At ten cj'chick at night a ti'ain of nine cars, drawa_ 

a' ■ engine So. 407, moved ont of the Baltimore lutt^ 
(lio depot in Washington, carrying the troops, com 
prising eight companies of artillery acting as nifaiitr^ 
Six of the companies have been on dniy at the Arsena^ 
and two reached Washington from Baltimore, joinittd 
ths troops lliere. Their strciigtli is two hundred una 
fifty moil, all in regular fighting trim, supplied witj 
rations, canteens, plenty of annnnnition, and in ai 
other respei^ts regularly eqnippL-d for whatever woH 
may be necessary when they reach the scene of tiimuUi 
The whole detachment is under command of Geuei 
French." 

This news somewhat astonnded the atrlkera. 
had found snch sympathy from tlie citizens and loc 
troops that they flouted the authorities, and had av6( 
stoned the Govenior in his hotel at Grafton ; but whtd 
the general gitvcrnmcut in its majesty began to ii 
matters ansumed a more serious aspect. Suddenly ^ 
face the naked fact that, to succeed, they must wb( 
the United States, startled them. That was a iktlemn 



THE KAILHOAD ElOTS — WEST VIBGINIA. 



night. The arrested trains stretched two tnilee away 
on each side of Martiusbiirg — eiiongh hauils were 
ready to start them— ~but no one dared to move. In 
the mesLtime, the heavy train hearing the United 
States troops, witli artillery, was slowly approaching 
the place. Added to this, the rain began to fail in 
torrents, drenching the rioters and tending still more 
to dampen their courage. With the arrival of the 
troops came also the following proclamation of the 
President, which gave the rioters to nnderetand very 
clearly the magnitndo of the work on which they had 
entered. 

A PEOOLAMATION. 
By the Preaident of the United States of America ; 

Whereas, It is provided in the Constitution of tho 
United States that the United States shall protect 
every State in the Union on application of the Legis- 
lature, or of the Execntive when the Legislature can- 
not be convened, against domestic violence ; and, 

Whereas, The Governor of the State of West Vir- 
ginia has represented that domestic violence exists in 
said State, at MarCinsbnrg, and at various other points 
along the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in 
said State, which the authorities of said State are nn- 
able to suppress ; and, 

Whereas, The laws of the United States require that 
in all caseu of insurrection in any State, or of obstruc- 
tion to the laws ihei-eof. whenever it may be necesaarv 
in the judgment of the President, he snail forthwith 
by proclamation command such insurgents to disperse 
and retire peaceably to their respective abodes within 
a limited time; 

Now, therefore, I, Rutherford B. ITayes, President 
(tf the United States^ do hereby admonish all good citi- 
zens of the United States, and all persons within the 



356 TUE (iRE\T EAILROAD RICITS OV 1817. 

ten-itory and jiii-isdiction of the Uuited Statea, against J 
aiding, cuiiiitcimtidng. atiettin^, or taking part iii such I 
unlawful pnioecdiiigs; and 1 do hereiiy warn all [wr- 1 
Binis uiigaged in or coiiiieL-ted with said duniefitic vio- 1 
letico a7m o1)s[nictlon uf laws to disperse and retire I 
pe&ueabljr to their rusiietitive abiidea on or before 13 I 
o'clock nixm of the li)!h day of July inst 1 

In witness wtiereof I bave hereunto set my hand aod | 
cansed the seal of the United Slates to be afiixed. 

Done at the city of Washington this IStli day of 1 
July, iu the year of our I/»rd 1S77, and of the indepen- 1 
deuce of tlie United States the 103d. 

By the President, R. R IIayks. 

F, W. Skwahd, Acting Secretary of State. 

The firm attitude of the general government stopped I 
for tlie time all violent deuionstratious of the inJob^a 
and on the 10th two trains were started out. Seventy-! 
three locomotives stood with their fires bauked i-eadyj 
to start, and the civil authorities bugau to arrest thai 
ringleaders of the strikers. But the mischief had been I 
done and from every quarter came, in rapid, etartlliiff I 
succession, the news of strikes and the sudden arreet of I 
all transportation of freij;ht to and from tlie sca-bonrd. 1 
The sympathy of the military and the people with I 
the Btrikere, and the complete control the latrjjr had I 
over tlic railroad, had been sent on telegraph wires al] [ 
over the country, falling on the excited railroad men lik« j 
fire on gunpowder. Had the people risen en mfMseand [ 
put down the rioters on the tiret day, or had the raili- j 
tary acted with promptness au'i decision, and on thaj 
first attempt at violence by tlie mob ^hot down a half a 
dozen, dispersed the rest, and set t!io traine rolling onfl 
their way, the great railroad strike of 187T would! 
t Imvu disgraced the country, and it would luvo] 




THE RAII-KOAD RIOTS — WEST VIRGINIA, 



been spared the suffering and liisB that have followed. 
A mob is liku a rulluig ruck that, once fairly in mo- 
tion, it is difficult to stop it. One prompt, determined 
blow at Martiueburg would have ended t)ie trouble. 
Oo the very day the following annuunceujent was made 
from Martinebiirg, Baltimore was in a tumult of 
excitement^ — -the riotera parading the streets with 
shouts and yeils, carrying dismay on every side. 

July 17th. — "Information has jiiet been received 
here tliat tliore Is serioiie traulile at Keyser, and troops 
from tliia place are being sent by a special train to that 
place. The strikere at Keyser are collected iu large 
force, numbering about two hundred. The suiall guard 
of ten men tliat arrived thera this morning in charge 
of the first train from Maitineburg is insufficient to cojte 
with the large body of strikers, and aid is requested. 
In fact, tliey are powcriess t<j do much more than pro- 
tect themselves from the mob. 

"Trains commenced to move from here at seven 
o'clock this morning in charge of small dotacluacnts of 
United States suldiei's. There were plenty of fii-einen 
and engineei-s at MailinBbutg ready and willing to run 
the trains when assured that they would liave pixttec- 
tion while discharging theirdtities. large nnmboi-H of 
Btrikei-B were to be seen along the railrt)ad in the 
• vicinity of the depot, but they were not permitted to 
get near enough to offer any obstruction to the move- 
ment of trains. Gen. French tliis morning issued im- 
perative orders directing that all persons should be 
kept at a distance fi-oni flie depot and from the vicinity 
of operations, no matter whether their intentions were 
friendly or hostile. Eight Irains were dispati;hed from 
Martineburg up to eiglit o'clock this nioniiiig. Up to 
11 A,M, thirteen trains were started fi'om this jwint, of 
which seven went west and six east. The last west- 
ward train took another detachment of troops, which 
pi-oceeded as far as Keyser. The service of the 



358 



HIOTS OF I87T. 



Wheeling militia has eTided, and tliey will probably 
leavG this afternoon. Officers are now out for the 
purpose of arresting eome of those moet prominently 
engaged in the obstruction of the trains. One man, 
nametl Davis, was ai'rested this [norniiig. One of the 
trains whieh lett for the West this foi-euoon was cut 
off at Sir John's Run, After a short delay it was 
coupled up and went on. Capt. Litclifield haa gone on 
with two companies of troops to prevent a repetition 
of the act, and with ordera to an-eet those eiiga^d in it. 
No fiii'thcr intei'ference at that point is appreheuded." 




CHAPTER XXIV, 



THB EAILHOAD KIOTS — MABYI-AJ.'O. 

Oovernoi Carroll's Proclamation. — Canso of the Outbreak in Balld- 
morc. — AttiK^k oo the Fifth ItegimeDt.— Mustering of tlie Sixth 
Regiment. —The Armory attacked tiy the Mob.—Marnh of the 
Firet Company. — It fires oo the Mob.—Harch of the Second 
Company. — Fights its Way onwanl— Moruh of the Last Com- 
psDy, — Attack on the Regiment. — DeaJly Firing. — A Fearfnl 
Sight Scene.— Scene at the DepoL— The Fifth Regiment.— 
The Preiident asked for Troops,— Number of Killed and 
Woonded. 

WoKD having I'tfitdied Gov. Carroll that the trains 
leaving Maitinehiirg were Btopjied by rioters at (Cum- 
berland, he Baw at unec that the trauble wa« extending 
into Mainland, and immediately issued a proclamation 
in reepunse to the call for aid from the raib-oad antlioii- 
tiea — calling on all riotei-s to disperse. He also called 
out the Fifth Regiment of the Maryland National 
Guard, to proceed, under command of Genera! Her- 
bert, to Cumberland, and protect the trains at that 
point. This proclamation and order seemed to be the 
spark that lit the flame in iJultimore, that soon spread 
like a conflagration. Baltimore has long been noted 
for its feitjcious mobs, and the " plug uglies " have be- 
come known far and wide. There needs no railroad 
strikes to excite a mob there. The mere attempt to 
put one down elsewhere will bring it together. This 
regiment was to march at 7 p.m. Though there had 



360 



THB GREAT BAH.ROAD 1 



been no ontbreak in the city, the news from Kartina* 
burg for the last three days hud produced the pre 
founjcst excitement. Angry cmwds gathered amundl 
the de[>ot to hear the news, inquire aViout tlie i 
arrival uf trains, while knots of rough- looking meal 
eoiild 1k! seen on llie conjere of the by-Btreets talking^ 
in low aud earnest tones. It turuod out that a pl&a 1 
was laid to prevent the soldiers from deparliug to put ] 
down the rioters and sup[K>rt tlie railroad ofliccra. Ab I 
the eoldiere, in obedience Ut the oi-der of the Governor, I 
hurried singly or in squads to tlie arinory for their J 
muskets, they were jeered by Ibe nicu aud boye that I 
lined the streets, and occasionally a sltme would bef 
thrown at them. Soon after, the City Uall boll I 
Bounded the signal 151, denoiiiig that a riot ^ 
progress, and the mueteriiig of the militia demanded,! 
The Fifth Kegiinent was soon iisseniblod in force, bu<^ 
at about seven o'clock, numbering aUnit 250 mnoketB,! 
marched out of the armory and took its way towardsT 
the depot, where they were to take the train to Cura-| 
berland. An excited crowd fullowed tliem, hootiugJ 
aud yelling as they advanced, and increa&Iug in num- I 
hers at every cross street. When about three blocka J 
fittiu the depot, at the comer of Pratt aud Eutaw * 
iSireets, it made a rush at the regiment, shouting and 
cursing, and hnrliug etoties and Irick-batB, The sol- 
diers, witli tixed bayonets, inarvhed steadily forward! 
to the station, and entered it amid a Bhower of Btonee.1 
The mob then dabbed ai-ound tlie lower end of thoa 
platform and mot ihe trooiH face to face. Thceoldiers 1 
immediately charged bayouets and Hcattca'd the ui-owd, 
and entered the train. The riotci-s then rushed for the j 
locomotive, and dnigged off the engineer and 6n 



THE BAILEOAH B10T8 UABTLAND. 



3C1 



I 



While theeo events were passhig at the Btation, n 
more alarming state of things existeJ in tlie heart of 
tlie city. The nDglng of the alarm of the City 
Ilall bell, by whomsoever ordered, was a most unwise 
thing, for it iustantly roused up all the bad elements 
of the city, and sent tJieni hurrying to a common cen- 
tre. The Sixth Regiment had been ordered to hold It- 
Belf in readiness for two or three days, and, at the first 
sound of the alarm bell, rnshed to the armory. But tlie 
streets were now thronged with angry men, whose cries 
and shonis sent terror to the hearts of the inhabitants. 
As soon as a soldier appeared a rosh was made for him. 
The small police force stationed at the armory soon 
lost all control of the mob tliat surged in angry waves 
around the building. Some of the soldiera, being nn- 
anned, turned back. One was seized and hurled over 
Fayette Street bridge into Jones's Falls, but he luckily 
caught on a timber, and, leaping the railing, fled down 
the street. In the meantime all was bustle and excite- 
ment inside the armory. Col. Peters, commanding the 
regiment, had received an order from Gen. Herbert, of 
the Fiftli, at Camden station, to detail tliree companies 
and report to him there. The tumult was wild without, 
but the men appeared generally calm and cool. It 
was now apparent that the weak guard of four nien at 
the door could do no gfHMj, and was, moreover, in" dan- 
'. ger of being hit by the missiles that were hurled against 
the armory, and Lieut. Brown was directed to go dow^l 
and order them in. As they fell back a wild yell of 
triumph and derisive laughter greeted tiiem, foMowed 
by a shower of brick-bats and stones. The two large 
glass doors were shattered into fragments, while Lieut. 
Browa i-eceived a sevei'e blow on the ai-tu. The crowd 



3fi2 



THK OBKAT RAILROAD RIOTe OF IBTT, 



more 
T re nt 'j, 

I 

flijrht I 



tlniikiiig the soldiers were frivhteited, becarue more 
clamorous and violent and ewolling every moment, rent 
the air witli shouta, cui'ses, and rained a perfect el 
of brick-baU and BtoiiOB on tho ai'mory. 

Ky a quarter past eight tlie propai'ationa were 
completed, and the three companies prepared to 
The jH>lice were ordered to thro\v open tlie doors, 
then stand aside. The door opened on Front Street, 
the armory room being on the second floor, a long tligbt 
of stairs had to be descended before the street could 
he reached. Down this lliesoldiers could inarclionly two 
abreast. Company I, of only forty men, Capt. Tup] 
commanding, tirat began to descend. As it did so, 
very building shook with thewhoulsof tho infuiial 
inultitade, and the doorway was daikcned witli 
ing missiles. " Keep your heads down, Imys, and 
ward march," passed down tlic line, and tho tni 
though evidently greatly oxL-itttd and for a momeDt 
vering, gathered at the woi-d of command, and 
ing steadily down, emerged into the street, and for 
moment faced rhe shouting, maddened crowd. Tl 
then, in solid order, coinmimced their desperatu mi 
down the street, headed by Col. Pciers. Iinmedii 
they were met by a shower of atones intermingled 
pistol shots. Tlie first mnk of soldiers fired a vol! 
over the heads of the mob as they tiled out and foi 
into line. But this, as it always does, only exoapvi 
the rioters, and they opened lire on the troops, 
latter now levelled their pieces and fired poiiitrbl 
into the dense and yelliug mass. Men falling on 
ridcwalkii, or reeling backward with buUotA in 
breasts, territii-d the crowd, and they scattered, 
company then marched down to Baltimore SttMt 



THE RArt.ROAD RIOTS — StARYLAND. 



I 



haltetl. The mob, not seeing the rest oi the i-egiineiit 
Bppeiir, thought they were afi-aid to leave the armory, 
and began to surge back around it witli derisive ahouta 
and cries. Company F, Capt. Fallen, was next put in 
nmtioii, but the moment they i-eaelied the street they 
were met by a volley fi'om pistols and muskets. .They 
returned the fire with sueh deadly effect that the assail- 
ants were staggered. The company then inarched for- 
ward to join the first, firing volleys as they moved 
along. The last corapaiiy, under Lieut. Duffy, fol- 
lowed immediately after. This was composed of varj 
young men, some scarcely out of boyhood, many of 
whom, as they met the fire of the mob at the door, 
rashed back pell-mell njtstairs. T'ley, however, soon 
rallied and marcheil out. The deadly fire of the last 
company had intimidated the crowd, and they kept 
more aloof. Tlie tiring and the shouts had called the 
people far and near to the eeeue of disturbance, and 
after tlie troojis disap|)eared around the corner, the 
ci-owd surged ar*jund the armory, beating in windows 
and ikiors, and picking up their dead and wounded 
comrades. 

As the three eoinpanies marched down l^altimore 
Street, tlie mob once more fell upon it, but was met liy 
6ucli a deadly volley that it recoiled. The soldiei's 
were in earnest, and fired with terrible effect. It 
was now about nine o'clock, and the lighted street 
presented a wild and feai-ful aspect. In a compact 
mass the some two Inindred soldiers kept the middle 
of the street, while behind and beside them pressed 
the yelling, cm-sing tlirong. Ever tiuw and then, as 
the mob jiressed too closely, a sudden volley would 
light ap the sea of swaying heads that would Bud- 



Stil 



THE GREAT RAJLHOAD RIOTS OF 1OT. 



deiily diBappcar down the Bide-strcotB as tlio di^ad I'ell 
on the pavement. 

Ati eldei'Iy man, dreesed in white, stood in front 
the Cui'rulkou House as the soldiers puAsod. He n 
his Land and called on the crowd tu uimie on. An eoi 
raged soldier stopped out of tho ranks, and taking d(K 
liberate aim at him, shot him dead. The mob, 
to stand up against the deadly Sre, BO<^in scaMorad, iindB 
qniet was restored. The Fifth Iteginieiit, down at tin 
station, was in the meantime snrroundod hy a niol>, t 
several collisions took place, and some of the soldiotH 
were wounded. Bnt the men not being allowed tofi 
on the mob, they took complete control of the engitiflf 
and trains, and nothing was done. A few vuUeys liki 
thodc of the Sixth would soon have settled the matte 

Tlie events of the night at tliis point may be snmnioi 
up in a few words. 

Upon the entrance of the Fifth Regiment, about 7.3flH 
an excited crowd of strikers, numbering about two hni^ 
dred, began an attack upon Engine 389 with sloties aii< 
pistols, and for some momt^nls the fuBJUade was coiH 
tinned, until the wood-work of the engine was 
pleto wreck. The engineer and fireman escaped wit 
a few bruises. A sntall force of pfjlice from tho fronj 
charged on the mob, but were repulsed. At this 
nient Engine No. 407, Engineer Byerly. backed up t 
Uarre Street to connect with No, 2 Chicago expi-oi 
which was to leave at 8.15, when a second ultauk wa^ 
made upon her, aud s'jon she was also a wreck. Sub^ 
sequently she was run out by the riotere, who jui 
npon her, and, pulling back the throttle, let the engini 
go at full Bpoed, She ran down the yard, and wa| 
wrecked in a collision with freight trains at a poiql 



THB EAILROAD KIOTS — MABYLAND. 365 



below Lee Street Gen. Herbert ordered Capt. Zol- 
linger to dispereethe mob. Uapt. Z<il!inger, with'Ciiin- 
ptuty C, Capt. Ilerbert, then eliarped the rioters with 
fixed bayonets, who had forced their way midway of 
the platform, north of IJarre Street. Tlie soldiery 
charged bayonets and drove tlieni off the platform, 
when the riotei-s made a stand iu the yard, near 
Howard Street, and assailed the troops with missiles 
of every description. By this fusillade Private George 
Wiinderlj, of Company C, and Liont, Spear, of tlie 
lie company, were stnick in the head with stones 
&nd rendered luicoiiseiinis. They were taken by their 
comrades bauk to Mr. King's private car, at the rear 
of llie train, whi^h had been converted into a tempo- 
rary iioepita!. Company C again charged the mob to 
the interseution uf Ilowai-d and Barre Streets, where 
they made a stand and again assaulted the militia. 
Numerous pistol-shots were fired by the rioters, and 
private Lewis, of Company K, and others were strnck 
down. Company C had in the meantime been rein- 
foi-ced by Company K, but both companies were or- 
dei'cd back, they being nnable to cope with the mob, 
which had inci'eased to several thousand, aiid took 
poftsession of tlie entire vicinity. The coolness with 
which the two companies deported iheinse! vcs was re- 
markable. Had extreme meiisures been used at tlie 
time, it wonld no doubt have put a stop to all fnrther 
^m riotous acts, but Governor Carroll, who was present 
^K in consnltation with Brig.-Gen. Herbert, Major Harry 
^H Oilmor, and other police anthorities, oonnselled the 
^K* use of civil [wiwcr until the very latest jKiasible mo- 
^H ment. Notice was sent to each of the station-houses 
^H for all policemen who could be mustered, and, pending 



366 



THE GEEAT KAILEOAD RIOTS C 



their arrival, the mob, conBtuntly aiigineiitin;; in ntini'j 
\ier6, held their pieitioii in the depot-yai-d atid the siip 
nninding streets. Three hoya or yoiiiig men, evideutlyi 
uiivzcd witli liquor, hoarded CTigiue No. 407, and givJ 
ing her full p>wer, ran her down beiow Lee Streel^V 
where she was turned ni>8ide down. Tlie rioters theaj 
tore np the tracks in the yard, and EiiunltaneonHly d&-l 
monstmtii)nB were made in front of tlie depot on Cain-r 
den Sti-eet. Major Ilany Giliuor, with a squad i 
men from Company C, Fifth Regiment, formed in lint 
at the head of the platform in front of the tiuket wia*!^ 
dow, where the ammunition of the Fifth, in lioxes, wavl 
piled. At this time a movement was made by thftl 
rioters from Barre Street, but they reti'eated after aa-l 
eending the platform for a few yards. AntiuipatiD|^ 
the movement, the militia was ordered to load aiid 
make ready, which tliey did, but the retrograde movfr 
meiit on the part of the iioters prevented any extreme^ 
measiii-e at this time. 

Some firing was done by the policemen at . 
Street friHn the mob atlcmpiiiig to stop tlie lirenien from 
doing their duty. They cut the how; of Engine N<i. 3,1 
and lired on the guard. Tbe casualties wei-e few, whilej 
the main injury by fire was the burning of a paaeengei 
car and the destruction of the despatuher's ufiic&J 
During the fire Governor Carroll sent a dispatch t 
President Hayes, saying that the depot had been f 
by the mob, which was too stmng for the force uudma 
his control, and aaking for United States troope.f 
Early in the niornhig the following reply was received; 



THE KAILEOAD RIOTB — MARYLAND. 



367 



Wasiiinoton, July 21. 
To Gen,. Barry, Commandintf at Furt MaHenry ; 
Tlie Secretary of War directs tliat jt>u report to the 
. Giivenior of Maryland with guue and all your moo, to 
I act according to his orders. 

The inesBage was sent to Fort McIIenry by a nionnted 

I ordeF'ly aa eoon ae received, returning with woi-d that 

\ the troopa were In readiness at a moment's notice. 

Subsequently, when quiet had been restored, these and 

other orders for troops were rescinded. 

In the conflict with the mob between thirty and forty 

were killed or wounded, nine were kilted outright, all 

of them rioters, and the removing of the bodies at 

L eight o'clock in the morning, to their respective homes, 

■was a sad and moiirnfui spectacle. The crowd kxiked 

I on in silence and a gloom settled down on the city. 

The Police Board of CoinmisBioners called out and 

I organized a special foree of five hundred policemen; 

I liqnor stores and saloons were closed ; alt trains over 

} the road were stopped, and every precaution taktm to 

prevent another outbreak. 

In the meantime Gen. Tlancoek was ordered to 
Maryland to take coninmud of the troops there, while 
the spreading disturbances alarmed the government 
at Washington, and measni-es were taken to pi-otect its 
property, should an nprisinj; occnr in the city. 

But while tJie dres wore being stamped out in Mar- 
tinsbnrg and Baltimore, the conflagration was spread- 
ing over the country, and at Pittsburg broke out with 
tenfold fury. If tliere could have been a few days' 
delay, till the result in the former places could have 
been deimiteiy ascertained, the atrikee would not hava 



AT EAILKOAD lUOTB ( 



extended aa thej did. But the first aew6 of tlio ap- 
mrii^ eecmod to run e.\(mg the great railroads' lik« nn 
efvfXni: spart. The general reduction nf wages had ai 
lingered the eniplnves ever^'wherc tliat thov were 
ready to act un the first sigual of revolt. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



TflB RilLKOA] 



BtOTB.- 



.VANIA- 



I 

I 



T^ Biot in Pittebarg.— Itn Ori^n.— The Track t>keii Pauemion of. 
— Conference between the Strikerg and tbe Sapecintendent of the 
Bond.— The Philadelphia Troopa Sent for. —Their Beoeption.— 
Attempt to Clear the Tmok.— The Figbt. — The Troope in the 
Bonnd-hoDse. ^A Fearful Siege, — Attempt to Bam them out. — 
FligbtottheSoldiecs.— The Work of Deetmction.— A Committee 
of CitizenB Attempt to Quell the Rioten. — Union Depot set OQ 
Fire. — Deatmotian of other Depots. — Extent of the Deatniotion, 
— Tramps Seize a Tr&in. —The Biot Ends. 

The very clay after the riot in BuUiinorc, &nd before 
the knowledge oE the linal result could be obtained, a 
i^ike of tbe men employed on the Penneylvania Rail- 
road took place at Pittebiirg. Tlie oBtensible cauBe of 
this was the new order of the company, which went into 
effect on that day, requiring that a double train, pro- 
vided with two engines, and consisting of tliirty-Bix cars, 
be taken out with one crew of men. They claimed that 
by this order two ordinary trains were taken out to Al- 
toona, R distance of 116 miles, instead of to Derry, 
which is forty-eight miles. Formerly a trip to Derry 
was considei-ed a day's work, while now the trip to Al- 
toona is considered a day's work. This, they eay, would 
require one crew to do the work of two, and would en- 
able the company to discharge one-half their number. 

It was owing, however, dtmbtless to tlie general dis- 



370 



THE GREAT EAILROAD RIOTS ( 



affection growing out of the reduction oE wageB from I 
former prices. The etrikei-s ran out the freight trains 
on tiie side-track, and a man, while attempting to 
eoHple care, waa severely beaten. The atrikei-s pro- 
ceeded to East Liberty, and induced the yardmen in 
the stoc!t-yard tliere to join them. They took poeses- 
sion of the main track, and stopped all freight ti-aina 
going eaat or west. A placard was posted at the depot, 
signed by the President of the Tradesmen Union, call- 
ing a meeting of t)ie train men, at Phoanix Ilall, in tlie 
evening. The Engineers' Brotherhood heid a secret 
meeting, and resolved to aland by tlie strikers. The 
latter, In the morning, after a full meeting, appointed a 
committee of five, composed of one from the conduc- 
tors, one each from etokei-e, bi-tiketnen, and tiretnen, to 
wait on Mr. Pitcairn, Superintendent of tlie Western 
Division, to demand what they had i-esolved upon the 
night before, viz., that llie classification of engineers be 
abolished, that the two per cent, reduction he restored, 
and the double ti-ain system abiindoncd. This demand 
was refused, and the officers of the company began 
to prepare for a defence of their property, aud open 
np the road. ThuB far no passenger trains had been 
stripped. 

Tlie local militia, consisting of three re^ments and i 
one Itattery, were called ont at their request, but it 
was soon evident tliat no reliance could bo placed 
on them. Aid was then sought fur elsewhere, and 
troops were sent on from Philadelphia. Tliis was the 
beginning of serious tronble. When they arrived at , 
Pittsburg, they were received with jeera and howls by ' 
the mob. But no violence was offered, and the troopa 
proceeded with a Gatling gun to the Union depoL 



RIOTS — PENNSYLV4MI2 . 



This was ou Saturday, and between throe and four 
o'clock, word being bronght that the croesing at llie 
outer depot of the Pennsylvania Railroad was blo<;ked 
by the riotera, it was decided that the sheriff sliould 
proceed thither and attempt to make arrests, and on 
his being resisted, as no one doubted he would be, he 
was to eall ou the military for help. The trcKipa set 
out, and a litlle before live reaehed the Twenty -eighth 
Street ci-ossing, which tliey found packed witli a nmb 
that refused to leave. Tlie Black IlusBars were then 
ordered to clear the way, but the crowd stubbornly 
held its ground. Another company was then sent to 
their aid, and advanced with fixed bayonets. The 
crowd in the meantime had armed themeolvea with 
stones, sticks, and everytliing they could lay hands on, 
which they suddenly hurled full in the faces of the 
soldiers. Unable to make headway against this pelt- 
ing atorm, some eay the order to fire was given, and 
others that the soldiei-s fired without order— it mat- 
ter little which. Enraged at the gudden and rajiid 
fire that followed, and which mowed down nearly 
twenty of their number, the rioters turned and fled 
in affright toward Eaat Liberty, when the military 
took posaession of the ci-raaing. This unexpected 
slaughter caused intense excitement, sonio asserting 
that the soldiers tired before any resistance was made, 
so that many of those killed and wounded were mere 
Bpectatoj'8, and among these a little girl only four years 
old. The news, distorted and exaggerated, spread 
on every side, and brought together working men, 
tramps, and miners from every quarter, who filled the 
city with uproar. The immense throng divided, and 
began to roam the streets in search of arms or J 



372 THK GREAT KAILROAD KIOT8 Olf ISTI. 

plunder. Threats of the direst vengeance were iiUerMl 
a^iost the military. The city was dow yirtiially in the 
hands of the mob, and the inhabitants became filled 
with terror. Johnaon's gun factory, on Biuithfield 
Street, was sacked, and the guns distributed among the 
crowd. Brown's larger establishment on Wood Street 
was also gutted, and the rioters, only a small portion i 
of whom were railroad men, mart^hed 3,000 strong ] 
down Fiflh Avenue, with drums beating and flags fly- I 
ing, and shouting cnrses on the troops and General I 
Pearson, who commanded tliem. In tlio meantime tho I 
troops had withdrawn into the i-ound-iionsc for better I 
protectioiL This was a sad mistake, for it was a coiifefi- 
sionof weakness or timidity. With a single (ifttliuggun I 
ftt their head, they uould have cleared every street ial 
the city in two hours. As soon as this movement waa J 
reported, the mob took uoui-age and swarmed tiimultii-r 
oiisly annmd the buildiug, bringing with them the! 
guns belonging to the Hutchinson battery, which the^l 
bad captured. These, as the papers stated, were ler-l 
elled at tho house, and soon the boom of cann<in shookl 
the city. A breat^i was made in the walls, throng I 
which some of tltc most desperate rioters endeavored to 1 
rush, Tho soldiers were then ottlored to lire, and » 
volley was poured into the crowd, which drove tfaecn 
hack. At this crisis some ime shouted that the troops 
were bringing tlieir Gatling gun to liejir on them. The 
mere mention of this ten-ible arm so terrified Uiem thftt 
they turned and fled in the wildest confusion, and did 
not stop tin they put two or three S4]uares between J 
them and the dreaded danger. | 

Li contradiction to this rcpf>rt it is proper to give, 1 
what is entitled to more credit and should be received 



THE RAILROAD B10T8 — PENNSYLVANIA, 873 

perhaps ag the correct account of the matter, the fol- 
ic wing etateinent of Captain Brett, of this same Hut- 
chiuHou Battery, which of course Bupposea tliat ha was 
in the round-house with tite Fhiladelphia troops, or 
obtained his information from them. lie sajs : 



" After the retreat into the ronnd-honae the gnarda 
were mounted, and a most vigilant watch kept on all 
avenues of approach. Seveml times during the 
night attacks were made and were qnickly repnlaed 
by the sentries alone. No general firing was permitted 
at any time, and not a shot was Jircd from the much 
dreaded Gatling euns either oti Saturday or Satoi-day 
night. They with two guns of my battery shotted 
with canister were kept ready for a grand attack onr 
spy i-epoi'ted was to lie made, but, it is needless to say, 
never was made. 

" The only deftionati-ation worth mentioning was when 
the mob placed one of the guns stolen from my 
armory in poeition on Liberty Street, and endeavored 
to fire it. They speedily retired when opened on with 
sixty-five muskets, leaving several dead and wounded 
on the ground. They were allowed to remftve all the 
dead and wounded except tyo dead men who lay in 
such position that under cover of removing them they 
might have fired the gun. Every man who approached 
that gun was warned |)y the seutries to keep away, and 
no one was shot at who heeded the warning. At every 
point where attacks were made warning to keep away 
Was given before firing. 

" The stories about the round-house being bombarded 
are also false. Not a sJtot was fii-ed at us from a field- 
piece, nor would tiie gunnery of the mob, had thoy 
commenced firing, created the slightest excitement or 
produced the least confusion. The Philadelphia men 
are soldiers and gentlemen, and simply obeyed tlie 
orders given them, and regret very mucn that obedi- 
ence to thoH orders on Saturday caaKd ViVv: 



374 



TIIE OKEAT 



Tliey are ae steady and precise aa regalare, and I or | 
DO ofber officer c-ould ask or care to Lave a better sup- 
port. 

"The round-house was uot evacii&tcd till tlie inoii 
were suffocating from the Btnokc, and they retired hi 
most excellent order." 



I 



The snddcn retreat, however, ie not denied, anil 
hence shows what the effect would have been if the 
Gatling guns had been brought into actual requisition. 
It was now near midnight, and under cover of the 
darkne&B the rioters rallied again, and finding the Gat- 
ling gun was not brought into use, became emboldeued, 
and, returning to the round-house, resolved to bnm the ] 
soldiers out. The order was given, and soon " bnm . 
them ! burn the wretches ! " went up in one wild ebont 
to heaven. The long blockade had^filled the side- 
tracks with freight-cars fill they extended more tlian < 
two tnilcs cast from the city. Some of these w&v i 
loaded with coke, and while a part of the crcnvil 
guarded the i»nnd-house, so that the troojM could not I 
escape, another part, with flaming torches, rushed for 1 
these cars, and in a moment huge volumes of black j 
smoke rolled upwards, f > llowed by sheets of flame that 1 
illuminated tlie whole euri>:>undi;tg region. Fire-bvUa j 
wore mng, increasing the terror, and soon tlie Hrc- ] 
engines came teaiing down the street. But tlie mob j 
kept them back and tlie dames had free course. The I 
Are seemed to frenzy the mob still more, and holding I 
torches before their pallid faces, they rushed backward 1 
and forwai-d, setting fire to everything that would I 
burn. They confined tlieinselvea, however, to the I 
property of the railroad, Tlio burning cars being too I 
fn- f>vitn the round-boaae to set it on Are, some of the 1 



BI0T8 — ftnnraTLVAMiA. 375 

strikers took a car loaded with coke on the Alleghany 
Valley track and Bwltched it off on to the Pennayl- 
vania road. Tliey tlieu seized some cans of petrolenm, 
flooded the coke with it, and then set it on fire, and 
shoved the car against the round-hoBBe. The troops 
now thought they would have to fight their way 
throngh the crowd. But the building did not easily 
ignite, when other flaming ears were run down against 
it. Morning liad now dawned, and whether the mob 
was seized with foar lest the Gatling gun should be 
turned on them, or moved by some other cause, they 
suddenly tnrned and fled. The soldiers who, if tltey 
had remained nuich longer, would have beeu roasted 
alive, took advantage of this lull in the Btorm to 
estajje. Filing out of the buihling, they formed into 
line, and marching up Thirty-third Street turned into 
Pennsylvania Avenne and thence into Butler Street, 
where stood tlie Arsenal, hoping to obtain shelter 
there. In the meantime the news of their flight had ■ 
spread among the rioters, and a thousand or more of 
tlmni,fullj' armed, started in swift pui-suit. Some of 
the soldiers turned and fired, tint this only infuriated 
the mob, and they pressed forward more fiercely, and 
Boon a soldier fell on the pavement, shot through tlie 
body. Arriving at ihe Arsenal the troops asked to bo 
admitted, but tiie commandant refused. Baying he had 
only ten men to guard it, and they would be powerless 
to hold it should the mob attack it. He however, took 
in the wounded while the troops fled on up the street, 
pi'essed savagely by the mob, which kept np a con- 
stant fusillade upon them. The firing was kept up for 
a mile, when two more soldiers were killed and left 
oa the sidewalk. The column contiiiued on until Ihey 



TFTE GREAT RAILROAD RIOTS OF ISTT. 



got over to the north side of the Allcghnny Rivef^j 
which tbey croesed by the Sharpsbiii^ bridge, wbea I 
they euattei-ed, and the mob broke tip mid dieappefii'ed.X 

While one mob was thni cliaaitig the notdier^ <><it c 
the city tlie other that remained behind continued tht 
work of deBtructioti, and the uity was in a slate o£ i 
aruhy. The multitude, drunk with paasion, and mad* 
dened by tho sight of tlie roaring flameB they had kin- 
dled, and wliich seemed to threaten the entire de- 
Etniction of that part of the ctty, continued to ewell 
the confl^ratiun by new iires. Tlio enu, which now 
had begun to mount the eiimmer heavena, wna obliter- 
ated by the hnge voliiinea of black smoke that rolled 
up the sky. TIte crackling of the flames nwe over the 
maddened shouts of the multitude that now continued 
the work of deatrnction without fear or hindrauoe. It 
waa Sabbath morning, but it had dawned more like 
the last day of time than tlie Ohristinu's day irf i 
•By seven o'clock theiiiirnes had attended from Mclvilld 
station to Twentieth ytrcet, and long linos of oara, bnfll 
dreds in uuniber, were repi-esented by long line 
tire, while the extensive nioehine shopti of the < 
pany, blacksmith aboiis, the depot and otHcea of t 
United States Transfer Company, two ronud-houM 
and various other buildings, wei-e »et mi tire i 
lowered in dames over tho flaming cars bolow. ( 
hundred and twenty-five first-clase louomotivoa in t 
two round -iiouses Were totally deatroyed. The i 
on Liberty Street, along the line of which the railr 
track rune, waa a strange, bewildering one. Men i 
sledges were breaking open cars loa<lei:l with inerchi 
dise, around which crowded woman and uUildrt 

to get each his share of plunder. Ooodi ) 



THE BAILHOAD HIOT8 — PKWNBYLVASIA. 



377 



pitched into the street, which was literally blocked by 
the plunder tossed into it. Even wagons and carts 
were dris'eii up and loaded with gooda. It was a eccne 
of confuBion and terror indeecriliable, and yet Boine 
of the exhibitions of greed were IndicroiiB, notwith- 
Btanding the tragedy that accompanied them. Here, a 
brawny woman conld be seen hurrying away with pairs 
of white kid slippera nnder her arm. Anotlier carry- 
ing an infant would be rolling a barrel of''flour along 
the sidewalk, using her feet aa the propelling power. 
Here a man would be seen piisiiing a wheelbarrow 
loaded with white lea<l. Hoys hurried through the 
crowd with large family Bibles as their share of the 
plunder, while ecoi-es of women utilized aprons and 
dresses to carry flour, eggs, dry gooda, etc. Handles 
of umbrellas, fancy parasols, hams, bacon, leaf lard, 
calico, blankets, laces, and flour, were mixed together 
in the arms of n>bu9t men. or carried on hastily coii- 
Etr noted hand -bar rowfl. 

The mayor with the police attempted to atop the 
pillage, but lie could not stop the work of desti'uctiou 
that went on. It was evident that a large portion of 
the citizetis were avereo to the presence of tiie troops, 
thinking that it incensed the strikers, while they be- 
lieved the men could be conti-olled by reasi^n and for- 
bearance. But now that the ti-oops were gone, chased 
out of the city by a mob that shot them down as they 
fled, and liavoc and destruction wore abroad in tlieir 
midst, they began to see what an incarnation of every- 
thing flendish, a lawlegii, maddened mob was. About 
eleven o'clock a meeting of tlie citizens was called at 
the City Hall, to see what was to be done. A com- 
mittee wu appointsd to wait on the rioters, and pM^ 



378 TUB GKEAT EATLKOAD KI0T8 OF IStTT. 

enade them to desist from the work of destractioii. 
On this comniittee of five was Bishop Tw-if;g8, of the 
Botnan Catholic Church, and Rev. Doc^tor Scovel, 
paBtor of the Pi-esbyterian churuh. It was thunght 
that so many of the riotere being Roman Catholics the 
presence of the priest would awe them into subinia- 
Bion. Bnt mayor and priest were alike insulted, and 
narrowly escaped personal violence. It was the Sab- 
bath day, Mid these peaceful servants of the Loi'd could 
not fail, it was thought, to have a gfH»d effect. They 
had yet to learn, what all history has taught, that 
mobs once entered on tlie work (if destruction are as un- 
tamable as a wild beast. Tlic only committees that 
can intlnenee them are tlie close antl deadly volleys. 
They want Ijullets, not sormous. The raili'oad authori- 
ties had fled, lest their presence should rouse the rioters 
to fresh deeds of blood, and the wild work went on 
unhindered, aud authorities and people stood and look- 
ed on in Btill terror. The church- bells pealed on over 
the wild chaos, hut tliere were few worshippers in the 
sanctuary. Only a small part of the riotei-s were rail- 
road men. Most of the leadere in this wanton do- 
strnction of pi'operty had no complaints against the 
company — they were chieSy of the class to be found 
in all cities, who are always ripe for violence and 
rapine — fond of them for their own sake. There 
were also a great many spectators, the hillsides south 
of the railroad being covered with them as they looked 
on the wide-spread conflagration in silent astonish- 
ment. There, too, stood the lii-emen, but they were not 
allowed to move a finger towards putting out the fire. 
Had they attempted it thei r engines would have shared 
the general destruction. The Union depot had thus 



I 



THE RAILROAD R!0T8 — PENNSYLVANIA. 



379 



far escaped, and it was thought the pasaions of the 
mub would be appeased without adding this structure 
to the general ruin. But the wilder the destruction 
the more insatiate eectned the mob, and about half- 
past three a bnrniiig car was run down the grade 
under the sheds near it, and soon the vast mass of 
lumber that composed thom was a sea of roaiing flame. 
Having stai-ted this new euuflagi'atioD, the rioters 
tuiTied tu the freight depot of the Pittsburg, Cincin- 
nati, and St. Louia Railroad close by. This they first 
gutted, breaking open boxes and barrels, and carried 
off their contents. Men staggered away, loaded witli 
hams, Hour, and plunder of all sorts. 

They then applied the torch to it, and the Union 
depot blazed up while the Jireinen looked on, afraid to 
interfere. It was a fearful spectacle. The Union 
depot was a large four-story building of brick and 
stone. It had a frimtage on Liberty Street of abont 
seventy feet and extended back about 200 feet. The low- 
er floor was used as a waiting-i-oom, ticket-offices and tlie 
company's oSicea. The upper floor was occupied by 
the Keystone Hotel Coinpany, and was one of the l>est 
houses in the city. Tiie whole building was of mod- 
ern style of architecture, and was considered one of tlio 
beat arranged depots in the country. It was finished 
about seven years ago. In the rear of the depot, and 
extending back 500 feet, wore linea of neat pine sheda 
covering diffei-ent tmcks to protect passengers from the 
weather. It was under these the burning car was nm. 
The depot is flanked by a high hill. In front, and 
acriiea tJie street, stood huge grain wareliouses, and 
across the street on the right were numbers of small 
stores and aliops. At the rear of the building platforms 



8S0 



THE OBKAT HACLKOAD BIOTS OF I 



and tracks were laid for the nse of the several railroadi 
lines interested in (lie depot. The yard was not inuloeed, 1 
but long, narrow shedfl mvered the tracks. Connecting ] 
traeks were laid on both sides of the depot to tJie gr&in 
warehouse across the street and to the outer de[>ot of ] 
the Pittabnrg, Fort Wayne and Chicago road in Alio* 4 
ghony City. 

The freight depot of the Pittabnrgh and St. Louia I 
Railroad wag a large shed, built fronting on GranclJ 
Street, and extending from Washington Street to Sev-1 
enth Avenne, The company's general offices were in » " 
fonr-story brick buihiing fronting on Seventh Avenue. 
These buildings wei-e totally desti-oyed, as was also the 
depot of the Adania Express Coinpanj-, located on 
Grand Street. The b<M>ks and valuable papers had J 
been removed fi-oin the Union offices, as well as frotil J 
the outer buildings, before the lire reached them. ' 

The last to fojlow in this wide-sweeping uonHagra- 
tion was the Pan Handle depot. It now seemed as if 
tlie city itself would take lire, and a panic seized the 
eitizpiie, Tlie ruin, however, was C(nitined cliicHy to 
the railroad property. When this laat building was 
fired, the whole territory between Seventh Avenue and I 
Mill Vale Station, a distance of three miles, was a maea J 
of flames, the railway company's property being all 1 
between the south side of Liberty and the Bluff Uill, I 
exr^ndiiig fmrn Seventh Avenue to Hill Vale. 

The railroad buildings destroyed hero were two 
round-honecfl, one machine-shop, Superintendent's ofliee, ,J 
car repair-shop, blacksrnith^hop, three or fonr oU j 
housee, ihc Union Transfer Depot and officer, the Pull- i 
man Car Company's laundry and offices, diBpatdier*! 1 
offlee, povder-houae, the Union Depot Hotel, the Pmi J 



THE RAILROAD RIOTS PENMBTLTANIA. 381 

Handle Railroad engine-houBe, general offices and 
freight depot, and tlie freight depot of the Adams Ex- 
press Company. 

The country now became tlioroiighly aronsed, and no 
one knew where the tronble would end. It was spread- 
ing like an insurrection, and repoi-ts of strikes on the 
following roads were received : Baltimore and Ohio, 
Pennsylvania Central, Erie, Lake Shore and Michigan 
Bouthem, Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago, Pitts- 
burg, Cincinnati and St. Louis, Vandalia, Ohio and 
Mississippi, Cleveland, Coliimbna, Cincinnati and In- 
dianapolis, Fhiladelpliia and Heading, Philadelphia 
and Erie, Erie and Pittsburg, Chicago, Alton and St. 
Louie, Canada Southern, and some minor roads. 

Governor Hartranft called on the President for aid, 
and the latter promised it and issued his proclamation 
to the people of Pennsylvania. General Hancock was 
put In command of tlie troops of the State, and Gene- 
ral Sherman, who was in the West, was sent for. The 
various garrisons along the coast were heavily drawn 
on for regular troops, which alone could be relied on in 
any such crisis as Iiad just happened in Pittsburg. The 
mayor of the city called on the citizens to enroll them- 
selves for self -protection, and soon more than a thou- 
Band men were enrolled and marched, armed, threngh 
the city. The Philadelphia regiment that had beeTi so 
badly liandled was encamped ten miles out of the city 
on a hill. Fifty mounted policemen patrolled the city 
^ as also the troops, composed of the Duquesne Grays, 
the Nijieteenth Regiment, together with some veterans, 
and a battery, and it was evident the riot was over. 
The mayor and citizens had waked up to the danger 
after the mischief was done. 



TEE OBEAT 1 



It WM confidently thought that the rioters wers* 
awed into qnietncBs by the display of force; bnt thO'l 
fact was they had iiotliiiig more to do. They had i 
accompli si led tlieir work, whith ivas the deatriietion of 
the railroad property in the place. Tliey declared 
'they had no intention of doing aiiytliing else, and now 
tliere was in reality no fear, except from small bands of < 
plnnderere. They could survey at leisure iheir work 
in the charred and blackened ruins around. The 
survey was not a& sattBfactory as they had anticipated 
in their mad frenzy, especially as they began to com- 
prehend that tliey must await the slower action of the 
police and courts of justice. 

Some strikes occurred in a few of the factories, and 
more or less anxiety waa exhibited. People wishiiif; 
to leave the place dare not, fearing their progress 
might be ariested ut any point. On tlio night of the 
23d the mayor received a dispatch stating that a lot of I 
thieves and tramps from Baltimore had taken poasea- I 
sion of a train ou the Baltimore and Ohio liuili'oad, 
and were rnnning it into the city. lie imn)ediat«ly 
afiscmhled a police force, and marching to the station, 
received them as they entered it, and relieving them of 
their arms, locked them np. Bnt the city, on 

. quiet, and the inhabitants had time to I 



whole, ' 
I'Cfkon 11 



of 1 



of dollars the city I 



would liavo to pay for that Sabbath's wild work. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



THB BAILROAD RIOT — PKNNsrLVANlA, 



The Beginnliig of the Hurrisbaq; Distarbvtoe. — Qaicfaly Quelled. 

The news of the riot qniukly reached Ilapneburg, 
and the next day things wore an ominous Wb in the 
streets of the eity. At the depot, foot of Market 
Street, a vast crowd assembled aud threatened the 
property of tlie railroad company. 

They were not held in check throngh foar of the 
authorities, but of the 2,000 ti-oopa wliich, in view of 
the fhi-eatening aspect of affaire throughout the State, 
had assemliied at the State Ai-acnal under General 
Siegfried, and who had put the huitdiiig in a state of 
defence, with (.Jailing giiiis to protect it. A meeting of 
the strikere was held in West ITarrisbui^, aud a i-eso- 
lution passed i^efjuiriiig the i-oad to return to the wages of 
1.S71, or twenty per cent, more than was now paid. All 
business was suspended at both the Pennsylvania and 
Keading depots, and everything waa plainly preparing 
fur an outbreak. A nnmber of Eoliiiere, on their re- 
turn from Altoona, where they had been sent to pi'O- 
tect the railroad, were pnt off the train about five milea 
from the city, and after wandering into the suburbs, 
were captured by the strikere, who took their guna and 
ftiMmnnitiun from tliom. A meeting wae held in one 
of the round-houses, where incendiary speeches were 



384 



THE GREAT KAILEOAD JUOIB UF 1«7. 



made. Among them appeared the mayor, PattersonJ 
who persuaded them to give up their guns, he prom 
hig tliey should not be used against tliem. 

Intense excitement pi'evailed, and the arrival of e 
diers to keep the peace exasperated them still i 
At about one o'clock in the morning, a mob made i 
indiscriminate attack on the stores at tlie foot of ! 
ket Street, near the depot. Everj store that was e 
posed to contain guns was gutted, and the mob pre 
ceeded to arm it«elf. A proposition from one of t' 
leaders to burn the Telegraph printing-office was met 
with demoniac yells, and they proceeded to accompUol 
their purpose. In the meantime Sheriff Jennings sum 
inoned a posse of 500 citizens, armed them with revtd 
vers and gnarded the Telegraph building, The firfl 
alarm was struck, and the hreinen as they respondet 
wore given places in the ranks of the sheriffs ] 
and their apparatus taken back to tlie houses. Shortly 
after 12 o'clock the sheriff oi'dered a move on 1 
strikers, who were massed at Fourth and Market Streets 
Tlio mob fell back, bnt not before two rioters v 
gnns in tbeir hands were captured. The posse i 
vanced as far as the railroad track, the mob meanwhjld 
fleeing across the canal bridge. The mayor attemptodl 
to pi-event them from breaking into the gim sbope 
when a rioter pointed a gun at liie head and Bna])p6d] 
it. The citizens at once organized a Vigilance CoioJ 
niittee loguai'd the principal buildings. 

The sheriff addressed tho mub, and ordered tliem t 
disperse, lie was hooted and jeered, and one Etrikei 
attempted to strike him. lie was immediately ar-1 
rested, and when his comrades ads'anced to rescue hlni^ll 
they were met by the muzzles of tlie rovulvors of t 



THE RAILROAJ) HIOT — PEN7J8VLVANIA. 



385 



police and fell back. The citizens' Vigilance Com- 
mittee acted promptly, and kept so completely the 
upper hand that the mob was cowed, and the riot waa 
qnelled without the shedding of blood. 



CHAPTER XXVU. 

THE BATLROAD RIOT — PENNSYLVANIA. 

The Riot in Readii^.—BloodyWork— First Outbreak.— Burning of J 
Lebanon Valle; litidge. — Thu Coal and Iron Police. — Anival of 1 
the Militin, — Blank CurtridfroB-— Point- blank Firing. — Cowardly 1 
Troapa. — Killed and Wounded. — Internal Commerce Stopped, 
aud Famine Thrsutencd. i 



Rbadinu Biip[>leineiited ihe wild work of the SaU- I 
bath day at Pittsijiirjj. The terrible news that almost I 
inoincnUrily kept arriving created tlie most intense] 
excitement, aiid groups of ihcd iu earnest conversation, . 
and with agitated coiiiiteiiaiicea wei-e gathered around I 
the depot and on street cornere. At the outer depot, I 
the crowd which had assembled greeted the passenger i 
ErainB arriving after ten o'clock with siionta and yells. I 
Several hundred pereouB started for the Lebanon Val- ■ 
ley Railroad tracka, west of the dui>ot, and were quick- j 
ly followed by the remainder of tlie crowd. The od-l 
vance portion broke open a tool-house, seized the crow-l 
bars, picks, and sledges, and ctmimenced tearing i 
and blockading the tracks. Rails and sills were car>a 
ried upon the tracks. Meanwhile two locomotivesT 
were cut loose from tlicir i-espective trains, having! 
come from Philadelphia and Allentown, and raaM 
towards the obstruction. The engineers were motioned] 
back, and were greeted with volloys of stones, Thi 



THE RAILBO&D HIOT — PENNSTl.VANIA. 387 

head-light of one locomotive was knocked to pieces, 
and the wiiidowe of tlie cabin wore hi'okcn. The other 
locomotive was also damaged. Both were mn back, 
the engineer of tiie hind locomotive discharging two 
chanibere of a revolver as he pushed through the 
crowd. 

Two cabooBee were fired, and the firemen who catne 
to the rescue were prevented from extinguieliing the 
flames. The tracks wei-e also blocked, and later a 
freight train was set on fire, and five cars burned, 
while the crowd increased to thousands. "At 13 
o'clock, midnight, the Lebanon Vulley Bridge, one 
of the finest in the State, was set on th'e. Tbe fire was 
kindled at the western end of the bridge, near tbe 
watcli-tower. A portion of tin was removed from the 
roof, and cotton waste, satnratcd with oil, was dropped 
down among the netwoi'k of timbers. The fire at first 
bonied slowly, and it was tbree-qiiartei's of an hour 
after the fire had been kindled before an alarm of fire 
was sonnded. After the fire had gained iieadway the 
flames spread rapidly across the bridge nntil the entire 
structure was enveloped in flaniea. The siglit of the 
burning bridge was witnessed by thousands of citi- 
zens, many of whom were on the Ilarrisbnrg bridgo, 
Tbe fire companies, as they rejKu'led at the scene of 
the tire, were prevented from throwing water npon the 
bridge. Tbe police were greatly outinimbered by tbe 
sympathizers witli this inox'ement, who lined both banks 
of the Schnykill. The immense timbers of the bridge 
were licked up by the devouring element, and the en- 
tire burning mass presented a magnificent sight, one 
long to be remembered. Showers of sparks ascended 
from the fire, which swept fram one end of the bridge 



S&8 



THS GKBAT BArLROAD HtOTS OF 1871. 



til the other, and the work of destmetion was complete: 
At 1.35 A.M. the sp&im fell into the river, the western 
Epaii slartin^ fii-et, and taking all tho otheiv with it in 
qiiitsk succu^sioii. The bridge whs erected in ISStl 
and iB said to have coet |150,0OU. The piers were lefl 
standing.*' H 

Thu ue.vt morning the excited crowds thronged ihJB 
Btiepta, uttering the old Paris cry, when tlie mofl 
marched on Vei-eailleg: "Bread! bread!" lu thfl 
former case the cry was aiucere, for tho people weffl 
starving, but here it was the merest fai'ce — there wiH 
no want of food, and many of those who uttered thfl 
nrv tlie londcst had been spending enough for whisk^H 
for the last two or tlu-ee days to keep their families t^| 
bread a month. Altout mion siimc 500 txivgregaia^^ 
at the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad depot, anfl 
took poBBcesIon of it. The passenger train from Pott^| 
ville for Philadelphia was halted, but after a aho^| 
delay was allowed to proceed. A coal train, howeve^| 
was Btupi^>ed, and ihe engineer stoned from the engiii^| 
Chief of Police Culleti read tlie Riot Act to the crow^| 
and when he finished (hey showed their respect for ^M 
by howls of derieioii. As the afterntxm wore away, tl^| 
crowd became more excited, and it was evident it w^| 
lashing itaelf into fury. Their piisBions were excito^| 
Btill more when the 6 o'clock train came tliunderiiig i^M 
to the depot, and a Ixtdy of the Coal and Iroo Pnlic^| 
Btepjied out on the trai-k. Though few in number thetfl 
charged on the crowd and dmve them back, till, beotanfl 
ing completely surrounded, iJiey were forced to bc*t^ 
retreat. Ad hour later another body of Coid and InNfl 
Police arrived from Potteville, when the two toa^| 
ixisition in one of rhe ctir-shopa and awaited the oonnfl 



THB BAILBOAD ElOT — PKNK8YI,VANIA. 



f evente. A half an hour later, tlie Eaaton Grays and 

two companies from Allentnwn arrived, and furming 
at once at the depot, with colors tlying and drums 
beating, marched to the " Cut," as it was called, aitnated 
near Perm and Seventh Streets. Here was a train which 
the strikers had captured, and were determined to hold 
against all comers. The Cut for more than thirty rods 
from Penn Street was filled with rioters, while a dense 
crowd occupied hoth sides. As the soldiers approached, 
the mob began to yell and throw stones and pieces of 
coal at them. These falling in a shower bruised and 
maddened the troops, and at last they fired, but over 
the heads of the crowd. But they found, for the one 
bondredth time, that blank cartridges are wor^e than 
nseless. The rioters greeted the harmless discharge 
with derisive laughter, and ponred in a still heavier 
shower of stones and coal, and 8tnbboi-n!y held their 
ground. The order to fire point-blank was now given, 
and a volley was delivered into the very midst of the 
crowd. Tliey seeing a number reeling and falling 
around them, immediately turned, and with wild 
shouts rushed from the Cut. The sight of blood seemed 
to craiie them. How many of their comrades lay dying 
or dead in that cut they could not tell, and they ran 
through the sti-eets crying, " Bix»od 1 hijKid ! Murder ! 
Vengeance ! " and as one after another dead or wounded 
man was carried out the most frantic cries and yells rent 
the air. In half an hour after, everythingseemed quiet, 
but another half hour had scarcely elapsed before a 
crowd of half-drunken men and boys filled Penn Street, 
and breaking int^i the armory, seized alxint forty rifles, 
and declared they would clean out the murderers. 
They did not attempt, however, to carry out their 



:■ SAILBOAD Hicre OF IBTT. 



threat, and by midnigiit comparative quiet reigned, j 
though here and there a body of angry strikers could 
be met pai-adiiig the streets and tearing up portions of 
tiaeks. The next day part of ttie Sixteenth Ee^inent, 
National Gnard, and the Easton GmyB of the Eighth 
Regiment arrived and marched down Penn Street, 
followed by a hooting crowd, who assailed them with 
the most opprobrious epithets, while they pelted the 
Eaflton Grays witli stonea. Kuraged at this treatment, 
the latter wanted to fire on their assailante, but the 
Norristown company threatened, if they did. to fire on 
them. Not long after, the Norristown company haself 
stacked their arms and refused to act against the mob. 
The State militia could not be relied on, that wag 
plain, and they were ordered away. But at eveningfj 
600 regnlara — ^First Artillery — arrived under General 
Hamilton, bringing with them their camp eqiiipa^^ 
and a large amount of ammunition, showing that they 
meant to stay and see the matter out. Their aternr 
appearance and measured tread told tlie i-ioters that if' 
they attempted any more violence they would havai 
different men to deaf with than the poltroons of a few' 
hours before, and the city at once became as quiet tts 
on a Sunday, 

It was said that ten were killed and over fortj 
wounded in the night's engagement, besides some 
twenty Bcldiora wounded. A special police force wi 
Bwoni in, and steps were taken to insure fntnre peaoo,! 
The mob still retained possession of the road. Th« 
tracks had been torn up for some distance, and mail 
communication was kept up by a transfer of mail 
matter to pony express at a point below the city. A 
freight-car loaded with tobacco was rifled of its con- 



1 



TUB RAILBOAO BIOT — PlCNNaLVV&NI&. 



391 



teDte. A large qnantity of rifles and amimmition, 
whifh had l>een stored away by Uie rioters, was cap- 
tured by the police. 

Although the strikes kept extending, and it was 
plain that the local militia could not be depended 
upon, and no one knew what new complications might 
arise, or where the trouble would end, yet the prompt, 
decisive manner in which the rioters had been put 
down in their first attempts, gave evidence that the 
authorities would be equally successful at every point. 
The example of the first euecess of the rioters had 
encoui-aged the genej-al uprising, so now their faihii-e 
would naturally have a corresponding effect. BesidcB, 
the general government was firm, and the press to a 
man advocated vigorous, ptx)mpt action. Even those 
who sympathized with the laborera on the railroads, and 
thought they had been niijnstly treated, felt it was no 
time to express that sympathy. Law must firat be 
vindicated and anarchy cease bofoi-e they would con- 
sent to consider the case at all. But though the riots 
were suppressed, a great evil was imminent, nay, was 
already present. If order was restored in one place, 
the trains were obstructed at so many different points 
that through trains to the east could nut be run. It is 
true, mail trains were not stopped, but the companies 
refused to run any trains unless a safe pasa^e was 
guaranteed to all. If llm government protected its own 
mails, it must pi-oteet the road th* carried tliem. Be- 
sides this, all inteiiial commerce was stopped between 
the great "West and our seaboard. Nearly all the meat 
and flour that feed our large cities comes from the West, 
and this was suddenly stopped on the way. The great 
thoroughfares must not only be claai-ed up, but 



392 THE GREAT RilLHOAD EIOTB OF ISH. 

speedily, or & eort of faTiiiue would provaiL There- 
fore 110 delay must be allowed, and troope were accord- 
ingly hun-ied to ihe threateiiod points with all (tossible 
Bpeed, and in tbe middle of the week the foUowiugJ 
BUiiimed up tlie alarming situation : I 

No thraugli freight is arriviug at New Tork, Phila- 
delphia, Boston, or Baltimore. 

On the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, where the 
strike began, the blockade continues at Cumberland, 
Keysers, and Grafton, 

On the Fennaylvauia Central the blockade is com- 



On the Lake Sli' •: no trains are running. Nil 
trains leave Cleveland or To!e<lo, 

On the Erie n'-. " the blockade at IlornclUville is 
perfect, way trains only running on the brancbee. 

On the Centi-al and Iludsou trains are running to 
Buffalo, but a strike is cxjiected. 

On the Ohio and Mississippi tlie road is blockaded 
at Vinceunes. 

The Central Pac^ihe, Union Pacific, Lonisrillo and) 
Lexington, Cincinnati and Muskingum, St. Loiiia, Iron* 
Mountain and Southern, St. Louie, Kansas City and' 
Northern have acceded to the demafldsof the strikers. 

Tn alter this state of things, and reopen trafBo, 1 
following dispatch shows what vigorous steps the g 
era! government were taking indejwndent of the effor 
put fortli by the scpamte Stales and lix;al nnthoritles. 1 

Washisoton, Jnly 23d. — In the War Dcjmitnioi 
this morning there was a scone of uuiuiual activity, i 
numerous dispatches were nnder transmission he'iw 



'^ 




n 



TEE RAILSOAD BIOT — PENNSYLVANIA. 



the department and Tarious military commandere, eepe- 
cially General Pope, commanding tlic Depaitnient of 
the Mieeouri, and General Haiicoi^k, commanding the 
Military Division of tlie Atlantic, in regard to the 
movements of troops for the jirotection of public prop- 
erty. Adjutant-General Towiisend, with a corpe of 
asBiBtants, was at the department tlironghout tlie night, 
bnt all the ofiitiera are very reticent as to the plans and 
course of the authorities. The Pi-esideiit, accompanied 
by his son, Webb Hayes, visited both the War and 
^avy departments this afternoon. The President was 
in (tonsultation with Secretariea McCrary and Thomp- 
son. 

General Hancock has been ordered to asetime per- 
Bonal command of the troops in Pennsylvania, and 
General Sehofield, who arrived here this morning and 
called on the President, ha^ been requested to pi'oceed 
to Philadelphia to wuifer with General Hancoclc. 

The United States sleamer Swatara arrived here this 
morning from Norfolk witli one hundred and fifty-seven 
sailors and marines on board, all armed and equipped 
for active service. The Plymouth soon after arrived 
with an additional number, and the Eseex is now on 
the way to the city with about two hundred sailors and 
marines ; making a force of more than tivo hundred on 
the three vessels. The Powhatan was onginally or- 
dered here, but it was found that she drew too mnch 
water, and the Plymouth was directed to come here in 
her place. 

The force on the United States steamer Tallapoofia 
and the receiving ship Wyoming at the Navy-Yard 
here, is kept in readiness for actual service, and can be 
sent to any point nj>on brief notice. The Secretary of 
the Navy has also given orders to have the forte and 
Teeeels of the Philadelphia Navy-Vard in readiness fop 
aervice to protect public propeily in that city and aid 
the civil authorities iu the mamtenauce of law and 
order. 

Ordei-e have been issued from the War Department 



EAT KAILSOAD RKri^ ( 



directiiiff General Pope, cominiinding the Oepertment^ 
of the MisttoDri, who has bin hendqiiartei-« at Fort J 
Leavenworth, Kan., to send all the available force 
from that place to St. Louis for the protection of piil>- 
lie property tborc, and go to thai city himself if he 
deems it necessary. 

General linger, coiiiinauding the Department of t}ie 
Sonth, has been ordei'ed to send three companies otm 
infantry to Louisville, Ky., and Jetfereonville, Ind.^ 
The six companies of tho Twenty-second Infiuitry *i»l 
route from the Siou.x country to the Department of 
the Lakes have been ordered to stop at Chicajj;o and are 
now at or near tliat city. 

Orders were issued fiiim the Na\y Department to- 
day to have the various iron-clads at Washington, 
Pbiladelphia,and elsewhere prepared for eerviue irain 
diately, and engineer otHcers have been ordered to r 
port on board, to move them without delay, shoald i 
be necessary to do »>. 

Governor Van Zandt has telegraphed to the Prcei-J 
dent, giving assurance of Hhnde Island's readiness to i 
aid him in the preservation of law and order, and offer- 
ing the support of military. 

Pkovtdence, II. I., July 23d. — Troops from Fort 
Adams for Daltimoi-o started at 7 o'clock this morning 
by way of Wickford. 

PoKTLAND, Me., July 23d — ^The artillery company 
garrisoning Fort Preble started for Pittsburg tint 
morning. 

Watkbtowh, N. y., July 23d.— Battery H, Uii 
States Artillery, from Madison Darraclts, Sackett's 
Harbor, passed through this city lo-day, en mute f 
Baltimore via New York. 

FottTHEss Monroe, Va., July 23d, — General Geo. Wj 
Getty, commandant of the Artillery School, luu i 
ceived orders from General Ilam^oi-k to join him AtJ 
Baltimore and take command of tho troops on tbtti 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Captain Ward, Aid«>l 
de-Camp on General llancixik's staff who 




THE BAILBOAD BIOT- 



395 



on an inspection toar, also leaves tn-niglit for Balti- 
more. 

Boston, Mass., July 23d. — At 11 o'clock this moming 
United States troopB, consisting of Company L, First 
Artillery, twenty-nine men, Company D, First Artil- 
lery, twenty-four men, and CompantcB I and A, First 
Artillery, fifty-nine men, left bere for Baltimore, via 
tlie Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

PotroHKEKPBEE, N. Y., July 23d:— Battery F, Third 
Artillery, from Fort Ontario, passed through here to- 
night #n route to Baltimore. 

While in Maryland and in the southern portion of 
Pennsylvania, in Harriabm'g, Reading, Pittsburg, and 
Altoona the riots were suppressed, more serioua 
trouble was anticipated at Philadelphia. 



CU AFTER XXTTIT. 



; RAILBOAD Elirr. PESNBYLVASIA. 



Plin>delphla in the Biota. — TheFenrsTespcctiiigHei. — The Majot'a 
FrooiamBtiaQ.— The Mob.— Trains Stopped.— The Police. — 
Scnuiton Miners and Striken Join. — Wilkesbure. — Oovemor 
Hortisah. — EiB BueTg;, Skill, and Promptnen. — New JetMj ba 
the Strikes.- Her CoiuierTaliTe PoeitioD. 



PinLiTELPiUA being llie centre to wbidi 8o many 
i-ftilroads rnn, iniich anxiety was felt rep]»ec;tiiig u-hat 
course would be taken tliere by the eiiiplny^. That 
tlio terrible ncwB, coining in uni-h I'ajnd, etartlnig stio- 
cessiun, from Martinsbnrg, Baltiinwre, and Pitlabuj^, 
should stir the city profoundly was to be oxpeuted. 
She was surrounded by fire ; her own soldiers had been 
killed in putting donii Hots elsewhere ; and no one 
could tell how interlinked all these places were iu a 
general oonspii-acy. 

The dejrats became crowded with eager ninUitiides, 
and on the afternoon of the 22d more than 3,000 people 
assembled at the Pennsylvania depots where Colonel 
Scott and Mayor Stokely wgi-g in cf>ri8nltati«n. At tJie 
arrival of any trai[i the ci-owd would rush hither and i 
thither to obtain the news. By five o'clock (he throng 
had become so vast that Mayor Stokely calletl out ttw 
reserve police and cleared the place, aud tlien himeelf 
rode round the city to ascertain the state of thiugs, a 



THE EAILROAD EIOT — PKNN9YLVANI*. 



397 



sent a meseenger to tlie Bridesburg Arsenal to inqaire 

whiit forue tliey liad there, in casu the raob ebonld at- 
tempt to seize tlio arras. The reply came iu a request 
to have an armed tug sent iip from the navy-yard, 
whieb was done. 

At the depot in the evening Cfil. Scott received a 
difipatcb as followB : 

" Gov. Jlartranft is en route for Pennsylvania, and 
has lelegraplied aliead orderinj; out every militia regi- 
ment in the State. He has also telegraphed to the 
President of the United States calling tor troops, and 
Buggeating the propriety of a call for volunteers." 

The mayor issued the following proclamation: 

Mayoe's Office, I 
PniLADELPiiiA, July 22d. ( 
To whom it may concern : 

Whereas, violence, tumnlt and riot exist in varions 
portions of this Commonwealth, to the great injury of 
domestic industry and trade, and to the diaui'edit of 
American institutions and form of government, the 
perfection of which was last year celebrated in this the 
-ciiyiif the Republic's birth ; and 

W/iefctis, It ia of the highest importance that tlie 
great name which Philadelphia has made for hciDclf 
among the nations of the earth during the Centennial 

irear shall bo preserved, and she shall be spared the 
lorribie scenes enacted in our sister cities ; 

JVow, there/or/; I, William S, Stolcely. in the name 
of the Ooinmonwcaltli of Pennsylvania, and by virtue 
of the authority vested in me by law, do hereby ap- 
peal to all citizens of every oecupation and calling to 
render it unnecessary that in the performance of my 
duty I should be called upon to sunproaa any wntbreaK 
and violence, which 1 assuredly will do if the occasion 




39S 



THE GRFAT RAILROAD I 



requires it, and liaiid over the ofFGiidci-H to (KitidigaJ 
[iiiiiiehinotit ; and I make this appeal in the firm belief I 
that the citizens of Philadelphia appredate, as I do, the f 
■importance of maintaining peace and ffM>d will ainung 4 
all clashes of sncietv, and I hereby pledge mj'aelf to 1 
eive a patient hearing, and do impartial justice, ae If 
best know hovr, to all persons who desire it. Let all ] 
the people resnmii and continue tiieir lawful oceupa- 
tions, and avoid assembling and organizing together fur I 
disuussion, oi- otherwise, at the present time. This ia I 
the surest and best means of preserving the honor and J 
fair name of the City of Brotherly Love. 

Wm. S. S-rOKELY. 



At six o'oloek the strike began by the men in the I 
Pennsylvania depot leaving their places, and it was I 
with some difficulty an engineer could be obtained for J 
the Cinuinnali express, which was to start at 9.10. 
The tirst open i-esistanoe was exhil)ited when a loaded 
oil train, standing on the track above Callowhill Street, 
was ordered to l»e moved. Tlie slrikera interfere<^ 
when the jiolice marched up. The train men then ! 
asked that it be left to stand where it was, and tliat no j 
trains nhonld be moved that night. To this Col. Scott, 
President of the road, consented. 

The night passed without further disturbance, but 1 
tlie morning showed by the gathering crowd and seri- 
ous faces tliat the excitement and danger were not over; , 
and especially in the extensive yards of the railway ( 
company things looked ominous. But tlio polieo kept \ 
driving back the crowds a couple of blocks or more, 
tlms keeping fhcm clear. At five o'clock the police 
held all the bridgesconnecting with West Pliiladelpliia, 
and let only residents and the horse-cat^ pass. To dis- 
tract the attention of the authorities an oil train had 



THE RAILKOAI) RIOT — PKNSSVLVANIA. 



been set on fire, wlJcli deetrojed several cars on tlie 
Junction road, and two firemen were injured by theex- 
ploeion of a tank. The Btrikera held sevei-al nieetinga 
during the day, in whioli there was much excited 
epeech-making. Cot. Scott wisely prevented any vi<f- 
lence by resolving not to attempt to iDuve any froiglit 
trains over the road for the present. A committee of 
Etrikore waited on him, and requested him t<> restore the 
ten per cent, taken off the engiuettre' wages on the let 
of June, but lie firmly refused. Mayor titokely called 
a meeting of the citizens, who took steps to aid in put- 
ting down the riot should one be attempted. The 
arrival of a liandred marines, commanded by Lieut. 
Hajward, who took a position where they could swwip 
the yard if trouble occurred, had a disheartening efftxrt 
on the strikere. 

Gen. Hancock also arrived with a few rogidars and 
relieved some of the p>licenien, who had liecn 'Hi dufy 
for five successive days, not sleeping more Ihaii an 
hour eadi day during the whole time. 

By the 24ih ajipearanceB indicated that no Mrrl'iM 
dtatnrl)ancc windd take place in Philadel|>iiia, II wm 
evident that the mob elemiint of the city tbat '«fMt 
only to dealrr>y and plunder had combiner] u* rW tti« 
moment the strikfint came in open coiiDii^t wj|)i Um 
fluthuritiea. T)i« latter Ijeing prevvntwl, ilm lUmtftitn 
does kiyit qnict. Just before noon, Oil, H4v4t, ^Itnf » 
consultation with the military offlccra, t\u\hi»i\utu\ Uf 
start three freight trains and test «l 'ffiwi fbw J*wp* 
and reveal the intentions of tho *lribnn. TIm> A^M 
were started in the locumotivea, and JM l>«l( f,v>t n<it-i. 
the lirrtt tniin was sent ont, llirni^i 
misgiving ?& to its futo bvfufv i r 



THE GRKAT EAII.ROAD KIOTS OF IWJ, 



A large crowd had aeeeiubled ou tlie bluffa, at 1 
head of Thirty-sixth Street, ostensibly for tlie pnqKtee q 



plaviiig 



ball ; bill tlieir intention being 



suepect4 



Capt. Cbazt«an, with his men, was ordered to dispett 
them. Some of the raiU-oad men told them not to etij 
when the C'uptaiii addicted tlieni, telling them lie v 
acting under the order of the major, which required 
him to clear the blufis ; that he ehonld not attempt 
to make any ari-osts, but should obey that order at all 
hazards ; and they would resist him at their peril. 

Al this ^Kiiut the Captain was interrtiptcd by one of 
the railroad men. who asked him: "ilave railroad 
men no rights any more ? " T[ie Captain replied : " If 
I know anything abont President Scott he does not 
permit his eni^ineers to leave their hJconiotives on I 
track under steam and go up on high bluifB to plft^ 
baBC-ball." As the guards were well armed, i 
crowd, which numbered some four linndi'ed or five 
hundred, deemed I'eti-eat wlae, and snllcnly moved oflf. 

In the afternoon the mayor issued a proclamation 
congi-atulating the citizi^n:^ on the niaintcmmce < 
peace. lie also gave ortlers to increase the polioj 
force, temporarily, to two thousand four liiindred r 
to relieve tlie one tliousand two hundred men thut ha(I 
been on duty since Sunday. At night the striken 
endearored to bold a meeting at Kelly Hall, but a( tha 
i-e'jneflt of the mayor the hall was refused 
They then attempted to hold it on the side^valka, fc 
the police dispersed iheni. The riot whs dead in Phi 
adelphia. 

TBB RIOT AT flCEAWTOS, 

But while the State was becoming quiet in otlierM 
tions, trouble bii)ke out in her nortlit-rn bonndaty. 



i not I 
I tltt^ 

m 

fSn\ 
tion I 

m 



:AlL£eOAD RIOT — PEWNSTLTANIA. 



the very day the Mayor of Philadelphia was issuing hie 
congi'atulatory addi'ess to the citizens on the peaceful 
Btate of affairs, the employiis of tlie Lackawaniiiv and 
Iron Coal Company struck, and marching to thtr eteel 
works and machine-shops were joined by the men at 
work there. Tlie firemen of tlie Lackawanna & West- 
em Railroad Company liaving received an unfavorable 
answer to their request f<ir a restoration of tlie ten per 
cent redaction, also strnck at six o'clock. There was 
no disoi-der ; tlie engines were quietly taken from the 
ronnd-hoHse to tlie yard, the fires drawn, and tlien left 
standing in good order. At the Bame time the firemen 
in tlie employ of the Delaware & Hndson Canal Com- 
pany struck for the same reason. All the trains on the 
two roads were stopped, but the strikers telegraphed to 
the State authoi'ities that the company refused to run 
the mail, and that tliey would run it if necessary, and 
furnish a fireman and engineer. The Fourth Regiment, 
arriving at Allentown, disjiei-sed the rioters there, but 
at Easton the hands on the New Jersey Centra! quit 
work. On (he same day {the 25tli), the brakemeo on 
the Lehigh & Susquehanna Divitiion strnck, and also 
the railroad meu and miners at Wilkesbarre. 

At Scranton, on tlie 27tli, matters became very much 
complicated by the vast number of miners in that re- 
gion — an army in themselves — ^making common cause 
with the railroad men. They met in the road to the 
number of 10,000 — a host of unarmed, yet angry men. 

The answer of the President, stating that the com- 
pany could not grant the demand of twenty-five per 
cent, advance, was read amid profound silence, and 
resolutions were adopted to the eifect that the men 
would die before returning to work at wiiat they called 




402 



starvation wages. The mine ergincers and pump hsi 
struck at night. They diew die fii-oe, and tiie 
began to flood. If alloived to hetoine flooded it won! 
take a year to prepare them for work again. A iiiceU 
ing of prominent utizena wae lield at the ukII nf the 
mayor, and to meet twice daily nntil further noti' 
The citizens began to organize for protection, 

In two or tlu-ee days the railroad strike was oi 
and a large portion of the employ^ returned to their 
work, the only conditions required being that the 
leadere in the strike should not be difleharged. Tlie 
starting of the trains exasperated the striking mio- 
ere, who declared that tliey had been sold by tbe 
railroad men. They had not only made eommon 
cause with them, but, like Cortez, had burned their 
ships behind thern, fur by flooding tiie mines they 
put it out of their power to return to work for » 
long time. Attention was now tnrnod to them, 
tliuusande of tliem were on the brink of slarvatii 
yet tJiey declared tliey would hold out till wii 
unless their wages were restored, A similar stati 
things existed at Wilkesbarre and in other miniuf; 
tricts, but as these have really nothing to do with 
great railroad ntrike, they bohigof almost yearly ocv] 
rence in some part of the coal region, we shall Dot 
tempt to follow tlicm up. Governor Ilartrunft is e<jt 
to liie emergency. And here, by the way, iteliould 
retrorded tliat tiovemor Uarlranft deserves the hi 
praise for the promptness, energy, and indefiitij 
activity he has displayed in stumping out the 
of incipient revolution in Pennsylvania. Stopped 
Omaha on hU way to San Francisco by the new* of li 
riots in his State, he hurried back fast ae steam 






THE RAILROAD RIOT — PENNSYLVANIA. 



403 



carry him, and going from place to place collected, 
rnassed, and moved troops with the celerity of a vet- 
eran commander. He did not argue with the rioters ; 
ho struck first and listened afterward. With such a 
Governor Pennsj'lvaiiia maj be sure that violence can- 
not long triumph within her borders. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



THE RAILB04D EIOT — NEW JERHKT. 

New Jkbbky, though connected so intimately with 
Philadelphia and Pennajhania by railroad, ehowed 
her true spirit iu this wide-epread panic, and thos 
escaped the bloodshed tliat disfigured other States. 
There was, of conrae, great excitement among the rail- 
road men, and a general strike was expected, Hud to ft 
certain extent pi-evailed. Excited nioctings were held 
at Hoboken and elsewliere, and the demand made as io 
PeniiBjlvania for a restoration of the ten |)er cent, re- 
duction. The refusal to grant it exasperated the men, 
and some +00 or 500 engineers quit iheir work, but 
yet witliout showing any hostility to the road. They 
cleaned and fixed their engines, and quietly left 
There was an interruption of the trains at Newark and 
other places, but no violence or force used. At the 
Pennsylvania depot the men refused to strike, although J 
the same refusal to restore the wa;^ was made (ol 
them as to the others, and they in a meeting bitterlyl 
denounced the company for their unjust and euividall 
policy. In Newark a meeting was bold, in which r 
lutions were passed upholding the strikers, dennunoingl 
the railroad companies and the military, who aided 1 
them in maintaining oppression; but tbronghoat tlwl 
^t^te order was maintained, and no property d 



THI BAILBOAD EIOT — NEW JEH6EY- 



405 



The Governor iBsned a proclamation, and the military 
was held in readiness to act, but tliere is no evidence 
that fear had anything to do mth the condnct of the 
strikers. It resulted rather from Boimd calculation, 
that although their wages were too small, and the ao- 
tion of the conijianies unwise and oppressive, a strike 
would not pay, but make matters worse. They were 
very moderate in their demands, the engineers agree- 
ing to take the reduced wages if an additional fireman 
were allowed them to help them in their labors, which 
were too exacting. The strike caused heavy loes to 
many of the manufactories in Newark by loss of busi- 
nesfl, but the rights of property were respected. 



CHAPTER XXX. 



BIOTS— NBW TOaK. 



The Two GroBt Trunk BoadB.— Table ot Wag«a Given.— How to 
Decide Whnl Are Fur WagEa.~Strike at HornellBVille.— A Bold 
Engineer. — Arrest o( DoQohue. — Governor's Prod amatioo. ^Ar- 
rival q( TroopB. — The Military Powerleas.— Brookljn Tmopa. — 
Terms Agfreed On.— Stiike over the Central Road. — Striko at 
Albany, — Arrivo) of the Ninth Regiment. — Strike at Sjnciue. — 
Biotat Bnttalo.— Mr. Vanderbilt's Vienra.- The Great Heetuf 
in New Xark. 

It was iiatiiial that public attenttoo should be 
turned to the gi-eat State of New Vurk, to see what 
effeut this widespread railroad revulutlon wuiild have on 
her. With her two gieat trunk roads tapping tlie fu- 
West, and uoii centering in tlie c-oinineivtal emporiam of 
the nation, and employing, as they did, such an artn/ 
of men, it was a sorious matter whether ahe responded 
in her might to this call of the strikers, or maiatainei* 
her integrity. Perhaps, before eTitering on tlie h 
of the strike in ber iHirdci-s, it would he t>cttcr to gin 
an elaborate stateinent of the wague formerly p«[d 
and afterwards I'ediiued on theeo two great roada. 
this way the i-eader can form an intelligent opinion m 
the justice of the complaints of the employee, bel 
than by any argument. Not that it has anything t 
do with the rigiit of men U> obstruct trains — drill 
f who wish to work in their places, and n 




THE RAILBOAD BIOTB — NEW TOBE. 407 



lees to destroy property. It ia taken from the New 
York Times: 

" On the New York Central and Hndson River Rail- 
road a ten per cent, reduction was made in tlie waices 
of employees on the first of the prcaent month. The 
following table givea the former and the present wages 
on tlie road : 

Engiaeers, per da; $8 CO |3 15 

FlremeE, par day 1 75 158 

BrakBinen, per day 1 75 1 58 

Switchmen, per mobtb 40 86 

Yard haudii per montb 40 to fSS 80 to $49 00 

Sbop hiuida, per month 45 to 125 83 SO to |L12 00 

" On account of the evenness of the grade on thia 
road, a run of 100 miles constitutes a day's work for 
engineers on all sections of the line. But, whether 
the engineers run 100 miles or but 10, they get $3 15 
a day. For all miles run in a day over 100, thev get 
at the rate of 3.15 cents per mile ; and every engineer 
on the road who wishes gets 150 miles a day, twenty- 
six dnys ont of the montn, thns earning $4 72 a day, 
or $122 85 a mouth, if they take all their Sundays oS. 
Under the old rate engineers got $3 50 a day, at the 
same rate for extra mileage, and J13G 50 a month. 
Contrary to general opinion, the managci-s of the New 
York and Hudson River Railroad assert that the pres- 
ent reduction ia the first one made among their em- 
ployees since war times, with the exception of a 2^ 
per cent, reduction made against tho switchmen and 
yard hands, two yeare ago. The managers also in- 
formed tlie reporter that previous to tlio war engineers 
earned only fi-om $65 to $80 per montli. and firemen, 
yard handa, and switchmen only $30 to $3S when 
roads were rough and dangerous, when machinery 
was very imperfect and hard to handle, and when 
boilers used frequently huret, and the real expenses of 
living were gi-eater than they are now. The raili'oad 



40S 



THE OEKAT KiJUWiD EIUT8 OF IBW. 



officials eeem to be of the opinion that their employeM 
aiidthe empluvees of all uorpo rat ions have no mmuep- 
tion of the dil^iculty to be found in managui*; affaire 
eo that busineBs can be rnn at all, and eiiiplo^'iueiit 
jiven iu these dull tinioH ; and insist tliat laboring men 
have had decidedly the best of the baigain for the past 
four, years. The ofliuiala think th»t the laborers should 
be kept better Infornied and elionld be advised of the 
GtilliehneBB of their conduct in Gtrikiu^ and crippliii;^ 
what little biifiinesH thero is left in the countrv, nieroljr 
because the protits on labor, which has no neks, )iap- 
pens by necoseitj to be cut down ten per cent,, while 
Its einployerB have conducted Iniainuse for a long ttine 
at a 1<JS8, without shutting off labor at all. 

" At the Erie Railroad affairs were found in an al- 
most similar condition. Although the enipli>yeea tuid 
the tionipany have of late had frequent disputes abotit 
wages, still the managers assert that the present redno- 
tiou is the first otic made on that road since the war, 
and they claim that at the reduced rates their men are 
not only the best paid of all labtners of enual skill in 
the country, hut lliat they are, considering the prices of 
living and the relative values of ihe currency now and 
then, far better pnid than they were during the fliiafa 
times of the war. The following is a table of tbe 
wages paid on the Eric now and before the reduction; 



EntnueEtK, per dny. ^4 00 f3 80 

Firemen, per day. 2 JW 2 18 

CoQdiicWra. per montb 100 00 SO 00 

Btukatneu, jiecdftj. 3U0 I 80 

Bafrfr»BB-raiuU:ra, per montb 6i> 00 40 90 

Track foreinen, per monUl GO OU 4JS 00 

Tr»ck laborerB. per day 1 85 I IH 

SwiUsiuaett. per da; 1 60 I 2i 

Laborera in yaids, per daj 1 SO 1 30 

" It should be borne in mind that these men all gist 
work at leaat twenty-six days in the mouth, and tliat 
giueera and firemen get paid pro rata for evci'jr | 




I 



) aiOTS — KEW YOBK. 



409 



extra mile they run (the number of miles making a 
day's run on this road varies on eauli section according 
to the ease or diflicnlty of the grade), and that the en- 
gineer and firemen all have an opportunity of eaniing 
a half day's extra wages every day they choose to do 
BO. Before the war men were paid ou the Erie the 
same wages as ou the New York Central." 

From thiB table of rates one may easily see how 
muult reason tliure was fur complaint, especially when 
it is considered that almost every citizen has to reduce 
his rate of living more than these workmen were called 
opon to do. The lates of wages before the war are the 
proper ones now, for the simple reason that the whole 
country has got to come down to the standard of those 
times before it can recover its prosperity. It is absurd 
to say that everything must come down but labor, for 
that also must yield to the general pi-eesure and obey 
the general law. Men may yield to it willingly, or 
not ; yield they must, or go without work. There 
must be a (.'ertain relation between labor and the 
prices its products bring in the market. If the price 
of labf^r is fair when the article it produces brings a 
high price, when the time comes that the price falls 
ten per cent., labor must fall in proportion, or the in- 
dustry cease. If men expect houses to be cheaper, the 
lab'ir must be cheaper that constructs them. If cer- 
tain manufactured articles fall in price, the labor that 
fabricates them must be cheaper also, or the manufac- 
tory must stop. This reciprocal law underhes all our 
industries. If a railroad does less freigliting busiuess, 
and at re<luced rates, the labor that moves it forward 
must come down in price also. This whole talk about 
keeping up or returning to old rates of wages, when 
IS 



410 



THK OBEAT > 



tOAD RIOTS OF ISIT. 



ruge 
[reat 
ids <^^H 



all the induBtries of the country are paralyzed, ifl the 
absiii-deat folly lliat waa ever conceived. The very 
men who insist on the old standard of labor, de?_^ 
raand that everything else should he chea[)er oi) i 
count of hai-d tiinoa. Why, the laboring men, wh 
for the last few years have had steatly employment'" 
have received more for their work than the average 
Balary of the clergy of the country ontaido of the great 
cities amounts to, and to-day there are thousands ( 
hard-laboring ministers, who have spent yeare i 
money in fitting themselves for their profeaeiot 
would be glad to accept the price for their service 
that many of those men received who strike for higher 
wages. Before the war, before evei-ything went np 
like a kite, a dollar a day was all a man asked for hi«>| 
services ; but now he feels insulted if ofiered any eud 
snm. But why should not wages come down to t 
old standard, if everything else does J It may be a 
it is hard for the poor man to be deprived of th< 
comfortaand Inxnries he has so long enjoyed. So I 
is. It IE hard also for a man lo live on an ineoiiie c 
Jl,500 a year, who has been accufltomed to live 
$3,000. It is hard for the man to find laud he [: 
$200 per acre for worth but $150 ; or for him who 
paid $10,000 for a house to soo it bring but tfi.OOO; 
or the builder to find whore he built ten houses ho now 
huiids but five; or the merchant to tind where he 6 
$100,000 worth of goods, he now sells but $50,01 
worth. All this is hard, hut it is going on all over tl 
country — nay, worse than this, men are cnnatatitly Ifl 
iiig all the earnings of yeai^^, and, at Uie end of I 
instead of finding their ineumos reduced 10 par e 
see them swept away entji-ely. Nuw, is the laborii| 




BAILBOAD HIOT8 — NEW YORK, 



411 



man not to share in theae bardebips ? Must his high 
. wages go oil just the same i They wiU not, that is 
certain, and he must submit to the change, or do far 
worse. Ill the general depression, almost paralysis of 
all the induetries and business of the country, only a 
few of enormous wealth are exempt, and they solely 
because the rednution of their incoines does not rob 
them of any of the comforts, nor even luxuries of life 
— at least none that a i-easonsble man should desire. 



THE KKIK &A1LKOAD STRIKE. 

It was natural that this great trunk road of New 
Tork State, lying as it does on the borders of Penn- 
sylvania, and oonnected with so many of its roads and 
industries, should be the first, as it was, to feel the dis- 
turbanoo that oecurTed tliei-e. Why the strike should 
counnence at Hornellsville instead of at either end ia 
not so plain, except that at the former place there 
liftppened to be more able or reckless leadere to in- 
flame the passions of the men. As early as the 20th 
of July, firemen, brakemen, and trackmen at Hornclls- 
ville had a meeting at midnight, at which tliey re- 
solved ti> strike next day, and sent a committee to Lbu 
superintendent to apprise hiui of their intentions. 
This was immediately telegraphed to headquarters at 
New York, when word was sent back along the line to 
have all trains approaching Ilornellsville stopped. It 
was not deeiralile to bring any more of the employees 
on to help swell the strike. Train men who were 
aware of what was passing in Hoi-uellsville were thus 
disappointed in getting on, though some of them 
seized hand-cars and reached it in that way. But the 
timely stopping of the trains prevented a large accu- 



I 



413 TBE GREAT RAII.BOAD BIOTS OF laTT. 

malfttion of disaffected men at thia point, u well as a 
preat jam of care. Several oorj fereno«8 were hold 
l>etween the men and two of the eiiporiiitendeulB that 
had come on. At 2 uVkick t!ie fomtiir made known 
their deraaiid, whitih was that llie pay of firemen 
fiiioiild be made the same as it was pi-eviuue to July 1, 
1877; tliat brakemeii should receive S3 a day; 
Ewitchmeii, $2 ; head awituhmeti, ^2 25 ; yard tratik- 
moii, $1 50, and section workmen, $1 40 ; that montliljF^ 
passes should be continued as before, and parses iasued] 
to trackmen and switchmen, and that no rent should'4 
be paid for company ground occupied by them, except 
acc()rding to agreemeTit. A large majority of tha 
ti'ackinen here live in hoiiees built on laud belonging 
to the company. These terms the company decline to J 
comply with. 

The passage of trains waa then at on(« Btoppe<l. 
lightning express train, however, got on by coolneaa ana 
strategy. It was stopped at Elmira by the strikei 
the cars ancoupled, and Dan Chapman, who i 
of the oldest ungineers on the road, was notified tliat 
be conld lake his cars no farther. He told them he 
should go on, and getting tlie cars coupled up, be 
started. At Glean the strikers etoppcd it again, and 
Ill-Id it thirteen hours. When it got. under way oooe 
moie, the engineer determined it sliouhl reach TIoriH 
ellsvilte without any more stoppage. lie knew, v 
he reached the freight- train a stretched along the a 
iugs, that the men, if aware of his apjinm'eh, wa 
stop the tiain, and lie directed his fireman not to r 
the bell at stations, while he refused to whistle dw 
brakes, although there were souie heavy gra«lu>{ I 
^'''- - full head of steam on, went daahingon ll 



I 



m<m — NEW YORK. 419 

the darkneas like aomo demon of the night — tlie 
thundering of the train as with ite blazing heiidlight 
it swept by, alone aunonncing ite approach and depart- 
nre. Tiie brave engineer said that he cxnild hear 
their howls of defiance and mge, over the deep rtunble 
of tlie train as he sped on. It was near midnight wlien 
in datihed into the place, the etrikers guarding the 
ewittrhes ontside made aware of its approaob only 
when thej saw tlie flaming headlight almoet upon 
them. 

In a conference held in tlie offi<:e of the railroad 
company on the 23d, Doiiaiuie, the leader of the 
Bti-ikers, asked Mr. Bowen, the general anperintendent, 
if he would reinstate the men who had been discharged. 
He replied that he certainly would not. This was at 
the cloRe of the conferen*;e in which the strikers had 
Btated llie terms on whieh they would eome back. 
That evening, while at supper in the Nicols House, the 
astonished Donahue was arrested on a warrant sworn 
out by Keceiver Jewett, and issued from the Supreme 
Court of New York by Judge Donahue, on the cliargo 
of contempt of court. The rioter forgot that the raad 
was in the hands of a receiver, and that he was resjxin- 
Bible to some one else than the officers of the company. 
lu the mean time the Governor had been called on for 
troops from tliis and various other quarters to put 
down the strikers and help to open the road. He was 
at his home in Elmiru, and hastening to Albany, sent 
the following telegram to Adjutant-General Townsend : 
" I am on my way to Albany. You will direct the 
Major-Gcneral of each division in the State to hold his 
command in readiness fur service at a moment's notice, 
subject to my order*." General Townsend immediately 



411 



THE ORE AT 



■"S 



put the telegraph itt work and soon k11 was eicitement 
aiiil l^ustle at the different armories of the State, and 
liy next day more than 3,000 men were ready to 
wherever directed. It recalled the war times of 
years ai;o. Two days after hiB arrival at Albany, Gi 
ernor Robinson issued the following proclamation, lla 
had three days before isfiued a general one from 
Elmira: 

State of New York, Exkootive Ciiaurex, ) 
Albaky, Jnly 25, 1S77. J 

t deem it my dnt}' tu invite the special attention o 
all the citizens of this State, and especially of avK* 
persona as are now attempting to interfere by nnlawT 
means with the running of i-ailway trains, to the 1 
lowing act passed by the Legislature at its last e< 

Cliaj>ter 261 — An Ad to Punish Tretjjaaifing t 

Railroads, passed. May 10, 1877. 

The people of the State of New York, repreeentl 

in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follow ' 

Skction 1. Any person who shall wilfnlly place t 
obstruction npun any railroad, or Iwiaen, tear up, or d 
move any part of a railroad, or displace, transfer, or I 
any way interfere with the switches, frogs, rail, 1 
or otiier part uf any railroad, so as to endanger tha 
safety of any train, or who shall wilfull;; ihivw anr 
stone or otlier missile at any train on any railiMad, shall, 
upon conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment 
in a State prison not exceeding ten years, or liable to a 
fine not exceeding $1,000, or by both such line and im- 
prisonment. 

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 

I warn all persons engaged in tlio violation of I 
above law to desist therefrom, and I call upon i 



THE RAILBOAn RIOTS — KKW YOBK, 415 

BherifFs, in agiet rates, district attorneys and other tavi\ 
officers, and upon all good citizens, to aid in the en- 
forcement of the said law, and of pnniahment of all 
who are guilty of its violation; and I hereby offer a 
reward ot $500, to be paid upon the arrest and convic- 
tion of each and every person who shall be gnilty of a 
violation of the eaid act. 

The faihire or oniiesiou of any sheriff, district attor- 
ney or otiier civil officer to take the most active Bteps 
in hia jiower to enforce the proviaions of this act will 
be considered sufficient cauee for hia i-emoval. 

L. KoBINSOS. 

By the Governor : 

D. C Robinson, Private Secretary. 

There was something more in this than the empty- 
call on the riotcre to lay down their arms and diaperee. 
He tirst calls their attention to a law, of which he had 
no doubt they were ignorant, and clinches the whole 
by a reward of $500 for the arrest and conviction of 
any one gnilty of violating that law. This reward was 
a masterly move and donbtless did more to make the 
ringleaders cautions Umn even the [iresence of the 
military. It was like having a price set on one's head, 
and tempting the very men he would incite to violence 
' to betray him. 

In the meantime, troops had arrived at Ilomellsville, 
The 54:th Regiment of New York State militia from 
Rochester reached there on the night of the 2l6t, and 
soon after the 110th from Elmira with a battery. 
The latter wei-© formed in line and marched thmugh 
the yard, driving out the crowd, while the Rocheater 
troops guarded the approaches. The strikers called 
a meeting, and resolved to be firm in spile of the mili- 
tary, and were encourged in their conrae by telegranu 



I 



41G 



: KAILROAD HIOT9 OF 1 



from all along tlio line, promiaiDg aid. On ibe Std 
■was resolved to start a train, which the Btrikers swoi 
Bhoiild not leave. Forty aoldiere of the llOtfi Butb 
lioQ were placed on the train, Hve being on tlie li 
motives, two on each' car platform, and the roat inai< 
the cars. The rioters had assembled at West 8tre< 
having previously soaped tlie rails to prevent the trai 
from getting headway. 

When tho engine strnck the soapy rails, no ainoni 
of sand the engineer could let down in front of t\ 
drivers could overcome the slippery anrface Bufficientl 
to maintain any degree ^>i speed, and the train ap 
proached the Ix )idteri ma aseeiiililuge not faster tha 
eight miles an hour. The strikers, yelling like a pi 
of Indians, erowded on the track, waved a red 
and demanded the engineer to stop the train, wil 
threats of violence. Engineer Carey was firm, an 
kept right on against the great disadvantages that h 
set his progress. As the train pulled into the mid 
of the crowd they made a dash for the engine and tl 
cars. The soldiei's inatie confused and feeble attemp 
to keep the howling strikers back, one burly fellui 
meanwhile, gaining tho front platform of the car ne: 
the baggage-car. The guard was pushed aside an 
the bi-ake seized. By this time every platform had tin 
or three strikers upon it, tlie brakes weie put on, ac 
the passenger cars stopped and cut loose. The engii 
and the mail and baggage cars went on a little wa; 
when the engine stopped. Tnstantly a strong gang « 
Uie strikers surrounded and climbed npon tlic ongtn 
They threatened the engineer with violence if he dl 
not proceed, but he replied firmly, if there vms ai 
chance for his getting poesesBion of his paaeenger eu 




THK RjLILBUAU RIOTB — KKW YUKK. 417 

he would inn the rifik of their threats. He saw, how- 
ever, tliat the efForb wontd be useless, and piillefl on 
np the grade. Tlie whole forue of the strikoi-s then 
swarmed npun the cars tliut had stop^xid. The tioldierfl 
came ont of fhem, followed by tlie passengers. The 
Btrikere tlien be^ii disabling the ears. Thej- tore tho 
brake-rods loose and bent them out of shape witli axes; 
thej smashed the brake-wlieels to pieces and broke 
everything ueiiessary to be used on the cars, with wild 
yells, then starting them doii-n the grade towards tho 
sUttion. The tmin dashed into the yard at a high rate 
of speed, tJircatening destruction to everything that 
might be in the way, but the cars were tunicd oS upon 
E switch in time to save a collision with a locomotive 
and train that stood on the main ti-ack near tho 
depot. 

The crowd then mai-ched savagely jubilant to the 
guard limits of the yard, where they were soon ap- 
proached by train No. 7, which the company had 
started out on tlie way to Buffalo, guarded by soldiei's. 
They threw open a switeh aliead of the locomotive, 
bringing the train to a stop, and then did considcralile 
damage to tlie engine. They pulled the fireman from 
tlie cab and forced from him a promise not to go out 
again. The train was tlien hitinght back into the yard 
by the engineer. 

Soon after this a gang of strikers boarded an engine 
snd some cars that were being switched in the Susque- 
hanna Division yard, preparatory to starting a train 
east. Besides the engineer, there were several depnty 
BlieriGFs on board, who were all driven off, and tho en- 
gine and cars run tu the bridge, some distance east of 
this station, where tho steam was blown off, the fira 
If* 



418 



KioTfl OF wn. 



extinguished, and the engine crippled. The attack J 
was made from localltiee where the men seetnvd to | 
have been hiding. 

The tr(X)j»6 seemed to be paralj'jtcd with fear, < 
different ro the actinna of the strikers, for ihe latter j 
were allowed to have their own way without molefltatiini. \ 

Tlie next day the first dulachinent of the 33d limf^i- 
meut of Brooklyn, which had been ordered on, atTivcKJ. 
They were insulted all tlte way at the different staiiona. . 
Some 1,500 troops were soon under oiHlers at this [loitit. 
The sti-ikers saw at once that they were in a net, from I 
which there was no escape, and immediately agreed to ] 
go to work on the following terms ; 

The firemen and lu.ikemen to go to work at the r 
dutition of 10 per cent, j no men migagotl in tba etrika i 
are to be proceeded itgainst or dis(4iarg«d, except thcwa I 
who have destroyed the company's property ; the tvia- 1 
statement of the committee who were discharged is left I 
to the superintendent of the divisions in which the j 
disniiBsals occurred, and the brakemeu ai-e to go to I 
work at the wages they received bofore July 1; tha J 
case of Donahne, in the Retllemeiit, is left to the cu 
sel of the Ei'ie and that of the eti-ikers to aiTunge. 

It 16 not necessary to s)>eak of the minor strike* ] 
along the line of the road, except at Corning, wliere 
the strikci-s, not Batistied with stopping trains, com- 
menced to tear np the ti-auk and to overturn Ux 
tivea, enlivening their work by bhoiita and oaths. But . 
the constrnction gang soon pnt everything in order, and l 
the excitement soon subsided. The one at [lontvll»> j 
ville was the Imckbcme of all, the rest wei-o mere off* 
ehoots ; with the breaking down of that tho tToabl*<l 
vuover. 




f 



THE CENTtt4L KOAD. 

Right on the heels of the stnke at Hornellsville on 
the 20th, there was a. meeting of the New York and 
Hudson Rner Railroad men iu the Capitol Park, at 
Albany, on the 23d, at which a reBoliition was passed 
demanding a general inereaee of 25 per cent, on their 
wages. A committee was appoiiitud to wait on Mr. 
Vanderbilt to present this resolution, and if the de- 
mand was not complied with, to inform him that they 
fihouTd strike on the following morning at S o'clock. 
They met next morning, but there was no life in the 
meeting, and after some couBultation the cniwd started 
for West Albany, where the shops of the New York 
Central & Hudson River Railroad are liK-^ted. Hera 
some 300 or 400 men were persnaded ti> quit work, 
whether from fear of a tight or fi-oni sympathy, or 
partly from both, does not appear. After the shops 
were closed, the following letter from Mr. Vanderbilt 
to a committee of employees on the mad, was read : 

" The pnblic interest should not suffer from any dif- 
ferences between the road and ite employees. Keep 
at work till the excitement is over and a fair confer- 
ence can be had. 

" William H, YANDEKBn.T." 

This dispatch was received with shouts of derision 
by a portion of the crowd. They then resolved to 
hold another meeting in the park in the afternoon. Iu 
the meantime they compelled the switch and track- 
men to quit work, and posted them wliere they conld 
stop all freight trains. Two freight trains coming in, 
and one bonnd out, were both stopped. They had 



420 



THE GREAT EAILEOAD Rim's OK IBT7. 



hardly accomplished this when a western bound train 
was seen appi-oaching. At the sight a groat shout 
was raised, and a riisli made for it, and the ears were 
iiiicoupled. At two o'clock, the moh, made up of rail- 
i-oad strikers and vagabonds, again began to aesunihle 
in the Capittd Park. A meeting was organized, and m 
brakeman made an inHiiiiiTnatory speech. Another 
yonng man followed, denouncing the ontside element, 
and declaring the company's property shoidd not be 
destroyed. About 1,000 men then started for Green- 
bush and East Albany, and, taking the fi-eight-honsa 
in their way, compelled the workmen to atop, as well 
as Borne of the switchmeu. But abunt half-past n 
the Ninth Regiment from New York arrived, and 
their appearance excited the admiration of the cil 
zens, who crowded around the depot to see thetn oa 
they marched ont with fixed bayonets and took np 
their quarters at the Delavau House. It was feared 
that an outbreak might ocunr at West Albany, and so 
the next morning the Ninth was carried thither. 
General Carr made his headquarters at the railway 
station. The workmen who stopped work the day be- 
fore, feeling themselves safe under the protection of 
tl»e mililary, cheerfully i-esuined it. TLe Tenth Kegi- 
meutof Albany arrived soon after. Colonel Amasa J. 
Parker, Jr., and the track was well guarded. Early 
in the afternoon, the pickets south came in and re- 
ported disturbances in that direction. The Ninth in- 
stantly formed into line and moved down the track,, 
and cleared the bridge and roadway. Soon tlie traini 
wei-e again moving, and it was evident that what 
threatened to be a dangerous riot at Albany 
qnelled. 




THB RAn.ROAn KIOTS^NKW TORK. 



srBACnsE. 

At Syracuse the i-ailroad raen blockaded the road, 
allowing no trains to pass, and the Sith liegiineiit waa 
ordered out for duty. The next day tliey struck, 
together with tlie maoMuiBts of East Syi-amise, 100 
in number. Six hundred freight cai-s, seventy engines, 
and forty trains were stopped there, but tlie strikers de- 
tailed a guard of their own men to guaj-d the property 
of the company. No violence was attempted, except 
so far as was necessary to stop tlie trains. Tlie next 
evening a live-stock train ran past the yard and pro- 
ceeded towards Albany. The strikers were astonished 
to find that the train was not going to stop. They 
seized an engine and started in putviiit of the stock 
train. They overtook it about six miles east of Syra- 
cuse and ordei-ed the fireman to leave the engine. He 
did 80, and the strikers bnntglit him back to Syi-acuse. 

The 8th New York Itegimunt, bound for Buffalo, was 
Stopped by orders of the adjutant-general, in order to 
quell the mob. The excitement gradniiliy allayed, 
and, as the news fi-om various quartei-s came in an- 
nonncing the steady collapse of the strike, the confi- 
dence and boldness of the misguided men sensibly 
decreased. 

BCFFALO. 

At Buffalo, the western teriniuns of the Central road, 
occurred the most serious riot on the whole length of 
the line. On the 22d of July the men struck, and by 
midnight numbered over 1,500, with constant accessiona 
to their strength. In the moniing they tiwk the fire- 
men and brakenten from the New York Centr'al trains, 



422 TIIK GRRAT RATI.ROAD RIOTS OF IST!. 

unloaded the stock, and forbade the employes to do 
any further work. 

The mob, reiiiforoed by lai-ge nutiibers, called at 
the cur-sliopa of the Lake Shore and Erie companies 
and ordered all the workmen there to quit, which 
they did forthwith. About four o'clock in the after- 
noon, a BiifFalo and Jamestown train, whiclk leaves the 
Erie depot, on arriving at Coinprijiniae Crossing, two 
miles from the depot, had a passenger coach detached 
and shoved on the Central track, and the tireman was 
forcibly taken from the engine. Superintendent 
Doyle, who was on the train, remonstrated with the 
strikers, stating there had been no reduction of wagea 
on their road, nor had there been any since its in- 
anguration. The effect of this statement was tlie 
bringing haek of the coach by t)ie strikers, who 
conplcd it on, and assured the Superiuteudeiit that 
nothing should bo done in any way to interfere with 
the working of his road. 

"Early in the afternoon au assaitlt was made by 
nearly 2,000 rioters on about 2O0 soldiers who wero 
guarding the Lake Shore ronnd-honsc. Tbe military 
were obliged to leave the building, which wua tJioii 
barricaded by tbe mob, who placed care in position as 
defense against an attack. Col. Finch, of tbe fiuth 
Boginicnt, with abont thirty men and throe officers, 
proceeded to the roimd-honse to retake it from the 
mob. They were met with yells of derision from the 
crowd, and, un<Ier a shower of stones were obliged to ' 
retreat at tlic doiiblu^piick and force their way tlirough 
the yelling ciiiwd at the point of the bayonet, many of 
the soldiers being badly cut on the hands with knivet, 
and also clnbbcd. Four of the soldiers lost tlieir miw 



i 




TlIE RAILROAD KI0T9 NET YORK, 



kets, which, however, were afterwaitls recuveifd. Col. 
Flach was badly clubbed, twice knocked down, forced 
acrosB the canal, and obliged to take refuge in the 
Lake Shore paint-shop." 

A public meeting was held that night, called by the 
mayor, but was composed mostly of strikers, and those 
who sympathized with them. Committees were ap- 
pointed, and resolutions offei-ed, and spocchee made, 
chiefly by the mob. If any one attempted to pour oil 
on the troubled waters, and advocated peaceful 
measure and mutual forbearance, he was hissed 
down. It was a disorderly meeting, and never should 
have been called. At any rate, the moment the rioters 
asHumed a bold and insolent bearing, they should have 
been told very plainly that if they pei-sisted in com- 
mitting acts of violence, they would bo sliut down 
without mercy — that they had got to conquer the 
troops of their own State, and tlien of the General 
Government, lief ore they could succeed. As it was, the 
meeting broke up, leaving a woree state of feeling 
than when it began. 

The titiin coming from Westfield, on the Lake Shore 
It'>ad, with a company of militia belonging to tltc 
Eighth Division, was stopjied by the strikers abont 
nine o'clock in tlio evening above Tifft's Stulion, on the 
outskirts of the city. The nioli entered the cars and 
took from some of the soldiers their muskets, when 
a general fight ensued, with tii-ing of guns on 
both sides, and the throwing of stones by the assail- 
ants. 

This did not seem to confirm Mi'- Vanderbilffl 
theory, which from the outset he liad maintained, tliat 
the employ^ of the road were loyal, and would re- 



424 THE GREAT RAILKOAD KLu'l'S uF ISTT. 

itmin BO. He was frequently sending despatches like 

the foUdwing or expressing suailar bentiments: 

" Sabatooa, N. v., July 23. 
" To J. W. TilUngha^f, Bufah : 

" Your deBpatcIi receiveii. I have everv confidence 
iu the jfood seiiae and Btability of a large majority of 
onr employes. The whole country is tiow looking 
must anxiiiiialy on them, and I feel cuntidcnt that they 
will euBtain their reputation and that of the road, by 
making common canso, having the fullest assurance 
that when the buBinesa of the country will justify it, 
they will receive coinpensation accoi-dingly, 

" W. H. VANDEBBtLT." 



Now, thore is no evidemrc that the men of this i-oad 
were any more loyal than lliose uf other roads. 
Doubtless a lat^ majority of those who bad destroyed 
piu|)ei'ty and openly resisted the military, elsewhere as 
well as here, were not railroad men. It is true also 
that all over the country a majority of the employ^ 
were afraid of the result of a strike — that it would 
make matters worse, although not a few might be truly 
loyal. But in every case like this, much depends on 
momentary excitement, the influence of leaders, and ex- 
ternal circumstances. Here, at Buffalo, there was no 
reason why the men should not be as loyal as in Utica. 
The circuiuBtances happened to be different. A man 
like Donohuo of Hornellsvillo, at Albany, would soon 
have shown how little difference of feeling there waa 
among the men on the various raili-oads. A general 
dissatisfaction prevailed against the way they were 
treated. One and ail believed that they were oppressed 
by powerful companies, and if snccens could have Ijeeu 




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ri> i« a liitlcr 
„ ;^ „ -...-^ ;i.ml tliOKo wlio 
na flie nSraaidfl 'wiiieh oogiit not lo oxiiit, iiu) la 
fnuigfat with eriL 

Mr. Vanderbih aftervards presented the mm '4 Um 
Central Rnd $100,ouO. 



TBB GREAT OOIUUNIBT UBKTINa IN VKW r^ytW //fff.. 

Bnt vhile things wei-e in thin (!ii«o(l« ttM*, iv4 mI/ 
in Hew York, bat all over tlie Kitatitrw, mi tr»*ttt t/t^ 
caned that diverted the genera) BlUrolhMf tftm Uttl 
more posaibilitiea that iniglit rrainll Utm H.- JKmT 
York city is not oul^ the laffjcat iu itm tttAm^lMik 
cfnnp<«fd of It dangoronii {M^mimuj*, «»tm4i*m iti 
number that uf any othnr city in the mmmrj, 45*mtk 
rjnently, the must extetwirc mm] AuHnaf/m AfA^imn 
•Kujiirred there. Ucnce, aitythiny Vikm * ivn,i)f,U.-.'m limg 
wui:ld natni-uliy Xin n-)fanlfv) wiih rj*/-'B»l i^trtMy f^ 
caused, tliei-eli'i-e, •eri'xts alartn, 'jj " -,'1/ '''•' '-.-/nftii 
the State, when il wm hnntAiui- ,..^ 

ing was called to lie beM in T>. ,^ 

25lh — juBt M we Deemed Ut U- .- -^ 

tronbles, and in a fair way tf. ha«« tu if^r^ ., ,^ ^^^ 



426 



THE GREAT HAILROAD S10T6 OF KT7. 



thtze with the strikers, which of course Jiieatit to en 
courage them to hold in and resist to the last. It ii 
not neceBsary to go into all the prelitninaricB of I 
meeting. The object was plain — to sympathize witkfl 
and encouratre the strikei-s to figlit it out. What i 
have to do is with the propriety of the city aiithori 
ties gi-anting aa they did the j.»eiini36iiiu to hold thftu 
meeting. That permission was wrong and the foctl 
that no evil resulted bus nothing to do with the other 
fact that it eboiild not have been allowed. Wo have 
eeeu but two reasons advanced by the city authorities 
for granting it. Whether these reasons were the r ' ~ 
ones or not, we do not know ; we only know they a 
the only ones that coitld be given. 

Tliese were, first, the city had no conatilntional vigM 
to prevent the meeting. In the drst p]a(«, no t 
right of prohibition was involved. The very simplaji 
qneetion was wliether the city authorities had the powei' 
and right t<) postpone it for four or five days. Thi 
does not admit of a d"ubt. If the meeting were eal led 
on a Sabbath or in the midst of a gt-neral cjjudag 
no one doubts it could be postpoiitjd for a day a 
Cut, more than thin, we assert that the city autboritifli 
had the ^mwer and the right not only to adjoi 
prohibit the meeting altogetlier, so long as the object i 
had in view was not only undei-stood but confeBsetLl 
A meeting whose object is to help violators of the lan^l 
succeed in their attempts to overcome both civil andV 
military authority, and destroy pro]>erty and murder 1 
innocent citizens, is never legal, and to grant it is to be 
accessory to crime. Discussion of questions that divide 
and agitate the public, and are more or less dangerooa 
according to the views of individuals, is one th 



THK BAILKOaD KtOTS — SEW YORK. 



♦87 






quile another to eucoTirage men with arms in their 
Imiids who are viuliitiug law and resisting the legal 
authorities. Jnow, this meeting was called for the 
express ai;d only purpose of extending sympatiiy to 
suL'li violators of law, and eiiuonrage them in the de- 
Blructioii of property and iii shooting down men while 
in the discharge of their duty. The right to prevent 
Bach a meeting lies back of all written constitatioue, in 
the eternal law of self- protect ion that God, not man, 
made for the preservation of human govomment and 
the well-being of society. 

The second is quite as untenable as the first reason 
—that the city was well prepared — that was as good a 
ime as ever to test the question whether a mob could 
rule New Yurk. The time to test such a qnestiou is 
when it arises, not before. It is the duty of those in 
power to be pi-ejiared for an event, not force it. 
Slaughter and death are serious enough when they are 
inevitable, without being pnivoked. The doctrine that 
doing evil that good may come has no plai-e in the 
Christian code. It was the simplest, easiest thing in 
the world to postpone tliis meeting a week, when it 
would probably never have taken place. But it might 
not have been so easy as the Police Commiseioneis 
Bupixsed, to prevent a slaughter when a collision Iiad 
once taken place, and still harder to clear the con- 
science of the guilt of having caused the death of even 
one man unnecessarily. Precaution in all govern- 
ments, whether general or municipal, is one of the 
first duties of those representing them. Certainly the 
granting of a permission to hold this meeting was 
Boinothiug quite the reverse of that. No man can 
foi-etell the extent or results of an outbreak when it 



Ill J 



"•ay do in sjm 

of a great inu 

But tile tuoi 

in Nsw York 



I 

I 
I 



CHAPTER XSXI. 

THE RAILROAD E10T6 OHIO, 

Cinaiimitd, Zanesvitle, Newoik, Toledo, and Fort Wayne, —Militar; 
at Newark Sympathue with tbs Mob. — The Latter Entertain 
Them, — Tl^e OovemoT Orden Troops from CinoinnatL— Com- 
mands in Person. — Issnes a ProcLiraatiou. — Raiding in Cincin- 
nMi — Poblio Meeting at Toiedo. — StrikerB Draw up a Tariff of 
Wagea, and Protect Itsilroad Property.— Men Drivno from their 
WoA at Fort Wayne. 

The strike oji the Baltimore and Ohio Road spread 
with the rapidity of lightning, and on the very day «f 
the riot in Baitiinore a meeting of firemen and brake- 
men waa held at Columbus to consider the situation. 
Cincinnati was also alarmed, and very naturally, for 
the reduction of the wa^es ten per cent, look place 
only the day before on some of the roads, and on that 
very day on one ; while it was clear that the strike on 
the Pan-Handle Road was rapidly working westward. 
Two days afrcr the firemen and brakeinen of the Lake 
Bhore Road struck at Cleveland, and a vigilance com- 
mittee was formed at Zanesvillc. At Newark tlie 
Btrikere were masters of the situation. On the evening 
of the 21st four companies of militia arrived, and at 
noon next day marched into the freight jai-d, and the 
officer in command advised the atrikers to withdraw. 
They refused, declaring they had committed no act of 
violeucfi, and appealed to the soldiers' sympathies | 



430 



THE GEEAT RAILHOAD RIOTS OF ISn. 



lating their wrongs. It waa evident that the appeal 
not in vain, for the troops soon quietly returned to their 
quarters. Governor Yoimg then ordered on four com- 
panies from Cincinnati, and two from Dayton. Tlie 
militia in the meantime mingled freely with the strik- 
ers, who, liearing thatUiG Connty Com mission era, then 
in session, refused to malce any arrangemenla by 
which the ti-cwps conld he fed, sent a committee around 
to raise money to buy food for them. The busiuesB 
men subecrihed freely, and provisions were piirehused, 
and the militia became the guests of thus^wltom they 
were sent to disperse. The sympathy of the citiseni 
was generally witli them, Hnd it waa very evident, if the 
railroad companies depended on the State militia to 
open their roads for them, they would remain closed for 
a long time. Id the evening a meeting of the Broth- 
erhood of Locomotive Engineei-s was lield, in wliicJi it 
was resolved to take no jiart in the strike of the lireinei)' 
and brakemen, but to wait awhile. Goveiiior Voaugij 
issued a short proclamation on the 21st, calling on all) 
tlie citizens of Newark to keep away fram the yard. 
He tried every way to make the strikere see the hope- 
lesttncss uf the movement, hut in vain, and so ordered' 
parts of the Fii-st, Second, and Third Regiments to re-- 
port at Newark. 

Two days after a mob patrolled a portion of Cin- 
cinnati, raiding private establishments and closing np 
Dearly all the rolling-mills, machine-shopa, and facto- 
ries on the west side of the river. But few railroad 
men were in the raid, however, the main part heiiig 
tramps, ronghs, and miners. Warrants were issued for 
the ari'eet of some of the leaders, tievei-a! hundred 
epecial policemen were eniulled, and u call made fur a 



I 



I 



: RAILHOAD RIOTS — OHIO, 



431 



vigilance rammittee to be organized. The people of 

Newarli in tbe meanwhile were thrown into great ex- 
citement by a report that a body of 1,000 iiiinerB were 
on the way to join the Btrilcers there. 

^ TOLEDO. 

At Toledo also there was much excitement, and on 
the 25th a large crowd of laboring men of all fieciipa- 
tions appointed a committee to draw np a tariff of 
wages. They also apptnnted a committee to see that 

■ BO injury was done to property. Mayor Jonea was 
present, and made a conciliatory speech. 

At the conclusion of tho mayor's remarks, the crowd 
formed a line, it being announced that they would first 
go the whole length of Water Street t» the PeniiBvlva- 
nia Depot, and then through tbe manufacturing dis- 
tricts, notifying all the establishments to stop work at 
once. This plan was followed out, and the crowd pro- 
ceeded fi-ora place to place, gaining strength as it pro- 
H ceeded, ordering the employes of lumber yai-ds, mills, 
^§ foundries, etc., to stop work. Mtet of the day was con- 
^Bfamedin thismanner,andinmany, if not quite every in- 
^B itance, tbeir demands were complied with, though not 
H vithout protest in some cases on the part of tlie work- 
- men. The Milburn Wagon Works, employing 300 
hands, closed at two o'clock, before the arri%^al of the 
procession. Every largo manufacturing establishment 
in the city was closed. A caII fur a ma£s meeling of 
V citizens at eight o'clock in the evening was iasned by tbe 
I mayor early in tlie day, and in pureiiauce thereof an 
t Immense crowd assembled in the market space at that 
f bonr. Mayor Jouos presided, and after addi'esses by 
k wveral citizens, a I'esolutiou was adopted calling on the 




KioTs OF isn. 



mayor to appoint a, committee to consist of tweni 
pei-Bone fi-oni each ward, to take ineasurea foi- the pi 
ervatioii of peace and pro'ection of property. . Tli 
meeting was composed largely of iJie discoiUenI 
clement, rop resent ativea of which took poseeiuiou 
the stand and proceeded to addrcBs the ci-owd, and tli 
meeting iinally broke up in confnsion and disordel 
But tlie strike collapsed here when it seemed 
threatening. 

Governor Tonng having returned from Newwk, 
where he had in person commanded the troops, laEiied 
another proclamation at the capital, and it soon hecame 
apparent that tranquillity would be i-eatored without any 
bloodshed or destruction of property. It is not necefl- 
eary to mention all the strikes in the State — they were 
all alike, while those given above were the principal 
ones. The great evil they acuomplislied was stopping 
for a while the transmission of freight between tiba^ 
West and the East. 



INDIANA. 

A similar state of things occurred in Indiana. 
Fort Wayne tlie trainmen assemltlcd on the 23d, ai 
compelled the closing of the Pittsbnrg, Fort Wayno 
and Chicago shops, employing 1,000 men. The track- 
men and switchmen on this division of the enme road 
also refused to work, and flocked to the city, where they 
joined tlie strikers. The situation looked verj' critical 
at noon, when tiireats were made that every railway 
shop and manufactory in tlie city would be foreed 
shut down. The mayor, therefore, called the Oil 
Council together in special session, and they p 
resolutions ordering the strikere to disperse, conipelli 






^ 



THE RAILROAD BIOTS- — OHTO iSd 

kll saioooa to close up, and providing for the emjiloy- 
Bipnt of 200 extra policemen to preaervc order and 
guard railroad property. 

Tht: strikers aeeembled in the aftenxjcii and pas^-d 
reeiiliitionB respecting wages, etc., like those \vi: hjivi- 

, heretofore given. The eauie obstruction of trains o<v 

I tJiirred at Terre Ilaiite and Indianapolis, In short, 
Indiana alioved anotlier hlock acroes tlie great rail- 
roads, although tlie strikers refrained from destroy- 

[ ing property and from coming in coUiBion with the 

I military. 




CHAPTER XXXII. 



THK 1 



» RIOTfl — ILLINOIS. 




Bloodt Riot in CincA(9u,_CharBCtec ot its Populstjon — Oom- 
mencenieiitaf the Mob — Shopaaud Footaries torced t« ahnt op — 
Hobs in vuTloaB Sevliuiui ol the City- — A Coramaniat EdJtoi 
taaght 0, LeuoD — Hob on the Lake Front — United States Traopa 
lent for— A Muss-Muetiug in the Tabernacle- A Night Attwdt — 
The Second Da; 's Sttu^le— A Fight between the UililMj ai 
Hob— The Latter shot down— Severe Fight near Cmnftlpoit An 
nae— A Brave Bo;— The fte|[ulan--B&ttte ot the La 
—General View ot the Dengn of the Strikera, 

Peicsons acqiiaiutoii witii the populatiun of ChicAgol 
feared that when the rJola broke out there, hlood wool * 
be shed. Foreignei-B, espeuially Gormans, constituU 
a very considerable portion of the iuliabitatita. Thea 
if not coniiiuiuifits, oi the papora call them, believe inj 
(Icinnin-acy closely akin to their duetrineB. t'lcoiiig from 
tho opprcBsions of the Old World, titey bring witb tlicm 
all the liatced toward Ihc upper otassedwlilch Iiaagr^twn 
up with their growth. It isnotdifflciilt to make them be- 
lieve that men here ptjtsej^scd of wealth, ihnugh bom of 
the jteople, belong in Home way to that ii|>|ier clius at 
home which they so cordially hated. Kfepecially is 
this true the moEnent tho poor cry out tliat thoy are 
oppressed or treated unjustly. These men, whether 
injured or not, are sure to take aidae in any conflict of 
'or against the rich, or rioh couipanies. lieuce, 



THB KAILBOAD BIOTS — ILLINOIB. 



a Btrike of railroad iiieu there would be certain to rouee 
up this large population so that a fonnidahle mob woiild 
be quickly collected and be charauterized by mure than 
UBTial fenxsity. The strikers, beginning east, travelled 
westward steadily, and by the time they assumed any 
formidable appeaiauce in Illinois, were virtually over 
east of the Allcgbanie& It was nol till tlie 25th that 
any serious demon strati on was made in Chicago, 

On Tuesday a mob had entered tlie planing-mills 
and lumberyards in Ihe south-west partof the city, and 
compelled the men to stop work. Encouraged by 
their auccess, they assembled again on Thnreday to 
finish their diabolical work. They began to gather aa 
early ue seven in the morning, in or about 2l2d Street 
bridge, near which are some of the larger mills and 
yards. It was composed of a motley set, only a por- 
tion of it being railroad men. AI! were armed witli 
pieces of wood some four or five feel in length, and 
the pockets of nearly all were bulged out and weighted 
down with stones. When ready, they moved slowly 
out Twenty-second street in a westerly direction, stop- 
ping at all the mills and yiirds along lite route, and in- 
vestigating for themselves as to whether all labor liad 
'ceased or not. The first lively demonstration made 
was at the Chicago Planing-Mill Company, and an ad- 
joining distillery. The mill had fired up, and seemed 
all ready for work, which seemed to enrage the mob. 
Threats were freely made to fire the strnctnre, but tlie 
mob suddenly proceeded onward without doing any 
damag& Pond & Soper's mill, in which the men wore 
at work, closed down suddenly as the mob advanced. 

Lieut, Vesey, of the Hinman Street Station, saw the 
rabble advancing, and bcthonght himself of a way to 



I 



iZQ 



THE GHEAT KAU.IMAH 1 



t»afflo them. Telegraphing the state of affaii-8 to Madi- 1 
enii Rnd Twelftli Steeet StatioriB, Lieut. Cnllahau and 
tlie Twelfth Street police, and Lieut. Ulettner with J 
fifty police from Madison Street, came down to aid J 
liim. Veeey, iiutliing daunted hy the overpoweridjf 4 
number of the mob, massed his men on the comer of ' 
Blue Island Avenne and Twenty-aecoiid Street. They 
had no niuakets out, as they expected no mom trouble 
than npon the day previous. Finding his position i 
poor one for dispersing a mob, and ascertaining that 
the crowd were heading tor the works of tlie United 
States Kolling Stock Company, MeCormiuk's mammoth 
factory, and similar large establishments in the neigh- 
borhood, Vescy marched his men down Blue Island 
Avenue, or tlie Black Road, as that part of it is called, 
and, taking up position at the gates of the Rolling- 
Stock Works, awaited the arrival of the strikers. The 
crisis came soon enough. Just about 10.30 o'clock the J 
mob hove in sight, and, nothing daunted by the sight 1 
of the police, approached on the double-quick. Sev- I 
eral of the leaders made a surly demand upon the J 
police to stand aside and let them in at the gates. I 
Lieut. Vesey addressed tlieui, L'xh<jrting ihein to return 1 
to their homes and do no violence, a» under no con- 
sideration would the poliri- allow them to pit>ceed 
further. He also cautiuued tliem that any violence , 
would be repulsed by iJii; )>ulico withsiaughter, as they 
were heavily armed. 

The mob jeered and derided liirn thiYiughout, and 
one of the leadei-s bet^auie so furious that Vesey and 
and his able Sergeant, McCabe, placed him under ar- 
rest. This infuriated the mob, and tliey rushed upon 
the fence and torn some 100 feet of it down, and then, 



TBB RAILROAD SIOTB ILLDfOIB. 



487 



taming in with their companions, made a desperate 
sortie upon the police with stoucB and sticke. The 
police retaliated with their batons, until, tinding sev- 
eral of tiieir number stricken down, they drew their 
revolver and fired, several men firing as many as a 
dozen abota eaeli. " Presumably they tired over tlie 
crowd or under them, but several have since averred 
that they were so enraged at tlie violent^e of the mob 
that they fired their shots where they tliought to do 
the moat injury. At this summary treatment the mob 
fled, slowly and sullenly enough, however, and fighting 
back bitterly." Tlie police advanced and the crowd 
scattered north, eaet, and west, the main body com- 
ing directly along Blue Island Avenue, Reaching 
Lincoln sti'eet, Lieut. Callahan and his Twelfth street 
men completely surprised them, and greatly encour- 
aged Vesey and his men. Dy their combined efforts 
the mob was routed completely, and chased out on to 
the prairie. After skinuidiing about for some time 
the policemen returned to the station, and found that 
in tliis encounter six of their number were wounded. 
It was said that the rioters were going to McCor- 
mick's reaper factory to make the workmeu there 
stop work ; but this onslaught ari'ested them, and 
the mill kept running, the men all being satisfied. 
Tlie nmted mob gathered together on the prairie and 
discusBod matters in a savage spirit. The Bohemians, 
as they were called, said they had two independent 
military companies, armed and eijuipped, and that 
they would get them out to protect them from the 
military ; pi-ojiosed to tear down Bridewell, 6o that 
no more bricks could bo made by contract, and de- 



438 THK GKKAT RAILROAD RIOTS OF IS". 

work, and an advance of 20 per cent, on present w^ei^ 
or thny w'laild tear dowii and destroy, etc., and than 
diaperaed. 

The mob in the lumber yard was very large. At| 
nine o'clock nearly 2,000 men asfletnbled in the vicinitj 
of 22d and IjOomiB atreets. Adjacent mills were 
stopped, and the workmen driven away. Foreman 
Freae, of the Kirby Carpenter Company, was beaten nn- 
mercifiiliy. They went to the gas company, but after 
alittle parley concluded to let it continue the luaiin- 
facture of gas that day, but swore that on the morrow 
they would close it up. 

Early in the morning antither crowd collected near 
Eighteenth Street bridge almost at the commencement 
of the day's work. This proceeded westward, sending 
off detachments now and then into side streets to close 
up the factories. They met with little resistance at 
first. At the Garden City DistilJery and Rectifying 
Company, corner of Canalport Avenue aud Twenty- 
Second Street, the mob ti-ied to force tlie employ^ to 
leave, bnt they were told by a Government officer that 
that institution was in the hands of Undo Sam, and 
that if they interfered in any way they would be sum- 
marily squelched. 

Li the west division, along Canal, Clinton, JeffersoOi^l 
and other streets, a mob of 100 or more appeared, 
at abont ten o'clock, and descending npon the lumber 
yard of C. J. I^ Meyers, compelled the men in it lo 
quit work. Other lumber yai-ds wore visited in succes- 
sion and work in them stopped. They made the 
driver of Noble's lumber wagon unhitch his horse and 
put him in the stable — waiting till it was done. They 
then visited the shot tower on Ohiiton Street, but the 



I 




THE KAILKOAD BlOl'B ILLINOIS. 



place wae ckwed before they reached it, and thoy 
vented their Bpite iii Biiiaehiiig in the windows with 
BiioneB. After this (ichicvcment they proceeded to the 
Vulcan Iron Worka, and Btopi>ed tlie work there. 
They attempted the Baiiie thing at Carlisle Masoii'i^, bnt 
were driven off. Ilooting and yelling, they then broke 
on a run into a passenger depot at the North- westei-n 
Bailroad, and endeavored to stop tiie passenger ti-ain, 
but a squad of police suddenly arriving they were 
taken by sui'prise, and one of their chief leaders, Sattal, 
was arrested and borne oflE to the police station, fol- 
lowed by the crowd, which yet dared not attempt to 
. rescue him. 

On the north side was anotlier crowd of working 
men. roaming about, perhaps 300 in number, closing 
all the manufacturing establishments, brick-kilns, the 
Chicago Furniture Company, cooper-shops, etc., many 
of which resisted this tyrannioal way of making them 
cease working. Some twenty-five tanueries which 
lined the river on both sides came next under Uie 
snpervifiiou of the mob, and had to shut up. Coming 
to the Pheuix Distillery, they met with a good deal of 
opposition. As the crowd pushed its way into the 
building where some 6,000 bnahek of grain were i[i 
a state of fermentation, tlie proprietors begged to be 
allowed to go on for the present and thus prevent the 
loss which would result from stopping work just then. 
But the mob would listen to no reason, and threatened 
to burn the building if their demands were not com- 
plied with, and everything was stopped. The mob 
now began to thin out, but a villainous- looking man 
put himself at the head of about 150 men and boys, 
and went to a tailors shop where some twenty-five 



I 



440 



THE RBE&T BAHJIO^ 



' RIOTS OF 19IT. 



sewing girla were at work, and ia spite of all reraoo' 
straiiceB achieved the great victory of making tliem 
stop. 

Uiit there seemed no end now to the mobs that had 
taken poeseBsiou of Chicaejo, for while this high-hauded 
ii^'tioii was carried out in other parts of the city, a 
drunken German gathered a crowd around him at the 
corner of Division and Ilalfitead streets, which, armed 
with clubs and iron bars, soon frightened all the stores, 
shops and saloons in the vicinity to shut up, aiid a 
Btone-yard near by to stop work. 

The mob Iiad now swelled to thousands, and fltarted 
for Goose Island to stop the work in the tanneries 
there. They then made their way towards the gas- 
works, but, met nnexpectedly by the police, which had 
been sent for, fled in every direction. 

Mobs this morning seemed everywhere, for, while 
the various quarters of the city were being innndatod 
by these lawless gangs, a mob sprang np, no one kuevr 
from where, in the Nortli Division, south part of 
Chicago Avenue. There were not, perhaps, over a 
hundred and fifty of these thieves and ragamuffins and 
boys in all, yet they succeeded in stopping work in 
the lumber-yards and factories in the vicinity ; but in 
ilif midst of their snccess a sqnad of fifty puliuemen, 
luidcr Lient. Hathaway, came up, and cliai'ging on 
iliein, scattered them like sheep. In auutlier direction 
a gang of a hundred or wi visited David Wondville'fl 
wire screen factory, in Ohio Street, and compelled it 
to close tip, and keeping on, made all the i«h<i[« mi Ihcir' 
route stop work. It was a more gang of rowdies, havingii 
their brief holiday of puwer in the utter hclplessiieai^ 
of men who were weak dimply because they wera' 




n 



THE KAILBOAD EIOTS — ILLINOIS. 



t 



antif.ipating no such high-handed robbery. The editor 
of the New Worlds a Scmid in avian Soeialist, went 
into tlio North Ride planing-mill and told the men to 
quit. There were several hundred of them, and they 
obeyed. Then he went down into the engine-room and 
tiiitl the enffineer to do h'kewiee until more wages were 
paid. Jle was followed by the proprietor, John O'Neil, 
who told him that he didn't know what wages the men 
were getting ; that the best way for the strikers to do 
w«e to appoint committeee to visit the different shopa 
and find out the rates, and then they eould tetl which 
were paying fair wages, and which were not; that 
all his men were getting good pay, and were perfectly 
Batifified to work. Calling to one of his men, Mr. 
O'Neil said, "Jim, how raiinh do yon get J" " Three 
dollars a day," was the reply. Then Mr. O'Neil seized 
the Conimunist'e hands and hold them np for the 
workmen to look at. They were like n woman's — 
Boft and white; the fellow had never done manual 
labor in his life. This fact made Mr, O'Neil angry, 
and he said to him : " Here, I'll set you to wurk and 
give you three dollars a day." But the fraud said 
" Not now," 

Mr. O'Neil then told him that he never did an 
honest day's work in his life — that he would rather 
bteiil than work, and drove him out of the shop. One 
of the other men who went in — there were only three 
or four of them — was aworkingmnn ; liis hands showed 
he was a toiler. The crowd, which, when it reached 
the corner, numbered perhaps 2U0, was doubled in 
half an hour after it arrived there, raeii, women, and 
children coming fi-oru all direolions tii sec iIil' " fioi.'' 
' Threa'.s bcin - inndc iijrainst the !>rass wnrU^, \.\.d ^.i.lii^u 



443 



E OKEAT RAILEOAD KIOTS (IF 187T. 



■were notified, and Lieut. Hathawaj, -with fifty men, re- 
eponded, and uoming suddenly upon theui, scattered 
them, and gave the Bocialist editor matter for a new 
leader in his paper. It is uBeless to follow the coiiraa 
of all the moba in various eections of the city. It was 
the same story over — factories and sliops were visited 
and closed under tlireats of violence. There wa^ a 
little variation in tlie incidents which relieved the mo- 
notony, as for instance, on the lake front from the south' 
side, 

A mob of about 150 of the roughest kind of losfen 
marched to the lake front in the morning, and weat 
throngli the liimher-yard of Lndington, Wells & Co., 
compelling the men at work there to quit and join 
them. Thus augmented, they went to the Central 
Elevator, compelling the men there to stop work. 
They then visited the Michigan Central Elevator, hut 
found no one at work there. Finally they reached 
Goodrich's dock, where tliey committed sundry ex- 
cesses, kicking boxes open, and forcing the men to 
leave their work. After leaving this point, they went 
to Waldron, Niblock & Co.'s place, where they found 
some men at work on boilers, and some others who un- 
loaded stoves. These were driven off unceremoniously 
and the fires in the boiler-shops extingniahed. Amid 
yelU and hoots they marched back to the Miuhiji;tui 
Central freight-house, back of Goodrich's ofiice. Here 
the leader of the moh, a rough, dirty loafer, mounted a 
flat car and commenced to harangue tlie crowd. " The 
firet words he uttered were that he must have three 
glneses of beer, and by the eternal he was going to 
have them, though blood sEiould be spilled in the at- 
tempt. If they had nothing to do in the summer, tliey 



1 




I 



would have nothing to eat in llie winter. ' Look at 
me,' he continued, caetiug around fei-ocioua glaiicca ; 
'do I look like a loafer or a laborer?' The erowd 
yelled and cheered, and aeeiired him that he was oue 
of them. ' Of course I am,' he eaid ; ' I am aa 
honest a workingman as ever worked in a eIioji. Look 
at mj hands,' holding ont a pair of pawa the uolor of 
which cannot be described in words, the same being a 
mixture between black and yellow. ' These hands 
show what I am. We know what we are fighting for, 
and what we are doing. We are iigiiting cbnae God 
d — d capitalists. That is what we are doing. Ain't 
we!' The crowd huri-ahed and jelled, and a number 
of them shouted, ' Let us kill those d— d aristocrats.' 
He had been a railroad man himself once, he said, and 
knew what he was talking about, Thej had the thing 
started and they were going to keep it gi>ing until all 
these big-buga had been put dpwn. He was a boat- 
hand now, and was getting but $12 a month, and he 
JQst wanted enough to keep him from starvation."* 
That's wliat they wanted, and nothing else. They 
were going to make the aristocrats sick, and they were 
not going to stop until the work was accomplished. 
He was ready to die for the workingmen, and so were 
they all. The crowd again hooted and yelled, and aa- 
Biii-ed the orator that they were in sympalliy with him, 
and that they wonJd turn ont and fix tilings in tlie 
evening. After completing this harangue he dew^uded 
from the ear and marched his mob amund the fi-eight- 
houees. Of a sudden there was a great commotion, 
and some oue shouted, " The peelers are coming 1 " Tlie 

" Chicago TWAun*. 



444 



TRE GREAT RAILBOAJ) 1 



bravado of the mob, whith but a moment before 
vowed to annihilat« every aristocrat in town, Bnddenly 
gave way, and the ci-owd be(;ame panic-stricken and 
tried to escape, Bnt the valiant peelers puuiiced upon 
them from all sides, making great havoc among the 
heads of about a dozen of them, whoee feet were not 
fleet enough to carry them away in time. Among this 
unmher was the leader and orator of the mob. One 
special policeman took hold of him by the eai-s, lifted 
hira up, shook him as a dog shakes a rat, and then 
rapped hira a few times over the head with his club. 
A whole wagon-load of woimded were conveyed to the 
station after the affray. The squad of police then 
marched thi-ottgh al! the neigliboring streets, clearing 
them of suspicious charactei's. The treatment which 
the mob received was so efficient, though radical, that 
no more molo visited or molested that partuf the city 
further during tlie day.* 

The uprising liad now become so universal that Gov- 
ernor CuUom thought the city had got beyond the con- ] 
trol of the police, and before noon sent to Washin^n 
for the aid of the regular troops, and received the fol- , 
lowing answers. 

Washington, July 23. 1877. 
Colonel R. C. Drum, AssUtant Adjutant- General 
Ckicago 111 : 
The President directs that yon use United Slates 
ti-oopB in case of emergency in suppressing tlie riot at 
Chicago, under ordere of the Governor of tlie State. 
E. D. TowHBENDf Adjutant-General. 





Chioaoo, III., July 26. 
2'o ll-in. S. M. Viilhm, Governor of lUinois : 

I have the honor to report tliat 1 am authorized by 
the Pivaideiit of the United Statea to use, under your 
orders, iiatioual triHips in thin city in Biipui-cssing the 
rioLs. K. U, Okum, 

Aaaistaut Adjutant-General. 

Sfbinopibld, III., July 26, 1S77. 
Colonel R. G. Drum, U. S. A. : 

Yon will please report to the Mayor of Chicago, and 
act in concert with liiin in putting down the mobs and 
riots, and in keeping the peace and pratecting the 
property of the people. S. M. Collom, Governor, 

Immediately on the receipt of the Governor'B order 
the national forces in the city were placed at his dis- 
pusai. A moBB meeting was held in the afternoon in 
the Tabernacle, in which were gathered a more anxious 
crowd than ever came together there to hear the famous 
preacher Moody. Speeches were made by distinguish- 
ed citizens, and a proclamation of the Mayor was read, 
calling on five thousand citizens to report at police 
lieadquarters for duty ; and various other precautions 
were taken to meet the coming storm. 

At evening the strikers gathered in the railroad 
yards, all the way from Canal street to Halated. One 
portion moved towards the Round House, othei-s broke 
in the windows of the freight-house and attempted to 
enter the building. In the meantime a body of police 
sixteen strong, under Lieutenant Callahan, came tearing 
down the street in a stage to the scene of disorder. 
Before reacliiug it, however, they were met by a mob 
led by a man named Miles Clynch, who attacked 



440 THE OREAT RAII.KOAD RIOTS OF 

stiige with stones and Bticke, aud, cutting the harness of 
the team, aent ihera dashing up the Btrcct. The driver 
WAR knocked from his seat and badly cut, and tlm squad 
of police was pressed so ch>so by tlie yel!iit;» crowd 
that they at last drew their revnlvers and fired into it 
from thestage windowa. They then dashed out and 
tered those nearest them, and drove the whiilo crowd' 
before them till they reached the Viadnct, when thejr 
halted. The police then ran thiongh an opening into 
Fifteenth Street, aud gaining the approach to it, fired' 
down on the mob. The latter at once fell back and 
attacked the police with sueh a shower of stones thaf 
they were compelled to retreat to their station to find 
out why they had not been re-enforced. A detacliraent 
had been sent to their aid, but missing them, fame oa 
the mob after they Iiad left, aud were also badlj^ 
and reti-eated to the station, whoi-c each recriminated tfad 
other for being left to fight the citurd alo 

During all thia time the mob had been carrying 
things at their will. The first stii-ul-car that attempted 
to cross the Viadnct was pelted with a aliower of stuiKS, 
the conductor and driver both driven from their pad- 
tions, ttie horses lashed into madness until they raa 
away, and finally the car was overturned al tlie junc- 
tion of Halsted and Evans streets, where it waa pulled 
to pieces by a pack of howling young wretclwa not' 
older than fourteen years. Respectable citizens fllood 
in their doorways, and ipiictly deprecated all eocbi 
destruction, hut were powerlecu t" pi-event it. Thoi 
other care that came to the Viaduct were 8toppiid,i 
the conductors rifled of ttie contents of their pockMs, 
and the passengers c-omiielled to ftee under serioi 
rther up the street, the crowd, 




THB RAILROAD RIOTS — ILLINOIS. 



towards Twelfth Street, entered the gun-atore of M. J. 
Pi-ibyl, No. 522 Ilabted Street. Pribyl and family 
were scared out of their wila, and offered no resielaiicc 
to the pillagers, Tlie mob cleaned the store out, taking 
tliirtj-five guns, as many revolvers, and as many more 
pistols of the powder -and -shot kind, and a quantity of 
ammunition.* This was done, not by the workingmen, 
but by those who made off with their plunder. The 
Btreet-liphts were put out. The iut)b now went to the 
hardware store of Mr, E, II. I^itt, aiid wrenching off 
the iron bars, they broke in the windows, and entering 
the building earned off what plunder they wished. The 
8treet-car« were again attacked, and howls and yells 
made night hideoiis. Soon after a battalion of police 
came up and cleared the streets. 

On the next day, the 26th, the trouble began early 
ill the inoniing, A meeting of workingmen had been 
called at 9 o'chick, and before that hour a large crowd 
had gathered at Turner Hall, and surged np and down 
the street, boasting what they woidd do. About 10 
o'clock a squad of police hove in eight, when the mob 
began to hoot, yell, and pelt them with stones. The 
police chai'ged on them with their clnba. Whilo hit- 
ting right and left, another sqnad of police arrived 
and took them in rear and sOon settled them. They 
then entered tlie building, when a fight began. Many 
jumped from the windows, and several received 
wounds niore or less severe. A passenger train com- 
ing in was attacked and switched off the track. At 
the Viaduct a sti-eet-car was stopped. Twenty-five po- 
licemen were sent down to disperee the crowd, but 



1 



• Cbicago paper. 



aa 



r BAILBOAD EI0T6 OF iBTJ. 



were attacked with euch violence tliat they drew thai 
rev<iivci-s and fired into IL But the mob increa£«d ao 
rapidly, aud fittta under oover, and from the topsoj 
bousea hurled etonea eo fiercely, Ibat the )ioliue elowlg 
retired, followed by the hooting, yelling riutura. 
iiig thut in all prohabiUty the ceiTilur}' Ijef-vveii Caiia 
port Avenue and the Viaduct would be the epot c 
which most of the noting would take plai.-e, the i 
tary were ordered there. Two cavalry Companiee a 
came rattling dowii the street, followed by the £ 
Begiment, Col. Funk, 700 strong, with two t«n-potu 
guiiB. fly half-past ten it was estimated that nearlj 
10,000 people were gathered here, though not all opt 
rioters. Through thie immense throng the polia 
would march, the crawd fleeing down the croaa Btret 
ae they advanced, but mailing up again as they i 
tired. Arrests were made and the prisoners hurried 
off ill express wagons lo the stations. A little afta 
noon things bftanie quiet. But about tbi-ee o'clock i 
company of cavalrymen, some twenty strung, that Iiai 
been out patrolling the country, came in, but gettinf 
separated from the police and militia, they were c 
upon by the crowd with atones and revolvers. Thi 
former returned the lire, and several were hit whei 
the police came to their rescue and ended tlie fight, 
Seeing tliat the raoh at the Ualstcd Street Viaduct v 
meditating an assault. Captain Learcy of tlie wost aid 
was ordered to hurry all the men at his command Ur 
the spot. Laying aside their clubs, they had armed 
themselves with Springfield muskets and were ordcrad| 
to Gre at the firat assault of the mob. At Fourteenth! 
Street they were joined by a body of cavalry aader 
Caj''"'" Anderson. They marched down the streeL 




n 



THE KAILHUAU HlUi'lJ ILLINillFI. 



44d 



clearing the mob, and effected a junction with those 
Bt the Yiaduct and charged up and down the atreets, 
dispersing the crowd. Joined by Col. Daly's cavniry, 
they then inarclied south to clear the rioters near lln; 
river. Reaching tlie bridge, tliey were fiercely jit- 
tacked with stones and revolvers. A detachincut was 
ordered across to ciear the mob there. Tliey did bo, 
and wei-e soon lost to sight as they charged into the 
crowd. 

At this critical moment some one swung the brid^ 
and cnt them off from all snccor. A mere handful, 
it now seemed that they must perish, enveloped 
as they were in eucli a moss of maddened men. At 
this juncture, when all aeemed up with the brave fel- 
lows, a lad named James O'Neill, residing on Twenty- 
fifth street, certainly no older than ten yeai-s, came to 
their rescue. "This gallant little hei-o, of whom too 
much cannot be said in praise, jumped into the river, 
and, swimming to the pier, mounted the structure, and 
Bwung it around, thus opening communication between 
the beleaguered squad and the main forces. As soon 
as the bridge swung to, the cavalry charged across, 
while the gun of the Second Regiment was unliuibei-ed, 
and aimed so as to sweep the street. Two comjianios 
of the second also wheeled into position, ready to su])- 
port both the artillery and cavali^." The crossing 
being effected, firing commenced, and several were shot 
down, when the molj gave way and fled in every direc- 
tion. But while a mob disappeared in one quarter of 
the city, another would suddenly be announced in an- 
other. 

" Rnmorfl of fighting kept coming in, and conse- 
quently, at 13.30, two companies of the regulars were 



4511 THB (iRKAT RAn.KOAn RIO'l* OF IttH. 

ordered toi'ward ; and as the veteran Tiijinii figlitere, rII j 
bronzed and nigged, filed out of headqiiarters, and ' 
marched down La Salle Street towards Twelf tii Sti-ect^ j 
a elieer went np fmin the araembled crowd that fairly | 
Ghook the building. Their soldierly ap^x^arance, their 
total lack of exeiteiiieut, the clock-like regularity of | 
their step, and the d e terra iu at ion depicted tin the conn- 
tenancea of the commanding nflicers, and more than 
all, the appearance of those ounce-bore Spencer riflea, ' 
that shoot sixteen times without loading, indicated that ' 
when the; got on the sceae something would have to 
give way. Tliey proceeded immediately to Twelfth j 
Street to snpport the battery where it had been 
tioiied," 

In the afternoon a troop of cavalry, some fifty in 
number, with two oomi»aniea and a howitzer, and with 
the police on both flanka, started from a point south of 
the Viaduct, and marched to Twelfth Street. Rioters 
wei-e seized, and then wonld follow a shower of stones, 
while pistol-shots and the sound of eliibs falling on 
human heads were heard in every dircctiou. Joined 
by more of the pi)lice, tlie force moved on amid hoot- 
ing and yells of rage, the police making arrests till 
soon there were three wagon-loads of them. A rioter 
tired point blank at an officer, just missing him. The 
latter leaped from his horse, knocked him down and 
handed him over to the police. It was a terrible scene 
along the route of this force, Bi-ctketi heads were 
everywhere visible. The police wonld charge right 
and left in the face of stones and pjstol-^hots, while 
screaming women helped to swell the Uabcl. The 
windows of the bouses were closed ; the heat poured 
down without mercy, and Chicago seemed reeling in s 



I 



i BArLROAD KIOl'B IIXINUtS. 



I 



bnrricane of excitement that swept not onward, 
round and round throngh the devoted city. At Canal 
Street a, body of pcliue, dfty sCronj^, held tlie Viaduct- 
one poition aiined witli rifles — and as fast as the mob 
congregated it was dispersed. Captain Agramonte'a 
squad of horsenieii here joined the force. Shots being 
fired from a house, No. 23, in Canal street, the doora 
were burst open, and Learey's men made their way 
tlirough a dozen infnriated women and seized the in- 
mates. Lieutenant Frese, commanding another squad 
of mounted men, was shot at from an alley, and in- 
stantly emptied the seven barrels of his revolver into 
the crowd. In taking the prisoners to the station the 
force was frequently assailed, and at Fourteenth Street 
a sliot was fired from the crowd. Instantly Learey's 
men cliarged on it with fi.\ed bayonets, wounding sev- 
eral. 

At headquarters al! was commotion from the coming 
and departing of those engaged in putting down the 
riots, and the arrival of prisonei's. News came in in- 
cessantly — often contradictory, but on the whole it was 
plain the authorities were getting the rioters under 
control. 

One of tlie worst mobs was started in the morning 
at the stock yard, but it had to give way before the 
jKiIice and military. There was a severe fight in the 
rear and vicinity of Neill & Co.'s elevalor. The mob 
had taken possession of several loaded coal-cars, the 
ciml being used for missiles with which to attack the 
police. The mob was defiant, the cavalry and police 
determined, and the snpport back of them, in the shape 
of the battery and the Second Regiment, fully pre- 
pared. 



but ■ 

anal ^M 

I 

mob ■ 



I 



. 452 TUB OBKAT RAILSOAD BIOTB OF ISn. 

Just previous to this there had been oiily a slighC^J 
sortie, n poi'tion uf the mob having been driven south ] 
of the river, which rallied with tiie other purtioii irkI 
mediately after from Bridgei»rt. 

Tlie rioters were armed with long, uglj-l(x 
knives, and revolvers, pistols, guns, and etoiios. Tlmjrl 
fired several volleys without effect upon the cavahy T 
and police, wiien the latter jointly fired their revolvera I 
with terrible effect. Three of the rioters fell mortally 
wounded, and how many were more or less seriously 
injured, it was impossible to ascertain. It was said in 
this attack fourteen were wounded. 

The wild and stormy day at last wore away and night ' 
came down. What would these maddened men attempt i 
to do under cover of darkness, was a question askod by ! 
many with anxious liearts. 

About eiglit o'clock the mob began to assemble, bnt tlie I 
jfellce charged and scattered them. In the meantime I 
the Second Regiment was ordered to march towards tlio 1 
Halsted Street Viaduct, where the mob were assuming J 
a threatening aspect. They were supplied with blan- 
kets, e.^pecting to make a night of it. As they marched ' 
pteadily on they were greeted with yells and curses. ! 
Col. Quirk cleared sidewalks, door-steps, etc. It waa 1 
aiMin ascertained that the Communists were in force at 1 
the Viaduct, and were preparing to march towai-da tli«* I 
Twelfth Street station-house. The regiment at tlia J 
time was at parade rest ; hut in an instant the orders, , 
" Attention, shoulder arms," brought every man in J 
position. Several companies were left in reserve, and j 
the rest marched towards the Viaduct. Soon after a ] 
volley of miisketry rang out on the niglit air in the ] 
direction they had taken, followed by sonnde of a, 



TBK SAILBOAD BIOTfl — rLLINOtS. 



453 ■ 



p llMvy fight. The reserve was quickly put iu motion, 

tiieir bajoneta gleaming in tlie moonlight. Advancing 

in dead silence, aavo their steady, measured tramp over 

the pavement, they could hear the shouts and yells in 

advance. Aa they approached the roob, Col, Quirk 

gave the order t<j fire, and a qnick, eharp volley rang 

out, and the mob scattered. The troops retui-nod to 

their position, and thinking the trouble was over, wei'e 

preparing t(t ttiku a nap, when word was brought that 

the mob tiad congregated on Cul. Quirk's front at a 

ooal-heap near the Chicngo, Burlington and Quincy 

coal track. Soon the coal begun to fall in a ohower 

upon the troops. The older to tijc was at once given, 

and the reserve was called up. The riotere held their 

ground doggedly till two volleys wore |>oured into them, 

lighting up the sbadowB with their blaze, when they 

turned and fled. This substantially closed the riot and 

there was no more serious disturbance that night, and 

in the morning only the wrecks remained. Arrests 

»were now the order of the day. Business soon resumed 

K|tB ordinary courae, and preparations were made to set 

' the trains in motion again. This wa^ not so difficult, 

as only a small portion of the rioters were railroad men, 

the main part being Communists and the ofFsaturing 

of the city. It is not necessary to mention the minor 

etrikoB in the State— at Springfield, Peoria, and smaller 

pIfiiscB — ihey were all interlocked with the strike at 

■ Chicag"). At Braidwood they attempted to drive 200 

IfHilorcd miners ont of the town, but the arrival of two 

■ingiments put an end to this fanatical outrage aad 

Fqnelled the rioters. 



CHAPTER XXXra. 



THE STRIKERS AT ST. IiOCIS AXD LOCTSTILLK. 



Hie Hob OTeFCoine Ute Police »t Outnidelet— CHtixen* e 

Oienuelre*.— WotkingniHQ'* Partj'. —Their Airoganoe aad i 
mmption. — A StoBmer Boarded, mud tfae CKptkin o 
B>ue the Wage< of bis HuuU.— The Mob ooobwil Uia P 
and CiUieiuL — The Ciliieni of Iiooiaville Jgia Uie )UliUi7.— 
Hob pat down. 

MnsorKifoll intMline with the other Slntes aim] b 
to move aa the Eastern ones were huuiimin^ tninqutl. 

"J lily 25. — The workingineii held an excit«d n 
in LticaB Marki-I Inst night, in which ihovdRiKtnnci 
capit&liatB. One ejienker »uid they had 7,000 Btaiid o 
anus in their [NAsuBsion, at whiuh cries of " het na b 
thum and we will use them I" Anothor 
chai^d the reepoiisibility of bliK>dshed <>n tlie Pro 
dent of tiie United Statt^ Tlic meeting recoiumo 
a general strike for eight houre as a daWs labor.'' 

The Mayor iHeiietl a pi'ovlaniation. wuniiiii; 1 
peojile against viol<tii<!(t and auDoiniiriugaOonirnitteeU 
Safety. 

At nine o'clock on the 25th a cn>wd assemblaj 
Again in Liiens Market Place, around a stand arouta 
by tlie Workingmen'B Party, 1,500 strong, while 3,y( 
or 3,000 Bpcctatore gathered in the vicintty, 
iiiidc up nioetly of wire-workers, 
iid strikui-s from other mantt^tnriiu 




TFIE STBIKBRa AT BT. LOUIS AND LOUISVILLE. 465 



establish men tB. At tan o'clock they formed in colnmn 
and marched past the City Hall to Turner Ilall, where 
the execntive committee of the Workingmen's Party 
wae in eeeaion. Half an hour later a body of 500, 
made up thiefly of negroes, was sent to the levee, and 
marched its length for the puiiiose of inducing the 
ronstabouta to join tliem. The steamer Centennial was 
boarded just aa ehe was pushing out for New Orleans. 
They stopped Uie boat, and demanded that the captain 
should sign an agreement to pay a specified increase of 
wages. He did so, and the lx>at was allowed to depart. 

The disturbance spread on every side, embracing 
machine-sliops and factories of eveiy kind. At Ca- 
rondelet the police, eudea^'orillg to defend the work- 
men at tlie Martindale Zinc Works, were driven off, and 
all coal trains stopped — in short, the strikers brought 
everything to a Btandstill. The next day the citizens, 
having waked up to the dangerons ei'isis, began tc 
enroll themselves as a Citizens' Guard, which soon 
swelled to thousands. Tlie vast mob marched up to 
the headquarters of the citizen militia and the police, 
at Four Courta Building, and boldly confronted them, 
but were compelled to retire without force being used. 

The railroad strikere almost entirely passed out of 
sight in the city iu view of the magnitude of the move- 
ment inangnrated by tlie Workingmen's -Party, and the 
high hand with whicli they conducted it in closing 
mills, factories, etc., and compelled mechanics and 
laborers to cease work. The water-works in the nor- 
thern part of the city, and the distributing reservoirs, 
were placed under guard by soldiers. The levee 
laborers, who compelled the granting of an extortionate 
advance in wages of all steamboat employees, boai-de^ 



■4S6* THB OKEAT BiU-KOAD BIOTa OF Wft. 

e-rerj boat that arrived and exacted acoeeeion to tbdr 
terms. 

The Workinginen'a Party aasnmed to dictate sH 
kinds of terms to the mayor, passed resolutions asking 
the 1e{;ie1atiire to be ixiuvened to take ap tlie labor 
qiiBBtion, arranging beforehand what that leginlatiire 
shonlii be. Bnt the military and cannon soon br^mght 
duwn their arrogant spirits, and order was reaiorvd. 
The numerous strikes in varions smaller localities in 
the State need not be mentioned here. A strike at 
the same time took place at Louisville and Kansas. 
The scenes ak-each were a repetition of those already 
described, wljJM to make the chain acroes the continent 
complete, a pnlble Hot hmke out in San Francifico, 
aimed at the poor Chinese instead of the rich raiirokd 
companies. 

At Lonisnlle there woiiM doubtless have been eeri- 
ons trouble bnt for the prompt action of the eittzens, 
who took the matter in their own hands, and were de- 
tenninod to nntke quii;k work if the strikers resorted 
to violence. 





CHAPTER XXSiy. 



LESSORS OF THE BTBIKK. 



For more than a week the country h^d now liiiii in a 
Bort of paralyais from this unextiei^teJ, unparalleled 
Strike, running as it did the length and breath of 
the land. The Btrikera doubtleaa thought, this would 
work in their favor, and public opinion would eora- 
pel the railroad conipaniea to yield to their terms and 
relieve the pressure. They forgot that thrme whose 
interests are suffering by the detention of peaceful 
men look to the hold robber who tells the latter to 
Stand and deliver, fur redress. The strikers said to 
the entire East and West," Von have got to6uffer,aud, 
if necessary, starve, nntil we get ten or twenty-tive 
per cent, advance on our wages. Now, if railroad 
employes ever think of repeating this experiment, let 
'lliein lay to heart this one fact: that utter indifference 
of the authorities and the non-interference of the mili- 
tary, both of which they desired in this sti-ike, would be 
the greatest calamity that could overtake them. If 
they suppose they are going to sever the West from the 
Eaet, sti'ike down with impunity, at one blow, all the 
interests— nay, the very life itself of the great West, 
they are sadly mistaken. They may want an increase 
of wages, bnt the West want and will have an outlet to 
, the Hour and grain and pi'ovisions ttiey raise. These 



554 THE GREAT EAILROAO HIOT8 OF IlffT 

they will not let rot on their bands, to their own im- 
poveriahment, for aiijbody'B wages, Iletn^, the more 
(loinplete away the etrikers are allowed, the more terri- 
ble their doom will he when a Buffering people ArisM. 
Moii-iiiterfereiice of the autboritius would only let tha 
deslriiclion of pniperty for the time be greater, to 
make that punishment more tern'Me, for when the peo- 
ple of tbe Wc;st arose, as arise they would bo compelled 
to or starve, that punishment would be swift and lii^ 
eisive. Thoee who had attempted to hn)joveriali tbeiu, 
and imperiously told them, " you shall take im moi-c of 
the products of your industry to market until toe grant 
permission," would be shot down like dogs and hrmg 
like felons. Tlie people, from 8clf-]>re8ervation alone, 
would be compelled to take the matter in hand, and 
then it would 1)6 mob against mob ; and who would j^ 
to the wall in such a conHict admits of uu d'inbt. Mea 
may cripple a single raili-oad company witli impunity, 
but they cannot cut a continent in two and niin both 
portions, as auch a strike as tbe recent one wonld do if 
prolonged. This is a truth which railroad emploj-ij* 
of all grades should well coneider before they uiidor- 
take another such experiment. It tnms out hard 
enough for them to be put down speedily by the strong 
arm of law, but it will l>o infinitely worse if the ttniB 
ever comes when the people, East and Weot, for tlwif 
own preservation, slmll he uompclh^d to crush thorn. 
When that day comes they will find (liat tbi^y " ¥ 
sow the wind shall reap tlio whirlwind." Tbey \rill 
find that whether their dcmandu ar» just and right will 
have nothing to do with the settlement of the (jaostion. 
That will be, whether a slight wrong is going Ut juuttf) 
a gitat one— whether the nglit of iOO.UOO mei 



LEBSONS OF TBB BTRIEE. 555 

to an increase of ten per cent, on their wages is to 
override the well-being — nay, almost the preservation 
of a whole coutiiiont. 

Of course the unparalleled scenes through which wo 
had jiae&ed awakened tlie attention of the entire country 
to the pofisibilitiee of similar ones in the fiitiii-c, and con- 
sequently filled the press with guggesttons and methnds 
of preventing them. Some endeavor to show what 
lessons they had taught the railroad companies; the 
burden of whicli was tlie imprudence of irritating and 
maddening men by oppi-eaeing them and compelling 
them to work at starvation ))ricea. Otliers dwelt on the 
importance of putting an end to the fallacy that there 
was any real antagonism between capital and labor. 
Now it is one thing to suggesta remedy against such a 
strike as the one we had just put down, and aiiintlier lo 
provide some method of setliing ordinary disputes and 
differences lietween railroad companies and their em- 
ployees. The former, aiming aa it did at ihe ruin of 
the comitryfor the attainment of selfish ends, allows of 
but one remedy — the bullet, and teaches but one lestKiu, 
the sooner and more unsparingly it is used the better. 
When men conspire in sudi a diabolical plan as that, 
arbitration and commissions and appeals are worthless 
— point-blank volleys are the only resources. To provide 
against the latter is moel desirable if it can be done. 

It is suggested by one portion that tho Government 
should own the railroads and thus be able to fix a fair 
and jnst remunemtion for those who are employed on 
them. But this is simply an iini>ossibility. If Govern- 
ment had constructed the roads in the firet place and 
built those only that the country needed, tho plan might 
have worked well- But to buy up all the railroads 



556 THE GIUCAT KAILBOAD B10T8 OY laTT. 

now built at cost, and be compelled to run them bj 
p&ying wages higher than those now paid, would be a. 
losing biiaiiiess, and the coimb-y would have tu be taxed 
to miike lip the loss sure to occur. With the exception 
of a few extravagant salariea paid to officers, they are run 
luore cheaply than the Government coidd run them ; yet 
alargepfirtiou are insolvent, and those which are not ]<ny 
no dividend on their stock. That the people of the 
country will ever consent to be taxed to make ap any 
defiuienciesin the earnings of railroads, few will believe. 
Others propose that Congress shall fix the wages of em- 
ployees. Many think that all eviU can be cured by 
the passage of right laws. The trouble is, some laws 
are totally incotisistont with republican institutions and, 
bonce, cannot bo enfoitjed. Congress can Jio pu>re fix 
the wages of railroad men than of those engaged in 
manufactures, ur of household servants. Such inter- 
ference is the purest despotism, and the laws passed to 
that end would be declared unconstitutional by the 
courts, j nst as the eight hour system was. 

Again, it is suggested that Congress fix the tariff on 
freight. Perhaps as it has power to regulate intemal 
commerce it might do this. But if it were regnlated 
according to the distance ficight was carried, the 
longer roads must be abandoned and the more direct 
lines enjoy the inonoptiiy of the carrying business. 
Pei-hups this would be desirnblo, as we have too many 
railroads, but what would the West say, if t<ild, " Ton 
can no longer make your own bargains, but let Con- 
grese make tliem for you." It is evident tliat thta plaa 
would be beset with great difficoltlea, thongh, porhapa, 
not insurmountable. 

A third proposition is to have commieittonvrs of 




baHden — omj familiat. Sacb wbitfaiy i 
woold not do in a Rpvblie like oan. lbs bat mctfaod 
— TIL tocaosetheuit^^iism brtveen CKpitsI utd Ubor 
tDce*K,uidhBrmoD_i-of feeling to talcv its pUi-e,» (neat 
exeellent, and if nuried o«it will solve tbe diffiviiUy, 
Bat the great trcnbte is, bow to hrin^ thoat this doeu»- 
ble state of tliins;!. Tbere eeenis no wray «xi-«pt that 
proposed by the uoiuiiinniste. to have all lliiitgs in 
common, wliivli is just what t-Aunot l>e effot^ted until 
tbe world !s wholly cliau^od, and the long looked-for 
millenninm lakes place. 

The antagonism between capital and lalxir ia but an- 
orber furni of ^ying that the jxxfi' oiixy the riiTh, and 
are diecontenled tliat their lot is 8o diffiTciil, *'Tho 
rich oppress yon," ia not merely a scrijilnrHl uttorautni, 
it is an hiBtorical truth— not so ninth ns apjiliud ti> in- 
dividuals as a Biniple Btatonmnt that thr tunMiiiiiilu- 
tion of wealth is necessarily soonred, more or lewi, iit tim 
expense of the lower elasses, The fooling ut uontEimpt 
on the one side, and restlessneaa or hatred on the uthur, 
are old as civilization, but, iw fltutud in a former artlnlv, 
is more Btiwigly duv<4loi)Qd in a reimblluan ^iverninont 
than in a dospolio moimrtihy, In thu latter inon am 
born to a Mrttin rank or condition in lifn, out of whluli 
they cannot Mcftpe and which from childhood thay am 



THE GREAT RAILKDAD KIOTS OF isn. 



tatight to consider irremedi&bleu More than this, tbeyl 

are told by ibe priests uf reHginn tbat tbis is a divinoa 
arrangement ; lience to rebel Hgain&t it ia to i-ebel sgaitiSH 
God. It ia plain, therefore, that to a [>eople born i 
8iii-h a eocial state aud made to accept it us a divine ii 
Btimtiou, that nothing but the most maddening oppres^-J 
sion or intolerable suffering can make tijein rebel! 
against it. It was on tliis account that Macaiitav's m^ 1 
tiiorable saying was bused, tliat the more violent a revola-1 
tion was, only showed tlie greater necessity for it, Bntfl 
in a republic tlie re\'crse of this, both in polities and! 
religion, is tangbt. The State says that all men are bom 
free and equal, and religions teachers reiterate the same 
truth while the poor and suffering class say that 1>oth 
are a lie, if it is right for tliem to accept their condi- , 
tion and be cmilented with it. Hence, while some I 
strikes are based on particular grievances, and all inaj ' 
be referred to some wrong which should be rigtited, as 
the rnnuediate eaiine, the real ti-ouhle lias a deeper 
foundation — it rests on the belief tlmt the inequality iti 
the good things of tbis world is unjust, and liie wont . 
of it is that the inoi-e enlightened and intelligent thttJ 
lower cluBses become, the Bti»nger ia tbis feeling 
lliem. If this ia true, the question naturally arises— j 
What then is to be ihe end of it all t That is just tho 1 
problem that man has been b'ying to solve for a thou- ^ 
sand years, and we are no nearer its solution to-day than 
at the ontset. It is the very difticiilly which sorronuda 
it that has given birth to tlmt universal belief iu some 
sort of millennium in the far future, more than from the 
dim bints of it in the sacred Scriptiires. All feel that | 
the Creatorof man can alone solve it. Toone occupy-' 
ing a distant point of obsei-vation, this poor planet of 



LG6SOK8 OF TBE STRIKE. 



5S9 



oui-a seems like a ehip on a lee shoi-c, forever atruji^ling 

towards the desired Imven, yet ever baffled in its efforts, 

■ *Bnd the failiii-e of every experiment, the overthrow of 

, every pivenimeiit soiiiida a aigiial-guii of disti-csa fired 
tluiJiigh tile gloom, saying, We t-ainiot help ouraelves. 
Xow, this general philoeophiuat fact has been dwelt 
upon because it lies at the bottom of all this antagonism 
between the rieh and jxxjr, and, call it by what name 
you will, which none of the proposed i-emedies reach. 
This is abundantly proved in the recent strike. The 
more terrible features that accompanied it — nay, gave it 
it^ real strength — owed their oi-igin not to the disaffec- 
tion of laborei-8, but to this hostile feeling of one claee 
»sgaingt another. As lung as this distinction exists, the 
only transient security is in the liberality, kinditess, and 
justice of the rich. If the hovel stands under the 
shadow of the palace, the latter must amelioi'ate the 
condition of the former. If the wealthy flaunt their 
wealth, and exhibit their prodigality in the presence 
of tlie suffering, and wretched, and starving, that pro- 
digality Tnust be directed on other objects than them- 
selves. The sounds of mirth and revelry aie disoord- 

j ant in the eai-s of the inmates of sordid teuements 
and filthy cellars, and no anionnt of sophistry can 

I change it. On the other hand, the working classes 

■ must snbmit patiently to the law of demand and sup- 
ply, in labor, or do woi'se. The problem which the 
ages have tried to solve, cannot be solved by the torch 
and the bludgeon. They only make matters worse. 

i Love thy neighbor as tliyselfj is the only remedy for 
the evils we suffer, and all amelioration of onr con- 

I dition can be measured by an api>roximatiou to it.i 
We may pile tome on tome on political economy, write 




e»;e: IE* trrH we -rj^ » r 




lied on 
iow 



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